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Multimedia & Contiguity


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A presentation to teach about the principles of multimedia and contiguity. Included is the objectives and two assessment questions.

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Multimedia & Contiguity

  1. 1. Multimedia & Contiguity Edtech 513 Jedediah Smith
  2. 2. Objectives of This Presentation <ul><li>Upon completion of this presentation the viewer will be able to distinguish between multimedia and other forms of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The viewer will be able to determine if the contiguity principle is being correctly followed </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multimedia Defined <ul><li>According to the Wiktionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi means (pertaining to many)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media is (Formats for presenting information)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combining these two gives us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia is (the use of different media to convey information)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>More specifically a multimedia presentation is the combining of words (either as text or spoken) with graphics (including animation and still images) within the presentation (Clark, 2008, p. 56). </li></ul>Further Defining: Multimedia Multimedia Words
  5. 5. <ul><li>Properly used multimedia has been shown to increase learning when teaching: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts (isolated information)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts (groups of information)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes (how something works)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures (steps to complete a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles (guidelines, relationships)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Clark, 2008, p. 61)‏ </li></ul></ul>Where to use Multimedia
  6. 6. When not to use Multimedia <ul><li>Multimedia should only be used where it can benefit learning. Adding an image of someone thinking does not increase learning in this paragraph and is rather just decoration which creates extraneous thinking. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Contiguity Defined <ul><li>Again referring to the Wiktionary we learn that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contiguity is “a state in which two or more physical objects are physically touching one another.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In reference to multimedia, contiguity means that corresponding graphics and words (again these can be text or spoken) are placed near each other (Clark, 2008, p. 80). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rules of Contiguity <ul><li>When giving feedback place it on the same page as the question so that the viewer does not have to navigate back and forth between pages. </li></ul><ul><li>When the learner has an activity to perform place the directions on the same page as the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The text should always be placed near the image. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Another Rule of Contiguity <ul><li>Instead of using images with symbols and then a legend for each item, place the text within the image. </li></ul>Made by User:Golbez used under the GFDL Bad Good
  10. 10. Which of the following is an example of multimedia? Option 1 Option 2
  11. 11. Which of the following is an example of multimedia? Option 1 made by: Nathan Stodola available from Wikimedia Commons Used under CCL Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 The Correct answer is option 2. Option 1 is just a graphic. Option 1 Incorrect Option 2 Correct
  12. 12. To answer this question read the directions then go to the next page. <ul><li>To begin you will be looking at an image of a pair of llamas. In particular you will want to pay attention to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What color are the llama's hair/fleece? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What time of year was the picture taken? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the llamas doing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the color of the ground where they are located, and of the vegetation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After viewing the image and making a mental note of the above questions proceed past the image. </li></ul>
  13. 14. What do you think? <ul><li>Was this an effective use of contiguity in multimedia? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  14. 15. What do you think? <ul><li>Was this an effective use of contiguity in multimedia? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, this was not an effective use of contiguity. The directions were on one page and the activity on another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some points to ponder on this idea of contiguity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many times did you have to go back and forth between the directions and image to get all the answers? Or did you just give up? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much mental work went in to just navigating when it could have been better spent if the directions where on the same page? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Sources <ul><li>Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2008) e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to specific references much of the general material came from this source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wiktionary available at The material from Wiktionary is available under the GFDL details available at </li></ul><ul><li>More information on the Creative Commons Licence for one of the images see </li></ul>