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The Principles of Multimedia & Contiguity Kellie Schneider Boise State University EdTech 513 Summer 2009
Objectives <ul><li>After viewing this presentation, the learner will be able to define the principles of multimedia and co...
What is the multimedia principle? <ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that instructional materials using words (p...
Decorative Graphics <ul><li>Decorative graphics are used to add visual interest without actually teaching content. Decorat...
Representational Graphics <ul><li>Representational graphics are used  to illustrate a single point or the appearance of an...
Organizational Graphics <ul><li>Organizational graphics serve to show relationships between concepts. This includes graphi...
Relational Graphics <ul><li>Relational graphics show quantitative relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>This pie chart could be...
Transformational Graphics <ul><li>Transformation graphics are used to show changes over time. Animations and videos are tw...
Interpretive Graphics <ul><li>Interpretive graphics show illustrate concepts that would otherwise be invisible or intangib...
What is the contiguity principle? <ul><li>The principle of contiguity describes the maximization of learning in a multimed...
Visual Contiguity <ul><li>Words and graphics should be as close to each other as possible and connections be clearly desig...
Location of Text <ul><li>Directions for an activity should also be placed on the same screen to ease the transition for th...
Location of Text <ul><li>Use arrows to point to important parts in a diagram, or include text in the graphic itself, rathe...
Audio-Visual Contiguity <ul><li>When audio and video elements are added to a multimedia presentation, they should be prese...
Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle.  </li></ul>
Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that inst...
Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that inst...
Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that inst...
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Multimedia & Contiguity

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Multimedia & Contiguity

  1. 1. The Principles of Multimedia & Contiguity Kellie Schneider Boise State University EdTech 513 Summer 2009
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>After viewing this presentation, the learner will be able to define the principles of multimedia and contiguity. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the multimedia principle? <ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that instructional materials using words (printed or spoken) as well as graphics rather than words alone, improve learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of graphics can serve different purposes within a multimedia presentation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Decorative Graphics <ul><li>Decorative graphics are used to add visual interest without actually teaching content. Decorative graphics add little or no value to the instructional message. </li></ul><ul><li>On this slide, the photograph at the right serves only to add visual interest to the concept of e-Learning. </li></ul>Photo: Swansea Photographer at Flikr.com
  5. 5. Representational Graphics <ul><li>Representational graphics are used to illustrate a single point or the appearance of an object in an instructional message. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone learning about food and nutrition may learn that pomegranate fruit may contribute to preventing heart disease. A simple image of a pomegranate will help the learner identify the fruit . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Graphics <ul><li>Organizational graphics serve to show relationships between concepts. This includes graphics such as concept maps, graphs, and diagrams. </li></ul><ul><li>This diagram could be used as an organizational graphics in a science lesson about the layers of the atmosphere surrounding Earth. The diagram shows where the different layers are in relation to each other and in relation to the surface of the Earth. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Relational Graphics <ul><li>Relational graphics show quantitative relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>This pie chart could be used to compare the prevalence of religions around the world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Transformational Graphics <ul><li>Transformation graphics are used to show changes over time. Animations and videos are two ways to show these changes. A series of photos or diagrams is another way to show changes or processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The series of photos at right would be one way to support printed text or spoken directions on how to tie a blood knot. </li></ul>This Wikipedia and Wikimedia Commons image is from the user Chris 73 and is freely available at http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BloodKnot_HowTo.jpg under the creative commons cc-by-sa 2.5 license.
  9. 9. Interpretive Graphics <ul><li>Interpretive graphics show illustrate concepts that would otherwise be invisible or intangible. </li></ul><ul><li>The diagram above could be used to illustrate how water cycles throughout the atmosphere and the Earth. This is a concept that occurs on a large scale, which might otherwise be challenging to comprehend, especially for young learners. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is the contiguity principle? <ul><li>The principle of contiguity describes the maximization of learning in a multimedia presentation by integrating words and graphics for instructional purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>In abidance with this principle, multimedia presentations should be both visually and audibly contiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Violating this principle can create a distraction for the learner and result in decreased learning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Visual Contiguity <ul><li>Words and graphics should be as close to each other as possible and connections be clearly designated. When there are too many words on a screen, or a diagram has too many elements, every effort should be made to clarify for the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between graphic and text violates the principle of contiguity and creates confusion for the learner, who now has to hold the textual information in memory until he or she can find the corresponding graphic or portion of the graphic. The following slides present some strategies for overcoming some common errors made in visual contiguity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Location of Text <ul><li>Directions for an activity should also be placed on the same screen to ease the transition for the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate the graphics within the text, or use pop up textboxes so that graphics and text can be viewed simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>The text on this website should be justified around the image so that the entire image can be viewed while the learner reads the text. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Location of Text <ul><li>Use arrows to point to important parts in a diagram, or include text in the graphic itself, rather than using a numbered or color-coded legend off to the side. The diagram of the inner ear exemplifies this strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to integrate text within a graphic, rather than along the bottom. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Audio-Visual Contiguity <ul><li>When audio and video elements are added to a multimedia presentation, they should be presented together whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Narration should be presented with each corresponding part of an animation, not before or after the animation takes place. Doing so can cause confusion or memory overload for the learner. This should result in something similar to a spoken comic strip. </li></ul>This is so confusing - the sound should match up with the images!
  15. 15. Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that instructional materials using words (printed or spoken) as well as graphics rather than words alone, improve learning. Different types of graphics can serve different purposes within a multimedia presentation. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that instructional materials using words (printed or spoken) as well as graphics rather than words alone, improve learning. Different types of graphics can serve different purposes within a multimedia presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain the contiguity principle. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Assessment <ul><li>Explain the multimedia principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The multimedia principle is the idea that instructional materials using words (printed or spoken) as well as graphics rather than words alone, improve learning. Different types of graphics can serve different purposes within a multimedia presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain the contiguity principle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of contiguity is the maximization of learning in a multimedia presentation by integrating words and graphics for instructional purposes. In abidance with this principle, multimedia presentations should be both visually and audibly contiguous. </li></ul></ul>

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