Industrial Air Controls

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Basic training covering industrial pneumatics and pneumatic drawings

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Industrial Air Controls

  1. 1. Industrial Pneumatic Fundamentals Pneumatic Fundamentals
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define States of Matter (with emphasis on liquids & gases and their effects on pneumatic equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Define Fundamental Pneumatic Terms and concepts and constituents of air </li></ul><ul><li>Define Gas Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Define Force </li></ul><ul><li>Review Air Preparation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical vs. Chemical State Change <ul><li>Physical State Change </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical State Change </li></ul>Physical Change Of Water Into Ice Chemical Change Of Water Into Hydrogen Peroxide
  4. 4. Physical States of Matter (See notes for definitions of each state) Gas, Liquid, Solid, Plasma, and Bose-Einsten Condensate (BEC) Cool or compress Cool Heat or reduce pressure Heat Total disorder; much empty space; particles have complete freedom of motion; particles far apart. Disorder; particles or clusters of particles are free to move relative to each other; particles close together. Ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed positions; particles close together. Gas Liquid Crystalline solid
  5. 5. Water – Changes of State A B C D F E 75 100 125 50 25 0 -25 Temperature ( ° C) Heat added (each division corresponds to 4kJ) Ice Ice and liquid water (melting) Liquid water Ice and liquid and vapor (vaporization) Water vapor
  6. 6. Relative Humidity and Dew Point <ul><li>What does this have to do with a pneumatic system? </li></ul>Temperature (degrees C) Water in Air (grams H 2 O per Kilogram of Air) Amount of Water in Air at 100% Relative Humidity Across a Range of Temperatures 100 = 100% Relative Humidity (Dew Point) = 50% Relative 10 90 80 60 70 30 40 50 0 10 20 40 50 0 -10 -20 20 30
  7. 7. Pressure Fundamentals <ul><li>Pressure – the force exerted by a fluid at rest per unit area on which the force acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Units – pound-force per square inch or psi (European unit is the bar; 1 bar = 14.5-psi). </li></ul><ul><li>Differential pressure – difference in pressure between two regions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pneumatic Terms <ul><li>Standard Temperature Pressure (STP) </li></ul><ul><li>Normal air </li></ul><ul><li>Free air </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Dew Point </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pneumatic Terms <ul><li>Desiccant </li></ul><ul><li>Adsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul>
  10. 10. Advantages / Disadvantages of Pneumatics <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The working fluid (air) is abundant, readily available, inexpensive, cleaner, and safer to use than oil-based hydraulic fluids, and is less environmentally hazardous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return lines are unnecessary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the compressibility of air, pneumatic equipment is less likely to be damaged by overpressure conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy density is lower than hydraulics. Higher pressures are used in hydraulics, therefore the energy to move loads is available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatic systems require bleeding pressure off to release a load, whereas in hydraulics a slight movement of the load releases the pressure. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Constituents of (Free) Air <ul><li>78.084% Nitrogen (inert, and as a result, slows combustion of Oxygen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20.946% Oxygen (readily supports combustion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.934% Argon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.038% Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% water Vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.002% other (Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, Hydrogen, Nitrous Oxide, Xenon, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Iodine, and trace amounts of Carbon Monoxide and Ammonia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total = 100.004 (due to rounding and does not include water vapor, which is contained in the air, not part of it) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Gases vs. Liquids Gases expand to fill all of the available space, liquids do not.
  13. 13. The Gas Laws <ul><li>Bernoulli’s Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Boyle’s Law </li></ul><ul><li>Charles’ Law (principle) </li></ul><ul><li>General Gas Laws </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gas Law Concepts <ul><li>Assuming one of the three variables to be held at a constant value, we can look at the relationship between the other two for each case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant volume </li></ul></ul>For any given mass of air, the variable properties are pressure, volume and temperature. = P T constant V T = constant PV = constant
  15. 15. Bernoulli’s Principle PSI PSI PSI PUMP In the small section pipe, velocity is maximum. More energy is in the form of motion, so pressure is lower. “in a system with a constant flow rate, energy is transformed from one form to the other each time the pipe cross-section size changes” Velocity decreases in the larger pipe. The kinetic energy loss is made up by an increase in pressure. Ignoring friction losses, the pressure again becomes the same as at “A” when the flow velocity becomes the same as at “A.” A B C
  16. 16. Boyle’s Law <ul><li>“if the temperature of a confined body of gas is maintained constant, the absolute pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.” </li></ul>P1 X V1 = P2 X V2 = P3 X V3 = constant where P = pressure and V= volume F1 F2 F3 V1 P1 V2 P2 V3 P3
  17. 17. Constant Temperature 0 2 4 6 8 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Volume V Pressure P bar absolute P1 · V1 = P2 · V2 = constant 10 12 14 14 16
  18. 18. Constant Temperature 0 2 4 6 8 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 10 12 14 14 16 Volume V Pressure P bar absolute P1 · V1 = P2 · V2 = constant
  19. 19. Constant Temperature 0 2 4 6 8 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 10 12 14 14 16 Volume V Pressure P bar absolute P1 · V1 = P2 · V2 = constant
  20. 20. Constant Temperature 0 2 4 6 8 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 10 12 14 14 16 Volume V Pressure P bar absolute P1 · V1 = P2 · V2 = constant
  21. 21. Charles’ Law <ul><li>If heated by 1 K degree at constant pressure, air expands by 1/273 of its volume. </li></ul><ul><li>This is shown by Charles’ Law where: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Constant Pressure 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 2 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Volume Temperature Celsius 1.25 1.5 1.75 80 100 293K V1 V2 T1 (K) T2 (K) = c =
  23. 23. Constant Pressure 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 2 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Volume Temperature Celsius 1.25 1.5 1.75 80 100 366.25K V1 V2 T1 (K) T2 (K) = c =
  24. 24. Constant Pressure 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 2 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Volume Temperature Celsius 1.25 1.5 1.75 80 100 219.75K V1 V2 T1 (K) T2 (K) = c =
  25. 25. Constant Pressure 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 2 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Volume Temperature Celsius 1.25 1.5 1.75 80 100 366.25K 219.75K 293K V1 V2 T1 (K) T2 (K) = c =
  26. 26. The Combined Gas Law The combined or general gas law is where pressure, volume and temperature may all vary between states of a given mass of gas but their relationship results in a constant value. = constant P 1 .V 1 T 1 P 2 .V 2 T 2 =
  27. 27. Compressibility Review of Boyle’s Law For a fixed mass of ideal gas at fixed temperature, the product of pressure and volume is a constant. <ul><li>VP = k </li></ul><ul><li>V 1 P 1 = V 2 P 2 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Compressibility – Charles Law <ul><li>V/T = k </li></ul><ul><li>V 1 T 2 = V 2 T 1 </li></ul>Review of Charles’ Law At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in Kelvin) increases or decreases. -65 °C 250 °C
  29. 29. Compressibility <ul><li>pV = nRT (or for most conditions) V 1 T 2 = V 2 T 1 </li></ul><ul><li>P 1 V 1 T 2 = P 2 V 2 T 1 or P 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2 </li></ul>Review of General or Ideal Gas Laws The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature according to the equation:
  30. 30. Compressibility <ul><li>Conclusion – gases are easily compressible, liquids are not. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases – compressible roughly 1700 to 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As gas pressure increases, temperature increases and volume decreases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids – roughly 1 to 1 (considered non-compressible) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Pressure Scales Pressure in pneumatic systems is measured in one of three scales: absolute (psia), gauge (psig), and vacuum (&quot;Hg). Gauge Pressure Vacuum-negative gauge Pressure Absolute Pressure Atmospheric Pressure Absolute Zero Absolute Pressure Pressure
  32. 32. Measuring Atmospheric Pressure <ul><li>Average sea level pressure = 101.325-kPa (kilopascals)1-kPa = 1-millibar </li></ul><ul><li>US reports atmospheric pressure in inches (hundredths of inches) of Mercury (& in mbar) </li></ul><ul><li>101.32-mbar is reported as 132 </li></ul>Atmospheric pressure facts: 29.92” Sea Level Atmospheric Pressure Barometer
  33. 33. Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure values are displayed on weather maps. <ul><li>Lines (called isobars) show contours of pressure in millibars. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines help predict wind direction and force. </li></ul>LOW 101.5 mb 101.2 mb 100.8 mb 100.0 mb 996.0 mb
  34. 34. Pressure at Various Altitudes 10.0 20.4 10000 10.4 21.2 9000 10.8 22.1 8000 11.2 22.9 7000 11.7 23.8 6000 12.1 24.7 5000 12.6 25.7 4000 13.1 26.7 3000 13.6 27.7 2000 14.2 28.8 1000 14.7 29.92 0 Approx. Atmospheric Pressure in pounds per square inch (PSI) Barometer Reading in Inches of Mercury Altitude above sea level in Feet
  35. 35. ″Hg / PSI Conversions <ul><li>Example : ″Hg to PSI </li></ul><ul><li>10 ″Hg x 0.491 = 4.91-psia </li></ul><ul><li>29.92 ″Hg x 0.491 = 14.69-psia </li></ul><ul><li>Example: PSI to ″Hg </li></ul><ul><li>14.7-psia / 0.491 = 29.93 ″Hg </li></ul><ul><li>10-psia / 0.491 = 20.36 ″Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>PSIA = PSIG + 14.7 </li></ul><ul><li>PSIG = PSIA – 14.7 </li></ul>PSIG Vacuum 5” 10” 15” 20” 25” 29.92” Sea Level Atmospheric Pressure 5 3 1 Mercury Column Height X 0.491 = P.S.I.
  36. 36. Comparing ″Hg Vacuum to ″Hg Absolute ″ Hg absolute measures atmospheric pressure (determined by how high a column of mercury the pressure will cause) ″ Hg vacuum measures pressure below atmospheric pressure Absolute Pressure Scale 0 5 10 15 20 25 30(29.92) Vacuum Pressure Scale 30(29.92) 25 20 15 10 5 0 In. Hg. Abs. Pressure In. Hg. Vacuum
  37. 37. Pressure Scales <ul><li>Either of two pressure scales are used to measure pressure — an absolute scale or a gage scale. </li></ul>Absolute Pressure Scale 29.7 Gauge Pressure Scale 24.7 19.7 14.7 11.0 7.35 3.67 0 0 7.5 14.9 22.4 29.92 0 5 10 15 PSIA In. Hg. Abs. Press. PSIG
  38. 38. Pressure Ranges
  39. 39. Gage Operation (Plunger Gage) 0 5000 3000 4000 2000 1000 psig Pivot Pointer Fluid In Plunger Bias Spring Plunger Gage
  40. 40. Gage Operation (Bourdon Tube) Bourdon tube Fluid in Linkage Needle Pointer Bourdon Tube 0 5000 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Absolute Pressure + 14.7 P.S.I. Gage Reading =
  41. 41. Gage Reading Basics <ul><li>Reading accuracy – gages may be read to one-half of the smallest increment. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure equipment is depressurized before opening system or performing maintenance . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Vacuum Gage 0 15 25 20 30 5 10 Vacuum Gage Vacuum in Hg. Absolute Pressure = 30 - Vacuum Reading
  43. 43. Pneumatic Transmission of Energy <ul><li>Pneumatics energy is used to perform work. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is stored in the form of compressed air and the energy is released when the air is allowed to expand. </li></ul><ul><li>A device is needed (an air compressor) to supply compressed air at a desired pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>A cylinder is one type of device that can be used to convert the stored energy into work. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Force Transmission Through a Solid Solid Movable Piston
  45. 45. Force Transmission Through a Liquid
  46. 46. Force Transmission Through a Gas
  47. 47. Measuring Fluid Performance <ul><li>Pascal’s Law simply stated says: “Pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions, and acts with equal force on equal areas, and at right angles to the surface.” </li></ul>Pressure exerted by fluid equal in all directions
  48. 48. Force Transmission Through a Fluid – Pascal’s Law Pascal’ s Law (principle) LBS
  49. 49. Force Transmission Through a Fluid 1000 lbs. Object of resistance 100 psi. 100 psi. 100 psi. 1500 lbs. Piston area 10 sq. in. Piston area 15 sq. in.
  50. 50. Definition of Pressure <ul><li>Definition of pressure: If F is the magnitude of the normal force on a piston and A is the surface area of a piston, then the fluid pressure, P, is the ratio of the force to area. </li></ul>Pressure in PSI (pounds per square inch) if Force in in pounds (lbs) and area is in square inches. F P A
  51. 51. Primary/Secondary Air Treatment <ul><li>Secondary air treatment – conditioning of air at or near the point of usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning equipment : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul></ul>Primary air treatment – conditioning of air before, during, and after compression; but before distribution.
  52. 52. Compressed Air System Tank Motor Compressor Gauge
  53. 53. Regulator Drawing Symbol Diaphragm Spring Adjusting Screw Valve Seat Damping spring Valve disc Vent hole
  54. 54. Air Filter <ul><li>An in-line air filter collects and retains contaminants. </li></ul>Drawing Symbol Air In Air Out Filter bowl Baffle plate Filter Drain
  55. 55. Lubricators Inlet Outlet Valve Drip Duct Check Valve Drip Chamber Duct Oil passage Drawing Symbol
  56. 56. Venturi Principle <ul><li>The pressure difference Δp (pressure gradient) between the pressure in front of the air nozzle and the pressure at the smallest section of the nozzle is used to draw liquid (oil) from a container and to mix it with the air. </li></ul>Δp
  57. 57. FRL Drawing Symbol Filter Regulator and Gauge Lubricator
  58. 58. Types of Compressors Piston Compressor Diaphragm Compressor Types of Compressors Reciprocating piston Compressors Rotary piston Compressors Flow Compressors Radial flow Compressor Axial flow Compressor Sliding vane rotary Compressor Two axle Compressor Lobe type Compressors
  59. 59. Reciprocating Piston Compressor
  60. 60. Diaphragm Compressor
  61. 61. Sliding Vane Rotary Compressor
  62. 62. Screw Compressor
  63. 63. Lobe Compressor
  64. 64. Axial-Flow Compressor
  65. 65. Radial Flow Compressor
  66. 66. Summary <ul><li>Review Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Question and Answer Session </li></ul>
  67. 67. Industrial Pneumatic Fundamentals Pneumatic Controls and Devices
  68. 68. Objectives <ul><li>Define types of pneumatic valves and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Define types of logic valves and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Define pneumatic actuators and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Define piston force </li></ul><ul><li>Define pneumatic motors and symbols </li></ul>
  69. 69. Pneumatic Valves <ul><li>The basic function of valves is to switch air flow </li></ul><ul><li>The range of pneumatic valves is vast </li></ul><ul><li>To help select a valve they are placed in a variety of categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>design principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type of operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Style <ul><li>Style reflects the look of a valve range as well as the underlying design principle </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>Type refers to the valves installation arrangement for example sub-base, manifold, in line, and valve island </li></ul>Type
  72. 72. <ul><li>Design refers to the principle of operation around which the valve has been designed, for example, spool valve, poppet valve and switch or plate valves. </li></ul>Design
  73. 73. Valve Operators Shrouded Button Mushroom Button Twist Push Button Key Operated Switch Key Released Solenoid Pilot Roller Air Pilot Plunger Emergency Stop
  74. 74. Operator Symbols - Manual General manual Push button Pull button Push/pull button Lever Pedal Treadle Manual Rotary knob
  75. 75. Operator Symbols - Mechanical Mechanical Plunger Spring normally as a return Roller Uni-direction or one way trip Pressure Pilot pressure Differential pressure Detent in 3 positions
  76. 76. Operator Symbols - Electrical Solenoid direct Solenoid pilot Solenoid pilot with manual override and integral pilot supply Solenoid pilot with manual override and external pilot supply Electrical When no integral or external pilot supply is shown it is assumed to be integral
  77. 77. Valve Function <ul><li>Function is the switching complexity of a valve </li></ul><ul><li>This function is shown by two figures 2/2, 3/2, 4/2, 5/2, 3/3, 4/3 & 5/3 </li></ul>
  78. 78. Valve functions 5/3 <ul><li>Three position valves have a normal central position that is set by springs or with a manual control such as a lever </li></ul><ul><li>The flow pattern in the centre position varies with the type. Three types will be considered </li></ul><ul><li>1, All ports sealed </li></ul><ul><li>2, Outlets to exhaust, supply sealed </li></ul><ul><li>3, Supply to both outlets, exhausts sealed </li></ul>
  79. 79. 2 Position, 5 Port Valve Control Input to Valve Input 14 14 4 2 12 5 1 3 1 4 2 12 3 5 14
  80. 80. 2 Position, 5 Port Valve 1 4 2 12 3 5 14 Control Input to Valve Input 12 14 4 2 12 5 1 3
  81. 81. Valve Size <ul><li>Size refers to a valve’s port thread. </li></ul><ul><li>The port size progression M5, R 1 / 8 , R 1 / 4 , R 3 / 8 , R 1 / 2 , R 3 / 4 , R1. </li></ul>M5 R 1 / 8 R 1 / 4 R 3 / 8 R 1 / 2 R 3 / 4 R1
  82. 82. Application <ul><li>Application is a category for valves described by their function or task </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of specialist valves are quick exhaust valve, soft start valve and monitored dump valve </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of standard valves are power valves, logic valves, signal processing valves and fail safe valves </li></ul><ul><li>A standard valve could be in any category depending on the function it has been selected for in a system </li></ul>
  83. 83. Other Valve Designs <ul><li>Shut off Valves </li></ul><ul><li>Limit Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Selector Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Regulators/Control </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Exhaust </li></ul><ul><li>AND / OR Valves </li></ul>
  84. 84. Shutoff Valves Drawing Symbol
  85. 85. Limit Switch Valves 1 2 12 10 1 3 1 2 3 1 3 2
  86. 86. Selector Switch Valves 1 2 3 4 2 4 1 2 4 3 1 3 1 2 3 4
  87. 87. Pressure Switch (pneumatic) <ul><li>Relay to boost weak signals </li></ul><ul><li>Relay for a pneumatic time delay </li></ul><ul><li>When the signal at port 12 reaches about 50% of the supply pressure at port 1, the pressure switch operates to give a strong output signal at 2 </li></ul><ul><li>For time delays at any pressure only the linear part of the curve will be used giving smooth adjustment </li></ul>1 3 12 10 1 2 3 12 10 1 2 3 12 10
  88. 88. Pressure Switches Off Actuated 1 2 3 12 1 2 3 12 10 1 2 3 12 1 2 3 12 10
  89. 89. <ul><li>This example uses a built in single acting cylinder to operate a standard changeover microswitch </li></ul><ul><li>The operating pressure needs to overcome the combined force of the cylinder and microswitch springs </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable pressure switches are also available allow adjustment to the operating pressure </li></ul>Pressure Switch - Electrical Fixed Adjustable
  90. 90. Flow Regulator
  91. 91. Flow Regulation for Speed
  92. 92. Quick Exhaust Valve Symbol Circuit example 1 2 2
  93. 93. Air Logic <ul><li>In the age of microchips and personal computers, air logic can still provide an effective, efficient, and inexpensive means of control for certain pneumatic machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Air logic controls can perform any function normally handled by relays, pressure or vacuum switches, time delays, limit switches, and counters. The circuitry is similar, but compressed air is the control medium instead of electrical current. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Logic “OR” Shuttle Valve 1 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 ≥ 1 1 2 3
  95. 95. Logic “AND” Shuttle Valve 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Popular old symbol 1 2 3 ISO symbol & 1 2 3
  96. 96. Two Hand Anti-tie Down 1 2 3 SYMBOL Timing Chamber OR gate – 1 or 2 passes to timing 2 enables 1 to pass to 3 or output When timing done will block input air from output if not present already
  97. 97. Timers INPUT OUTPUT Positive Timer Symbol Positive Timer Example Negative Timer Symbol ON INPUT OFF ON OUTPUT OFF TIME DELAY
  98. 98. One Shot Timer A A Logic symbol ANSI symbol
  99. 99. <ul><li>Pneumatic actuators include linear cylinders and rotary actuators. </li></ul><ul><li>They are devices providing power and motion to automated systems, machines and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>A pneumatic cylinder is a simple, low cost, easy to install device that is ideal for producing powerful linear movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed can be adjusted over a wide range. </li></ul><ul><li>A cylinder can be stalled without damage. </li></ul>Actuators
  100. 100. <ul><li>Adverse conditions can be easily tolerated such as high humidity, dry and dusty environments and cleaning down with a hose. </li></ul><ul><li>The bore of a cylinder determines the maximum force that it can exert. </li></ul><ul><li>The stroke of a cylinder determines the maximum linear movement that it can produce. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum working pressure depends on the cylinder design. Thrust is controllable through a pressure regulator. </li></ul>Actuators
  101. 101. Basic Construction Cylinder Barrel Base Cap Bearing Cap Piston Rod Packing ring Bushing Wiper Construction of a pneumatic cylinder with end position cushioning Seals Piston
  102. 102. <ul><li>Pneumatic actuators are made in a wide variety of sizes, styles and types including the following </li></ul><ul><li>Single acting with and without spring return </li></ul><ul><li>Double acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non cushioned and fixed cushioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustable cushioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rodless </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary </li></ul><ul><li>Clamping </li></ul><ul><li>Bellows </li></ul>Some Fundamental Designs
  103. 103. Piston Force Cylinder Piston Piston Rod Cylinder Piston Piston Rod D D D
  104. 104. Example of Cylinder Force <ul><li>A cylinder with a 4 inch diameter and 1.5 inch cylinder rod diameter with air pressure of 80 psi (pounds per square inch). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area = 12.6 sq in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area of rod end = 1.8 sq in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force = 80 X (12.6 – 1.8) = 864 lbs on retract of cylinder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force = 80 X 12.6 = 1008 lbs on extend of cylinder. </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. <ul><li>An air take up is used to keep a chain conveyor from becoming slack due to load changes. This is a common application to production chains a mile long in automobile plants. </li></ul><ul><li>If a take-up cylinder has a 12 inch diameter and 3 inch cylinder rod diameter and the chain pull has been determined to be 2225 pounds then what should the air pressure be set to. </li></ul><ul><li>The pull is at the rod end. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Pressure = Force ÷ Area </li></ul>Force Of A Take-up Air Cylinder
  106. 106. Cylinder Force Table 2,827 2,545 2,262 1,696 1,414 1,131 848.1 565.4 282.7 28.27 6 1,963 1,767 1,571 1,178 982 785 588.9 392.6 196.3 19.63 5 1,257 1,131 1,005 754 628 503 377.1 251.4 125.7 12.57 4 830 747 664 498 415 332 249 166 83 8.3 3.25 491 442 393 295 245 196 147.3 98.2 49.1 4.91 2.5 314 283 251 188 157 126 94.2 62.8 31.4 3.14 2 177 159 141 106 88 71 53.7 35.4 17.7 1.77 1.5 79 71.1 63.2 47.4 17.4 31.6 23.7 15.8 7.9 0.79 1 44 39.6 35.2 26.4 22 17.6 12 8.8 4.4 0.44 0.75 100 90 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 PRESSURE (PSI) Piston Area (in) Bore (in) CYLINDER FORCE TABLE (Pounds)
  107. 107. Cylinder Rod Force Deduction Chart 706.8 636.12 565.44 424.08 353.4 282.72 212.04 141.36 70.68 7.068 3 148.5 133.65 118.8 89.7 74.25 59.4 44.55 29.7 14.85 1.485 1.375 78.5 70.65 62.8 47.1 39.25 31.4 23.55 15.7 7.85 0.785 1 44.1 39.69 26.46 26.46 22.05 17.64 13.23 8.82 4.41 0.441 0.75 30.7 27.63 24.56 18.42 15.35 12.28 9.27 6.14 3.07 0.307 0.625 19.6 17.64 15.68 11.76 9.8 7.84 5.88 3.92 1.96 0.196 0.5 4.9 4.41 3.92 2.94 2.45 1.96 1.47 0.98 0.49 0.049 0.25 100 90 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 PRESSURE (PSI) Rod Area (in) Rod (in) Cylinder Rod Force Deduction Chart
  108. 108. Cylinder Speed <ul><li>Finally calculate the flow rate CFM (cubic feet per minute) needed to move the load </li></ul><ul><li>Volume is V = A x S </li></ul><ul><li>Compression Ratio </li></ul>
  109. 109. Actuators <ul><li>Cylinders symbols can be any length. </li></ul><ul><li>The piston and rod can be shown in the retracted, extended or any intermediate position </li></ul>
  110. 110. Single Acting <ul><li>Normally in </li></ul><ul><li>Normally out </li></ul>
  111. 111. Double Acting Piston Piston Rod
  112. 112. Double Ended
  113. 113. Cylinder Mounting Foot Mounted Thread Mounted Front Flange Rear Flange Swivel Flange Front Swivel Flange Center Swivel Flange Rear
  114. 114. Air Motors Advantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not require electric power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller than electric motors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not need reducers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple regulation using flow controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torque varied by regulating pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not need relays or motor controllers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not generate much heat </li></ul></ul>
  115. 115. Air Motor Disadvantages <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost can exceed an electric motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of operating can be greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed control not as accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant air variations cause speed and torque fluctuations </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. Piston Air Motors Motor Single Direction Symbol Motor Bi-directional Symbol
  117. 117. Vane Motors Motor Single Direction Symbol Motor Bi-directional Symbol
  118. 118. <ul><li>Vacuum generator </li></ul>Vacuum Equipment Vacuum cups Vacuum switch pneumatic NO NC Vacuum filter Vacuum silencer Vacuum gauge 1 2 3 2 1 3
  119. 119. Vacuum Cup P R A Orifice that generates vacuum or suction via the venturi principle
  120. 120. Summary <ul><li>Review Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Question and Answer Session </li></ul>
  121. 121. Industrial Pneumatic Fundamentals Pneumatic Symbols and Drawings
  122. 122. Objectives <ul><li>Define Industry Standards used for Industrial Electrical Drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Pneumatic Diagrams or Drawings and how they are structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Pneumatic Symbols and logic applied to pneumatic drawings. </li></ul>
  123. 123. Standards <ul><li>STANDARDS ARE IMPORTANT FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>· Components must be interchangeable and must perform to known standards. This includes actuators, valves and pipe fittings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Symbols must be interpreted the same way by any competent person so that they can follow a circuit diagram and install them correctly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· Drawings layouts and drawing symbols must be interpreted the same way by any competent person and this involves both circuit and layout drawings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>· There are many other standards concerning things such as health and safety, hydraulic fluids and filters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are various organizations devoted to producing standards in the field of fluid power. </li></ul></ul>
  124. 124. Shapes <ul><li>Shapes and lines that are used to construct symbols and circuits: </li></ul>
  125. 125. Basic Symbols (shapes) Circles energy conversion units measuring instrument mechanical link roller
  126. 126. Basic Symbols (shapes) Square at 45 o conditioning apparatus connections to corners Square control component connections perpendicular to sides Rectangle cylinders and valves
  127. 127. Basic Symbols (shapes) certain control methods Rectangles cushion piston
  128. 128. Basic Symbols rotary actuator, motor or pump with limited angle of rotation Semi-circle mechanical connection piston rod, lever, shaft Double line Capsule pressurised reservoir air receiver, auxiliary gas bottle
  129. 129. Basic Symbols Line Working line, pilot supply, return, electrical Chain Enclosure of two or more functions in one unit Dashed Pilot control, bleed, filter Line Electrical line 1 2 3 12 10
  130. 130. Functional Elements Long sloping indicates adjustability Arrow Spring Triangle Direction and nature of fluid, open pneumatic or filled hydraulic
  131. 131. Functional Elements Straight or sloping path and flow direction, or motion Arrows Restriction Tee Closed path or port
  132. 132. Functional Elements 90 o angle Seating rotary motion Curved arrows clockwise from right hand end Shaft rotation anti-clockwise from right hand end both
  133. 133. Functional Elements Indication or control size to suit Temperature Operator Opposed solenoid windings Prime mover M Electric motor M
  134. 134. Flowlines not connected Crossing Junction Single Hose usually connecting parts with relative movement Flexible line Junction Four way junction
  135. 135. Connections Continuous Air bleed Air exhaust No means of connection Temporary by probe With means of connection
  136. 136. Connections Both to exhaust Coupling quick release Coupling quick release self sealing Source sealed Coupling quick release self sealing Both sealed
  137. 137. Connections Rotary connection one line Rotary connection two lines Rotary connection three lines
  138. 138. Function components Silencer Pressure to electric switch preset Pressure to electric switch adjustable
  139. 139. Function components Uni-directional flow regulator Rotating joint Pressure indicator Pressure drop indicator
  140. 140. Plant Air receiver Isolating valve Air inlet filter Compressor and electric motor M
  141. 141. Combination units <ul><li>FRL with shut off valve and pressure gauge </li></ul>Lubro-control unit Filter and lubricator FRL Combined unit Filter regulator with gauge
  142. 142. Filters <ul><li>Filter with manual drain </li></ul>Filter with automatic drain Filter with automatic drain and pressure drop indicator
  143. 143. Pressure regulators <ul><li>A pressure regulator symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the regulator valve open to connect the supply to the outlet. </li></ul>Adjustable Regulator with pressure gauge simplified Adjustable Regulator simplified
  144. 144. Pressure relief valves <ul><li>A pressure relief valve symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the valve closed. </li></ul>Adjustable relief valve simplified Preset relief valve simplified
  145. 145. Pressure regulators <ul><li>Pre-set relieving </li></ul>Adjustable relieving Adjustable relieving with pressure gauge Pre-set relieving with pressure gauge
  146. 146. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The function of a valve is given by a pair of numerals separated by a stroke, e.g. 3/2.. </li></ul><ul><li>The first numeral indicates the number of main ports. These are inlets, outlets and exhausts but excludes signal ports and external pilot feeds. </li></ul><ul><li>The second numeral indicates the number of states the valve can achieve. </li></ul>
  147. 147. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>A 3/2 valve therefore has 3 ports (normally these are inlet, outlet and exhaust) and 2 states (the normal state and the operated state) </li></ul><ul><li>The boxes are two pictures of the same valve </li></ul>normal operated
  148. 148. <ul><li>Valve switching positions are illustrated with squares on a schematic. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of squares is used to illustrate the quantity of switching positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines within the boxes will indicate flow paths with arrows showing the flow direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Shut off positions are illustrated by lines drawn at right angles to the flow path. </li></ul><ul><li>Junctions within the valve are connected by a dot. </li></ul><ul><li>Inlet and outlet ports to the valve are shown by lines drawn to the outside of the box that represents the normal or initial position of the valve </li></ul>Basic Valve Symbology
  149. 149. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>A valve symbol shows the pictures for each of the valve states joined end to end </li></ul>normal operated
  150. 150. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>A valve symbol shows the pictures for each of the valve states joined end to end </li></ul>normal operated
  151. 151. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The port connections are shown to only one of the diagrams to indicate the prevailing state </li></ul>normal
  152. 152. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state </li></ul>Operated state produced by pushing a button
  153. 153. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state </li></ul>Operated state produced by pushing a button Normal state produced by a spring
  154. 154. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state </li></ul>Operated state produced by pushing a button Normal state produced by a spring
  155. 155. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections </li></ul>
  156. 156. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections </li></ul>
  157. 157. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections </li></ul>
  158. 158. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>A 5/2 valve symbol is constructed in a similar way. A picture of the valve flow paths for each of the two states is shown by the two boxes. The 5 ports are normally an inlet, 2 outlets and 2 exhausts </li></ul>
  159. 159. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state </li></ul>
  160. 160. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state </li></ul>
  161. 161. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state </li></ul>
  162. 162. Valve symbol structure <ul><li>The boxes can be joined at either end but the operator must be drawn against the state that it produces. The boxes can also be flipped </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of symbol patterns are possible </li></ul>normally closed normally open
  163. 163. Valve functions 5/3 <ul><li>Three position valves have a normal central position that is set by springs or with a manual control such as a lever </li></ul><ul><li>The flow pattern in the centre position varies with the type. Three types will be considered </li></ul><ul><li>1, All ports sealed </li></ul><ul><li>2, Outlets to exhaust, supply sealed </li></ul><ul><li>3, Supply to both outlets, exhausts sealed </li></ul>
  164. 164. Valves 5/3 All valves types shown in the normal position Type 1. All ports sealed Type 2. Outlets to exhaust Type 3. Supply to outlets
  165. 165. Valves 5/3 All valves types shown in the first operated position Type 1. All ports sealed Type 2. Outlets to exhaust Type 3. Supply to outlets
  166. 166. Valves 5/3 All valves types shown in the second operated position Type 1. All ports sealed Type 2. Outlets to exhaust Type 3. Supply to outlets
  167. 167. Operators General manual Push button Pull button Push/pull button Lever Pedal Treadle Manual Rotary knob
  168. 168. Operators Mechanical Plunger Spring normally as a return Roller Uni-direction or one way trip Pressure Pilot pressure Differential pressure Detent in 3 positions
  169. 169. Operators Solenoid direct Solenoid pilot Solenoid pilot with manual override and integral pilot supply Solenoid pilot with manual override and external pilot supply Electrical When no integral or external pilot supply is shown it is assumed to be integral
  170. 170. Port markings The valve connections can be labelled with capital letters or numbers as follows: 12, 14, 16, 18… Z, Y, X ………………….. Pilot Lines 3, 5, 7 …… R, S, T ………………..W Exhaust 1 P ………………………… Supply Air 9 L ………………………… Leakage Fluid 2, 4, 6 . . . . A, B, C …….. O (excludes L) Working Lines Numerical Designations Alphabetical Designations
  171. 171. Port Markings 1 2 12 10 1 2 4 5 3 14 12 1 2 4 3 14 12 1 2 3 12 10
  172. 172. Port Markings 1 2 12 10 1 2 4 5 3 14 12 1 2 4 3 14 12 1 2 3 12 10
  173. 173. Actuators <ul><li>Cylinders symbols can be any length. </li></ul><ul><li>The piston and rod can be shown in the retracted, extended or any intermediate position </li></ul>“ l”
  174. 174. Rotary actuators <ul><li>Semi rotary double acting </li></ul>Rotary motor single direction of rotation Rotary motor bi-directional
  175. 175. Simplified cylinder symbols <ul><li>Single acting load returns </li></ul>Single acting spring returns Double acting non cushioned Double acting adjustable cushions Double acting through rod
  176. 176. Sample Pneumatic Drawing ITEM DESCRIPTION QTY . I.D. SPECIFICATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DWG. NO. Drawn: Checked Scale Installation Air Cylinder Flow Control A1 1 REX C23-7600 2/5 DC Valve Safety Shut Off Shut Off Valve Silencer Regulator and Gauge Filter 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 V1 FV1,2 V2 S1,2 R1 F1 SV1,2,3 NG-7124/3/8 NG-7128/3/8 NGS-7126/3/8 NG-7129/3/8 S-407/3/8 R-88/3/8 F-88/3/8 Cyl. A1 V1 FV1 FV2 V2 S2 S1 R1 F1 SV3 SV1 SV2 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 8 7 6 6 Track Switch AD003 T. Smith Jones None
  177. 177. Summary <ul><li>Review Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Question and Answer Session </li></ul>
  178. 178. Example Pneumatic Circuit Industrial Pneumatic Fundamentals
  179. 179. Objective <ul><li>To demonstrate and explain the reading of pneumatic drawings by way of example. </li></ul>
  180. 180. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN AIR APPLIED TO OPEN INPUT START OF DIE OPEN SEQENCE – LV1 , LV3 AND LV5 ARE CLOSED – LV31, LV2, LV4, LV6 ARE OPEN SHUTTLE BALL BLOCKS CLOSE INPUT LINES
  181. 181. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN RV1, RV2 and RV44 SHIFT WITH L1 AND L3 CLOSED
  182. 182. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN PV1 SHIFTS WITH L1 AND L3 CLOSED AND RV1 SHIFTED ‘ A’ and ‘B’ CYLINDERS BEGIN EXTENDING
  183. 183. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN LV1 AND LV3 OPEN WHEN A AND B CYLINDERS BEGIN MOVEMENT
  184. 184. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN LV31 CLOSES OPEN WHEN AS B CYLINDER CONTINUES MOVEMENT
  185. 185. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN PV2 SHIFTS WITH L31 CLOSED ‘ C’ CYLINDER EXTENDS
  186. 186. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN LV2, LV4, LV6 CLOSE WHEN ALL THREE CYLINDERS ARE EXTENDED AND LV5 OPENS
  187. 187. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN RV3 AND PV3 SHIFTS WITH L2, L4 AND L6 CLOSED LIFTER CYLINDERS EXTEND
  188. 188. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN END OF DIE OPEN SEQENCE – OPEN AIR INPUT OFF – LV 2, LV4, LV6, LV31 ARE CLOSED AND LV1, LV3 AND LV5 ARE OPEN
  189. 189. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN START OF CLOSE DIE SEQENCE – AIR INPUT TO CLOSE PORT AIR IS APPLIED TO CLOSE INPUT – SHUTTLE BALL SHIFTS TO BLOCK AIR FROM OPEN LINES
  190. 190. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN RV1, RV2 AND RV4 ARE OPERATED
  191. 191. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN PV1 AND PV3 ARE OPERATED
  192. 192. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN LV5 CLOSES WHEN ‘C’ CYLINDER RETRACTED RV3 AND PV1 OPERATE
  193. 193. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN ‘ A’ AND ‘B’ CYLINDERS RETRACT ALL CYLINDERS RETRACTED: LV 1 AND LV3 ARE CLOSED; LV2, LV4, LV6 AND LV31 ARE OPEN
  194. 194. R G R G R G PV1B INITIAL CAMS CLOSED PV1A INITIAL CAMS OPEN PV2B SECONDARY CAMS CLOSED PV2A SECONDARY CAMS OPEN CAM A CYLINDER CAM B CYLINDER CAM C CYLINDER LIFTER CYLINDERS PV3B LIFTERS DOWN PV3A LIFTERS UP PV1 PV2 PV3 RV1 RV3 RV2 RV4 LV3 LV1 LV31 LV2 LV4 LV6 LV5 CAM C CAM A CAM B CAM C CAM B CAM A CAM B BH3 BH1 BH5 AIR CLOSE BH4 CONSTANT AIR CLOSE OPEN END OF CLOSE DIE SEQENCE AIR REMOVE FROM CLOSE INPUT– RETURN TO START OF OPEN SEQUENCE
  195. 195. Summary <ul><li>Review Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Question and Answer Session </li></ul>

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