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Differentiated Instruction


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Differentiated Instruction

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction EE 536
  2. 2. Magnetic Quotes <ul><li>Walk around the room and read quotes passed. Decide which quote resonates with you – Which one are you attracted to? Stand by Quote. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with the people in your group and discuss content and professional implications of the quote. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a spokesperson to share out with large group </li></ul>
  3. 3. Share DI movie – Mickey Mouse classroom
  4. 4. Brain research confirms what experienced teachers have always known: <ul><li>No two children are alike.  </li></ul><ul><li>No two children learn in the identical way.  </li></ul><ul><li>An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the classroom we should teach children to think for themselves.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4 Ways to Differentiate <ul><li>1. Differentiating the Content/Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Content can be described as the knowledge, skills and attitudes we want children to learn. Differentiating content requires that students are pre-tested so the teacher can identify the students who do not require direct instruction. Students demonstrating understanding of the concept can skip the instruction step and proceed to apply the concepts to the task of solving a problem. This strategy is often referred to as compacting the curriculum. Another way to differentiate content is simply to permit the apt student to accelerate their rate of progress. They can work ahead independently on some projects, i.e. they cover the content faster than their peers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Differentiating the Process/Activities <ul><li>Differentiating the processes means varying learning activities or strategies to provide appropriate methods for students to explore the concepts. It is important to give students alternative paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the concept. For example students may use graphic organizers , maps, diagrams or charts to display their comprehension of concepts covered. Varying the complexity of the graphic organizer can very effectively facilitate differing levels of cognitive processing for students of differing ability. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3 . Differentiating the Product <ul><li>Differentiating the product means varying the complexity of the product  ( that students create to demonstrate mastery of the concepts. Students working below grade level may have reduced performance expectations, while students above grade level may be asked to produce work that requires more complex or more advanced thinking. There are many sources of alternative product ideas available to  teachers. However sometimes it is motivating for students to be offered choice of product. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4. Diffferentiating By Manipulating The Environment or Through Accommodating Individual Learning Styles <ul><li>Another filter for assigning students to tasks is by learning style , such as adjusting preferred environment (quiet, lower lighting, formal/casual seating etc.) or learning modality: auditory (learns best by hearing information) visual (learns best through seeing information in charts or pictures)  or kinesthetic preferences (learns best by using concrete examples, or may need to move around while learning) or through personal interests. Since student motivation is also a unique element in learning, understanding individual learning styles and interests will permit teachers to apply appropriate strategies for developing intrinsic motivational techniques . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Peer Teaching <ul><li>Occasionally a student may have personal needs that require one-on-one instruction that go beyond the needs of his or her peers. After receiving this extra instruction the student could be designated as the &quot;resident expert&quot; for that concept or skill and can get valuable practice by being given the opportunity to re-teach the concept to peers. In these circumstances both students benefit.  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reading Buddies <ul><li>This strategy is particularly useful for younger students and/or students with reading difficulties. Children get additional practice and experience reading away from the teacher as they develop fluency and comprehension.   It is important that students read with a specific purpose in mind and then have an opportunity to discuss what was read.  It is not necessary for reading buddies to always be at the same reading level. Students with varying word recognition, word analysis and comprehension skills can help each other be more successful. Adjusted follow up tasks are also assigned based on readiness level. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Independent Study Projects <ul><li>Independent Study is a research project where students learn how to develop the skills for independent learning. The degree of help and structure will vary between students and depend on their ability to manage ideas, time and productivity. A modification of the independent study is the buddy-study.  </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Contracts <ul><li>A learning contract is a written agreement between teacher and student that will result in students working independently. The contract helps students to set daily and weekly work goals and develop management skills. It also helps the teacher to keep track of each student’s progress. The actual assignments will vary according to specific student needs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Centers <ul><li>Learning Centers have been used by teachers for a long time and may contain both differentiated and compulsory activities. However a learning centre is not necessarily differentiated unless the activities are varied by complexity taking in to account different student ability and readiness. It is important that students understand what is expected of them at the learning centre and are encouraged to manage their use of time. The degree of structure that is provided will vary according to student independent work habits. At the end of each week students should be able to account for their use of time. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Anchoring Activities <ul><li>This may be a list of activities that a student can do to at any time when they have completed present assignments or it can be assigned for a short period at the beginning of each class as students organize themselves and prepare for work. These activities may relate to specific needs or enrichment opportunities, including problems to solve or journals to write. They could also be part of a long-term project that a student is working on. These activities may provide the teacher with time to provide specific help and small group instruction to students requiring additional help to get started.  Students can work at different paces but always have productive work they can do. Some time ago these activities may have been called seat-work, and should not be confused with busy-work. These activities must be worthy of a student’s time and appropriate to their learning needs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Wait Time <ul><li>Allows students sufficient time to process and develop a response to a question before the teacher asks a specific student </li></ul><ul><li>Every 20 min. provide a 60 second talk break for students to process info. </li></ul><ul><li>Give students 5 seconds wait time (Some need more) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Index Cards <ul><li>One side yellow one green – flip to yellow when you need more time – green ready – one finger up indicates more time, hand question, ok sign – finished </li></ul>
  17. 17. Clock Buddies <ul><li>Clock partners – Make an appointment with 4 different people – one for each of the times shown on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your respective clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with your 3 O’clock partners – change daily, monthly or weekly – Elements buddies </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stop and Dot <ul><li>Stop and Dot (Red -not used strategy and want to know more about it, yellow-I have used this strategy but have some remaining questions, Green – I use this strategy effectively and could teach it to my colleagues) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Brain Processing Strategies <ul><li>Turn to your student partner and give a summary of what we just learned </li></ul><ul><li>As you read, write one sentence summary for each page </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s stop here. Write a prediction of what you think will happen next. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did this happen? Create a list of possibilities with your team. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop and Form a mental image of what you think that must have looked like. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a picture of what you think it must have looked like. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a simple outline of what you just heard me say. </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down two test questions about what you just learned. </li></ul>
  20. 20. “Brain Dump” <ul><li>Summarize ideas up to now </li></ul><ul><li>Make a connection </li></ul><ul><li>Plan how to use ideas presented in your future classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Name one important piece of info. You heard up to this point that made you think differently about differentiated instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Name one thing we discussed that you would like to learn more about. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Teachers can differentiate <ul><li>content (subject matter) </li></ul><ul><li>process (activities students do) </li></ul><ul><li>product (tangible outcomes) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Classes can be grouped by <ul><li>Readiness – students understanding, ability, and/or skill of a given topic </li></ul><ul><li>Interest – Student’s attraction and enthusiasm in relation to a particular subject or skill </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Style – student’s particular approach to learning </li></ul>
  23. 23. Profiles / Assessments