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  1. 1. Multimedia and Contiguity Principles project 1 Elizabeth Akosah
  2. 2. Multimedia <ul><li>After viewing this instruction, the learner will be able to actively engage in Multimedia and Cognitive principles. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multimedia <ul><li>What is Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Upon completion of this module the learner will be able to define multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia is the principle of applying words and graphics rather than words alone.(Clark, Meyer, 2008) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Do Visuals Make a Difference? <ul><li>Mayer describes potential benefits of multimedia. Since humans possess visual and auditory information processing capabilities, we need to take advantage of both capabilities at once. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, these two channels process information quite differently, so the combination of multiple media is useful in calling on the capabilities of both systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful connections between text and graphics potentially allow for deeper understanding and better mental models than from either alone. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Static illustrations <ul><li>Objective: The learner will be able to define Static illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Static illustration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A picture or graphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static Illustration is a fixed picture or graphic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Example <ul><li>What does a static illustration do </li></ul><ul><li>It is better to add graphic to words, and also use animation or static illustration. </li></ul><ul><li>The image at the bottom right is a graphic image but does not teach us the lesson at hand. This is just a decorative piece of static or graphic illustration . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Good example of static illustration <ul><li>Visualization and Representation </li></ul><ul><li>To your right is an example of a map that represent the state of Georgia which is know for its Peaches, peanuts, yellow jacket, and the Georgia bull dogs. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Application <ul><li>Words and graphic are very important to learners who have very little knowledge of the domain. </li></ul><ul><li>The previous slide shows picture, text and information that you can see and observe. The learner can focus on the picture and text making cognitive relation possible . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Objective: The learner will define organizational graphics upon completion of this module . <ul><li>Organizational graphics applies to pictures that shows hierarchy. The below picture shows a hierarchy of a family from the oldest to the youngest. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Objective: Upon completion the learner will be able to define relational principal of design <ul><li>Relational design is a visual that summarize quantitative relationship. For example a bar graph or pie chart. </li></ul><ul><li>The pie chart below show 1/5 of the pie. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Objective: Upon completion of this module the learner will be able to define transformational design concepts . <ul><li>Transformational design process changes in time or over space. An example of this will be the process of seed germination. See below picture. This picture shows how a tiny seed grows and transform. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Objective: The learner will be able to define the concept of Interpretive Design <ul><li>Interpretive design are used to describe intangible structure that are not easily grasp. For example how data is transformed and transmitted through the internet . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Let us recap what we have learned <ul><li>Based on cognitive theory and research evidence we recommend that e-learning course include words and graphic, rather that words alone. By words we mean printed text, by graphic we mean static illustrations. (Clark, Meyer, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>After viewing these materials the learner will be able to identify structures with text to determine if the material meets the criteria’s definition . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quiz time <ul><li>According to the what we have learned what type of media described the graphic that we see in this picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>See next slide for answer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Answer <ul><li>According to the what we have learned what type of media described the graphic that we see in this picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational (correct answer) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul>
  16. 16. Quiz <ul><li>What type of graphic principle is applied to this image if you were in a science class. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>See next slide for answer </li></ul>
  17. 17. Answer <ul><li>What type of graphic principle is applied to this image if you were in a science class. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative (correct answer) </li></ul><ul><li>Relation al </li></ul>
  18. 18. Let us recap what Multimedia is one more time <ul><li>Multimedia is the principle of applying words and graphics rather than words alone.(Clark, Meyer, 2008). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contiguity Principle <ul><li>What is Contiguity? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Objective <ul><li>The learner will be able to identify contiguity principles through examples upon completion of this exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s move on </li></ul>
  21. 21. Definition <ul><li>Contiguity is the aligning of words to corresponding graphics </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contiguity principle 1 Coordinate printed words and graphic
  23. 23. Let’s look at these examples <ul><li>This is a poor example : The rate of accidental deaths has increased over the years </li></ul><ul><li>This is a good example </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of accidental deaths has increased over the past four years </li></ul>
  24. 24. Proximity What’s the difference? <ul><li>In the first picture the descriptions were there but it appeared to be decorative items. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second picture comments were used in proximity to the items the lesson is related to. The direction were on the screen instead of the learners guessing the years . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Principle 2 Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics
  26. 26. Overwhelming the learner <ul><li>Principle 2 talks about spoken words with corresponding graphics. This keeps the reader focused and not overwhelmed. </li></ul><ul><li>When a lesson separates corresponding words and graphic the learning cycle is broken and the reader focuses on the button to push rather than contents that is being taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at the next slide for an example. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Integrated vs. Separate text <ul><li>Text separate from graphics Text integrated into graphics </li></ul>
  28. 28. Facts <ul><ul><li>Contiguity reduces load on working memory and thus increases learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active learning involves constructing and connecting visual and verbal representations of material. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Audio /Visual <ul><li>Do not place text on a page with video and expect the reader to align the material contiguity . </li></ul><ul><li>When the graphic is a video showing steps to perform a task the narration describing each step should be presented at the time as the action on the screen. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why? <ul><li>We do not know how the learner interpret the conversation of words. </li></ul><ul><li>We do not know the extent of detail processing the material. </li></ul><ul><li>How the learner processed characteristics of the voice or tone of the material. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Let us recap what we have learned. Always remember to <ul><li>Place printed words with graphics. Why? Graphics facilitate active learning. Words alone may cause shallow learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics. Why? This will keep the learner focused at the task at hand without wondering </li></ul><ul><li>Audio /Visual. Why? We don’t know how the learner processed characteristics of the voice or tone of the material. </li></ul>
  32. 32. References: <ul><li>Clark, R C., & Meyer, R.E. (2008) e-learning and the Science of Instruction. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clip Art, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Images.google.com. </li></ul><ul><li>Original works: Elizabeth Akosah </li></ul>

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