Allergy and Hypersensitivity

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Allergy and Hypersensitivity

  1. 1. Allergy and Hypersensitivity
  2. 4. Type I hypersensitivity: anaphylactic and atopic (Allergy) <ul><li>Allergens are small Ags, usually inocuous </li></ul><ul><li>TH2 response intitiated </li></ul><ul><li>B cells produced IgE </li></ul><ul><li>IgE binds mast cells, basophils, eosinophils </li></ul>
  3. 9. <ul><li>Genetics factors and Allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytokines and their receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MHC II genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other polymorphisms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 11. Increase in Atopic Allergy <ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to pathogens in childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measles, HepA, tuberculosis exposure beneficial? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Children in Hale, East Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergen levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of rise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 13. Mast Cell mediators
  6. 14. Eosinophil mediators
  7. 15. <ul><li>House Dust Mite Ag </li></ul>
  8. 20. Type II hypersensitivity: cytotoxic <ul><li>Cell-reactive antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Cell surface adhesion of foreign antigen…cell destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Complement and phagocytosis activated </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells and platelets most common target </li></ul>
  9. 21. Type III hypersensitivity: immune complex
  10. 23. Type IV hypersensitivity: delayed or cell-mediated

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