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Physiology of exercise 2009


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Physiology of exercise 2009

  1. 1. Physiology of Exercise – PART II
  2. 2. Training and the Respiratory System
  3. 3. Processes of Pulmonary FunctionsPulmonary ventilation – movementof air into and out of the lungs.External Ventilation – gas exchangebetween the blood and lungsTransport of gases – between thelungs and cellsInternal Ventilation – between theblood and body cells
  4. 4. Measuring Pulmonary FunctionUsed during the training of athletes and in patients with pulmonary disease: Total Lung Capacity – volume of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
  5. 5. Measuring Pulmonary Function Vital Capacity – maximum volume of airthat can be exhaled after a maximuminhalationTidal volume – volume of air that is takenin or out with each inhalation or exhalationVentilation Rate – number of inhalations orexhalations per minute
  6. 6. Ventilation RateBreathing Rate– During exercise the rate of ACR increases.– Increases the amount of CO2 in the blood– Reduces the pH of the blood– Reduction is detected by cells in the walls of the arteries (chemosensors)
  7. 7. Ventilation RateIncreased ventilation rate removesexcess CO2 from the body.– Increases the rate of O2 uptake– Allows more ACR to take place– pH level of blood increasesWhen pH increases --- ventilationrate decreases
  9. 9. Exercise and VentilationResults in increases inventilation rate and tidal volume.Blood to lungs >>> higher CO2concentrationHigh rate of gas exchange– Large gradientHigh rate AcrANcr >>> low supply of oxygen>>> lower duration of exercise.
  10. 10. Effects of TrainingBe able to discuss the effects ofTraining on:– Increase – ventilation rate during exercise– Decrease – resting ventilation rate– Larger – vital capacity (muscle)
  11. 11. Training &Circulatory System
  12. 12. Measuring Heart Function: Heart RateHeart Rate – number of contractions per minuteMajor Factors that affect Heart Rate: – SEX – Male or Female – Your overall health – Physical Activity – Emotion – Posture
  13. 13. Measuring Heart FunctionHeart Rate – number of contractionsper minuteStroke volume – volume of bloodpumped with each contraction.Cardiac output – volume of bloodpumped out by the heart eachminute.Venous Return – amount of bloodreturning to heart per minute
  14. 14. Exercise and the HeartCan Cause: Increase in thickness of heart muscle Volume of ventricles – LARGER STROKE VOLUME AT REST AND DURING EXERCISE Reduce cardiac output at rest – 50b/ min. Greater Stroke Volume = greater cardiac output as heart is trained
  15. 15. Cardiac Output
  16. 16. Exercise and the HeartControlling Cardiac Output: Receptor cells – monitor blood pH – Measure of CO2 Brain: Medulla – alters rate Pacemaker – receives impulses to alter rateReverses when CO2 levels lower.
  17. 17. Effects of Exercise on Circulatory SystemVenous Return Increases during exercise Contracting Muscles exert pressure on veins >>> helps to return blood Allows cardiac output to increase
  18. 18. Effects of Exercise on Circulatory SystemDISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD:More during exercise: – Heart wall – Muscles – SkinLess during exercise: – Kidneys – Stomach – IntestinesDoes not change: – Brain
  19. 19. More Effects of Training and the Circulatory SystemIncreases capillary networks inskeletal musclesIncrease in diameter of blood vesselsDecrease in blood pressureIncrease in blood volumeDecrease in recovery time forbreathing and heart rate
  20. 20. Erythropoietin (EPO) Natural hormone produced by kidney to maintain a health percentage of blood cells Increases amount of RBC in ratio volume of blood ---Packed Cell Volume(PCV) More RBC = more O2 to cells
  21. 21. Erythropoietin (EPO)Benefits: Risks: Increased blood – Treatment for thickness anemia Increased chance of blood clotting – Replacement of Can result in stroke blood due to injury Lower blood plasma level Body may produce antibodies against EPO
  22. 22. Exercise and Cell Respiration
  23. 23. Effects of Increasing Intensity of ExerciseGeneral: more exercise=more O2VO2 – volume of O2 that is absorbedby the body/minute that is suppliedto body tissueVO2max – maximum rate at which O2can be absorbed and supplied totissue
  24. 24. Effects of Increasing Intensity of ExerciseAnCR – in intensity of exercise canrise above VO2max.As intensity of Exercise increases thefat burned (ACR) decreases– AnCR can only use Carbohydrates as a respiration substrate
  25. 25. Muscle FatigueMuscle fibers contain a store ofcarbohydrates --- GLYCOGENGlycogen is converted to glucose– Intense or long duration exerciseWhen glycogen is used up…muscle fatigue takes placeAccumulation of lactate. (AnCR)
  26. 26. MyoglobinMyoglobin – oxymyo or deoxymyo-– Globular protein– Heme – prosthetic group– Red pigment– Contained in muscle– Intracellular O2 storageO2 is released when level in muscle is lowAllows for longer ACR – longer exerciseperiods.
  27. 27. Other Source of ATPCreatine Phosphate – Used by muscles cells only! – Created by excess ATP in pancreas, liver, kidneys – Direct phosphorylation of ATP from store – Duration: exercise up to 10 secondsCreatine Phosphate– Dietary supplement Absorbed by intestines Can help athletes who have naturally low levels Correlation: can improve maximum intensity over short timeCan cause water retention – Weight gain, HBP, cramps – dehydration – Inhibit performance.
  28. 28. Muscles,ATP, and Intensity of ExerciseLow Intensity Exercise If O2 is available, ACR can produces ATP continuously – Walking, light joggingHigh Intensity Exercise If O2 is used faster, the body switches to AnCR. Lactate is produced – toxic – Produces energy for 2 minutes maximum
  29. 29. AnCR and Oxygen “Debt”If lactate is present = oxygen debtLactate produced is passed to theliver (accessory organ)If large amounts of lactate arepresent, large amounts of O2 areneeded to “repay the debt.”This is why it takes TIME for theventilation rate to return to “normal”after high intensity exercise.
  30. 30. Fitness ANDTraining
  31. 31. FitnessThe physical conditionof the body thatallows it to performexercise of aparticular type
  32. 32. TrainingTraining = Exercises that are done tochange the physical conditioning ofthe body.Depends on:– Frequency – how often a training session occurs.– Duration – length of session– Intensity – vigorous
  33. 33. Speed and StaminaRate at which a movement isperformed.– Sprinting, baseball, football, swimming, skiing.Ability to continue an exercisefor long periods of time– Maximum duration.– Rowing, long distance running
  34. 34. Fast MusclesFast muscle fibersTWITCH– These are the muscle fibers that are responsible for short, explosive and powerful movements.– Fast twitch fibers are the ones that grow!– Release large amounts of energy for short periods of time
  35. 35. Slow Muscles –TONIC– These are the muscle fibers that are responsible for endurance.– They do not really respond to resistance training with any type of growth or hypertrophy.– Release energy for longer time periods.
  36. 36. Fast vs. Slow . Fast Slow Fast Oxidative/Glycolytic Slow Oxidative Blood Moderate to Very good supply lowMitochondria Little present Much present Glycogen Little present Much presentMyoglobin Little present Much present Cell Anaerobic AerobicRespiration Stamina Low High Strength High Low
  37. 37. Fast vs. Slow: TypesFast –– extensive use of arms, hands– sprinting, power lifting, body buildingSlow –– Use of large muscles: legs, thigh, hip, lower back, neck,– posture, swimmers, LD runners, cyclists
  38. 38. Physiology of the “Warm-up and Cool Down”Warm Cool Gentle before Dispense lactic acid Vigorous Allows Cardiovascular Heats body -distributes system to adjust Raises heart rate Breathing rate returns Warm muscles more to normal flexible Less likely to tear Warm joints more mobile less strain
  39. 39. Drug Use in Sports
  40. 40. Performing Enhancing Drugs Anabolic SteroidEthics: – Long term health Smaller testes, low sperm count, abnormal menstrual cycles, liver diseases, aggression, cancers – Unfair Advantage? – Criminal Profit?
  41. 41. Physiology of Exercise Injuries
  42. 42. Sprains and StrainsSprain: The stretching and/or tearingof ligaments.Strain – stretching and/or tearing oftendons or muscles.
  43. 43. Jacqueline Crews and her foot!
  44. 44. DislocationsAbnormal movement of a joint.Bones move out of alignmentIf the dislocation is partial, its calledsubluxation. The joint is loose andmay slide partially out of place.
  45. 45. Shoulder
  46. 46. Other Dislocations
  47. 47. Other Dislocations
  48. 48. SeparationsA separated shoulder: collarbone(clavicle) and shoulder blade(scapula) meet.ligaments are torn.Outer end of the collarbone slips outof place.
  49. 49. Shoulder Separation
  50. 50. Shoulder Separation
  51. 51. Disc DamageAbnormal movements or heavy loadscause the soft center of a disc to“bulge” out through a tear in the wallof the disc
  52. 52. Herniated Disc
  53. 53. Herniated Disc
  54. 54. ArthroscopyA surgical procedure where a doctoruses a camera to view and repair ajoint
  55. 55. Treatment of tissue injury : R.I.C.E.Swelling Rest– Excess buildup of Ice – fluid reduce blood flow-Causes heat– Tears in blood Reduce swelling vessels Reduce pain– Infection Compression– Inflammation Reduces swelling Elevation Removes excess fluid