Type II A Fibres These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast oxidative fibres, contain very large amounts of myoglobin, very many mitochondria and very many blood capillaries. Type II A fibres are red, have a very high capacity for generating ATP by oxidative metabolic processes, split ATP at a very rapid rate, have a fast contraction velocity and are resistant to fatigue. Such fibres are infrequently found in humans. Type II B Fibres These fibres, also called fast twitch or fast glycolytic fibres, contain a low content of myoglobin, relatively few mitochondria, relatively few blood capillaries and large amounts glycogen. Type II B fibres are white, geared to generate ATP by anaerobic metabolic processes, not able to supply skeletal muscle fibres continuously with sufficient ATP, fatigue easily, split ATP at a fast rate and have a fast contraction velocity. Such fibres are found in large numbers in the muscles of the arms.
Type I Fibres These fibres, also called slow twitch or slow oxidative fibres, contain large amounts of myoglobin, many mitochondria and many blood capillaries. Type I fibres are red, split ATP at a slow rate, have a slow contraction velocity, very resistant to fatigue and have a high capacity to generate ATP by oxidative metabolic processes. Such fibres are found in large numbers in the postural muscles of the neck
FAST – SPRINTER SLOW – MARATHON FAST – DOWNHILL SKIIER SLOW – CROSS COUNTRY SKIIER MIDDLE DISTANCE – About 50% Fast – speed, agility, quickness, power The average person has approximately 60% fast muscle fibre and 40% slow-twitch fibre (type I). There can be swings in fibre composition, but essentially, we all have three types of muscle fibre that need to trained
Anabolic steroids , or anabolic-androgenic steroids ( AAS ), are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone . They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue ( anabolism ), especially in muscles . Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair. The word anabolic comes from the Greek anabolein , &quot;to build up&quot;, and the word androgenic from the Greek andros , &quot;man&quot; + genein , &quot;to produce&quot;. Anabolic steroids were first isolated, identified and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty , and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS . The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases, and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.  Serious health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of anabolic steroids. These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein ), acne , high blood pressure , liver damage , and dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart. LONG TERM HEALTH ISSUES: Anabolic steroid use has been implicated in early heart disease, including sudden death, the increase of bad cholesterol profiles (increased LDL, lower HDL), an increase in tendon injuries, liver tumors, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia (abnormal enlargement of breasts in males), male pattern baldness, severe acne, premature closure of growth plates in adolescents, emotional disturbances and other significant health risks.
When you have the misfortune of wrenching your shoulder upward and backward, you may dislocate it out of its socket. This condition is both painful and incapacitating. The force required is often that of a fall or a collision with another person (both of which can occur with many sports). Because of how your shoulder fits together, most shoulder dislocations happen at the lower front of the shoulder. The bones of the shoulder are the socket of the shoulder blade (scapula) and the ball at the upper end of the arm bone (humerus). The socket on the shoulder blade is fairly shallow, but a lip or rim of cartilage makes it deeper. The joint is supported on all sides by ligaments called the joint capsule, and then the whole thing is covered by the rotator cuff. The rotator cuff is made up of 4 tendons that are attached to muscles that start on the scapula and end on the upper humerus. They reinforce the shoulder joint from above, in front, and in back, which makes the weakest point in the rotator cuff in the lower front. Subluxation versus dislocation: A subluxation occurs when 2 joint (articular) surfaces have lost their usual contact. A 50% subluxation means the normally opposing articular surfaces have lost half their usual contact. A 100% subluxation means the articular surfaces have lost all of their contact. A dislocation is the same as a 100% subluxation.
When your shoulder is dislocated , your arm will look out of position. You will have severe pain, particularly if muscle spasms are present. If the dislocation is a partial dislocation (subluxation), you may have the sensation that your upper arm bone can slip out of its socket. Your doctor may order an x-ray to confirm the diagnosis and check for fractures. A shoulder separation will involve pain and tenderness. Sometimes a bump will appear in the mid top of your shoulder. Your doctor may order an x-ray to confirm the diagnosis and check for fractures. An MRI ( def. ) may be ordered to make sure there are no other injuries.
Rest the injured area. If moving the injured area causes pain, this is the body's way of saying stop. Rest the affected area. Do not use or bear weight (such as standing or walking) until evaluated by a healthcare provider. Sometimes resting an injured area means not participating in any physical activity or just the activity that caused the injury. For example, some walking may be allowed, but no running. If necessary, the provider may suggest using crutches or a cane so that less weight is put on the injured foot or leg. Ice applied to the injured area will help to prevent or reduce swelling. Swelling causes more pain and can slow healing. Apply a cloth-covered ice pack to the injured area for no more than 20 minutes at a time, 4 to 8 times a day. A one-pound package of frozen corn or peas makes a good ice pack. It is lightweight, conforms to the injured area, and is inexpensive and reusable. Applying ice more than 20 minutes may cause cold injury. When making an ice pack with a plastic bag, make sure all the air is out of the bag before closing it. Areas with little fat and muscle, such as fingers or toes, should only have ice on them for about 10 minutes. Frozen gel packs are colder than ice, so they should only be left on for 10 minutes. Compression (use of a pressure bandage) also helps to prevent or reduce swelling. Wrap the injured area with an elastic bandage, but not so tightly that the blood is cut off. It should not hurt or throb. Fingers or toes beyond the bandage should remain pink and not become &quot;tingly.&quot; The elastic bandage should be taken off every 4 hours and reapplied. Elevation means raising the injured area above the level of the heart. The affected part should be elevated so it is 12 inches above the heart, to help reduce swelling. Prop up a leg or arm while resting it. It may be necessary to lie down to get the leg above the heart level. Elevation can be done with several pillows.
Processes of Pulmonary FunctionsPulmonary ventilation – movementof air into and out of the lungs.External Ventilation – gas exchangebetween the blood and lungsTransport of gases – between thelungs and cellsInternal Ventilation – between theblood and body cells
Measuring Pulmonary FunctionUsed during the training of athletes and in patients with pulmonary disease: Total Lung Capacity – volume of air in the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
Measuring Pulmonary Function Vital Capacity – maximum volume of airthat can be exhaled after a maximuminhalationTidal volume – volume of air that is takenin or out with each inhalation or exhalationVentilation Rate – number of inhalations orexhalations per minute
Ventilation RateBreathing Rate– During exercise the rate of ACR increases.– Increases the amount of CO2 in the blood– Reduces the pH of the blood– Reduction is detected by cells in the walls of the arteries (chemosensors)
Ventilation RateIncreased ventilation rate removesexcess CO2 from the body.– Increases the rate of O2 uptake– Allows more ACR to take place– pH level of blood increasesWhen pH increases --- ventilationrate decreases
Ventilation RATEIT IS THE RISINGCONCENTRATION OFCO2 IN THE BLOOD ANDNOT THE DECLINE OFOXYGEN THATTRIGGERS THE NEEDFOR BREATHING.
Exercise and VentilationResults in increases inventilation rate and tidal volume.Blood to lungs >>> higher CO2concentrationHigh rate of gas exchange– Large gradientHigh rate AcrANcr >>> low supply of oxygen>>> lower duration of exercise.
Effects of TrainingBe able to discuss the effects ofTraining on:– Increase – ventilation rate during exercise– Decrease – resting ventilation rate– Larger – vital capacity (muscle)
Measuring Heart Function: Heart RateHeart Rate – number of contractions per minuteMajor Factors that affect Heart Rate: – SEX – Male or Female – Your overall health – Physical Activity – Emotion – Posture
Measuring Heart FunctionHeart Rate – number of contractionsper minuteStroke volume – volume of bloodpumped with each contraction.Cardiac output – volume of bloodpumped out by the heart eachminute.Venous Return – amount of bloodreturning to heart per minute
Exercise and the HeartCan Cause: Increase in thickness of heart muscle Volume of ventricles – LARGER STROKE VOLUME AT REST AND DURING EXERCISE Reduce cardiac output at rest – 50b/ min. Greater Stroke Volume = greater cardiac output as heart is trained
Exercise and the HeartControlling Cardiac Output: Receptor cells – monitor blood pH – Measure of CO2 Brain: Medulla – alters rate Pacemaker – receives impulses to alter rateReverses when CO2 levels lower.
Effects of Exercise on Circulatory SystemVenous Return Increases during exercise Contracting Muscles exert pressure on veins >>> helps to return blood Allows cardiac output to increase
Effects of Exercise on Circulatory SystemDISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD:More during exercise: – Heart wall – Muscles – SkinLess during exercise: – Kidneys – Stomach – IntestinesDoes not change: – Brain
More Effects of Training and the Circulatory SystemIncreases capillary networks inskeletal musclesIncrease in diameter of blood vesselsDecrease in blood pressureIncrease in blood volumeDecrease in recovery time forbreathing and heart rate
Erythropoietin (EPO) Natural hormone produced by kidney to maintain a health percentage of blood cells Increases amount of RBC in ratio volume of blood ---Packed Cell Volume(PCV) More RBC = more O2 to cells
Erythropoietin (EPO)Benefits: Risks: Increased blood – Treatment for thickness anemia Increased chance of blood clotting – Replacement of Can result in stroke blood due to injury Lower blood plasma level Body may produce antibodies against EPO
Effects of Increasing Intensity of ExerciseGeneral: more exercise=more O2VO2 – volume of O2 that is absorbedby the body/minute that is suppliedto body tissueVO2max – maximum rate at which O2can be absorbed and supplied totissue
Effects of Increasing Intensity of ExerciseAnCR – in intensity of exercise canrise above VO2max.As intensity of Exercise increases thefat burned (ACR) decreases– AnCR can only use Carbohydrates as a respiration substrate
Muscle FatigueMuscle fibers contain a store ofcarbohydrates --- GLYCOGENGlycogen is converted to glucose– Intense or long duration exerciseWhen glycogen is used up…muscle fatigue takes placeAccumulation of lactate. (AnCR)
MyoglobinMyoglobin – oxymyo or deoxymyo-– Globular protein– Heme – prosthetic group– Red pigment– Contained in muscle– Intracellular O2 storageO2 is released when level in muscle is lowAllows for longer ACR – longer exerciseperiods.
Other Source of ATPCreatine Phosphate – Used by muscles cells only! – Created by excess ATP in pancreas, liver, kidneys – Direct phosphorylation of ATP from store – Duration: exercise up to 10 secondsCreatine Phosphate– Dietary supplement Absorbed by intestines Can help athletes who have naturally low levels Correlation: can improve maximum intensity over short timeCan cause water retention – Weight gain, HBP, cramps – dehydration – Inhibit performance.
Muscles,ATP, and Intensity of ExerciseLow Intensity Exercise If O2 is available, ACR can produces ATP continuously – Walking, light joggingHigh Intensity Exercise If O2 is used faster, the body switches to AnCR. Lactate is produced – toxic – Produces energy for 2 minutes maximum
AnCR and Oxygen “Debt”If lactate is present = oxygen debtLactate produced is passed to theliver (accessory organ)If large amounts of lactate arepresent, large amounts of O2 areneeded to “repay the debt.”This is why it takes TIME for theventilation rate to return to “normal”after high intensity exercise.
FitnessThe physical conditionof the body thatallows it to performexercise of aparticular type
TrainingTraining = Exercises that are done tochange the physical conditioning ofthe body.Depends on:– Frequency – how often a training session occurs.– Duration – length of session– Intensity – vigorous
Speed and StaminaRate at which a movement isperformed.– Sprinting, baseball, football, swimming, skiing.Ability to continue an exercisefor long periods of time– Maximum duration.– Rowing, long distance running
Fast MusclesFast muscle fibersTWITCH– These are the muscle fibers that are responsible for short, explosive and powerful movements.– Fast twitch fibers are the ones that grow!– Release large amounts of energy for short periods of time
Slow Muscles –TONIC– These are the muscle fibers that are responsible for endurance.– They do not really respond to resistance training with any type of growth or hypertrophy.– Release energy for longer time periods.
Fast vs. Slow . Fast Slow Fast Oxidative/Glycolytic Slow Oxidative Blood Moderate to Very good supply lowMitochondria Little present Much present Glycogen Little present Much presentMyoglobin Little present Much present Cell Anaerobic AerobicRespiration Stamina Low High Strength High Low
Fast vs. Slow: TypesFast –– extensive use of arms, hands– sprinting, power lifting, body buildingSlow –– Use of large muscles: legs, thigh, hip, lower back, neck,– posture, swimmers, LD runners, cyclists
Physiology of the “Warm-up and Cool Down”Warm Cool Gentle before Dispense lactic acid Vigorous Allows Cardiovascular Heats body -distributes system to adjust Raises heart rate Breathing rate returns Warm muscles more to normal flexible Less likely to tear Warm joints more mobile less strain