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Option D

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OPTION D

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Option D

  1. 1. D.1 – HUMAN NUTRITION D.2 – DIGESTION D.3 – THE LIVER D.4 – THE HEART OPTION D
  2. 2. D.1 - HUMAN NUTRITION
  3. 3. 1. ESSENTIAL VS. NON ESSENTIAL
  4. 4. DIET • THE TOTAL FOOD INTAKE BY AN ORGANISM. • Nutrition – the supply of nutrients.
  5. 5. NUTRIENTS Essential Nutrients – must be consumed as part of your diet. Cannot be synthesized by the body. These four nutrients are essential: • Water - essential • Lipids – “fatty acid” essential • Amino acids - not all • Vitamins and Minerals – not all Non-essential – • Carbohydrates – energy can be made from both fats and proteins
  6. 6. AMINO ACIDS • 20 amino acids Essential - lacking any a.a not made by the body Non essential – any that the body can make by conversion of other nutrients.
  7. 7. NON-ESSENTIAL VS. ESSENTIAL
  8. 8. FATS • Storage of energy • Insulation of body against temperature changes • Fat around some organs provides shock absorbers • Cell membrane - phospholipid
  9. 9. VITAMIN AND MINERALS • Can be distinguished by their chemical nature Minerals – • Chemical elements; usually ionic Vitamins – • All organic Cannot be made by the body - essential
  10. 10. 2. ENERGY IN HUMAN DIETS
  11. 11. COMPARISON OF ENERGY IN NUTRIENTS. • Measured in kilojoules (kJ) CARBOHYDRATES: 1760 kJ/100g PROTEIN – 1720 kJ/100g FAT – 4000 kJ/100g
  12. 12. MEASURING ENERGY CONTENT • To heat one mL of water 1°celcius – 4.2J of energy is needed = 1 calorie • SO: Energy content = temp change(ºC) x water volume(mL) x 4.2 of a food mass of food (g) Calorimeter – instrument used to measure energy content
  13. 13. CALORIMETER
  14. 14. 3. READING NUTRITIONAL DATABASES • VITAMIN AND MINERAL • NUTRIENT DATABASE • NUTRITONAL CONTENT IN FOODS
  15. 15. 4. LIPIDS, YOUR HEALTH, AND HEART DISEASE Review: 1. Saturated – • All carbon atoms are connected by single covalent bonds • Number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon cannot be increased • Non essential 2. Unsaturated – • One or more double bonds between carbon atoms • More hydrogen can be bonded if double bond is replaced by single bond.
  16. 16. • SATURATED • CHOLESTEROL • TRANS FATS • UNSATURATED • MONOUNSATURATED • POLYUNSATURATED • CIS: OMEGA 3 & 7 GOOD FATS VS. BAD FATS GOOD BAD
  17. 17. FATTY ACIDS AND HEALTH - CHOLESTEROL HDL vs. LDL – produced in the liver CHOLESTEROL travels in the blood attached to a protein • Low Density Lipoprotein – transports cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver around the body…tends to deposit on artery walls. • “Bad cholesterol” “Lousy” • High Density Lipoproteins - transports excess cholesterol and triglycerides from body to the liver. • “Good cholesterol” “Happy” Other source of FAT: • Triglycerides - another type of fat produced by excess calories, alcohol, and sugar (very LDL)
  18. 18. CHOLESTEROL AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE • Cholesterol = steroid Research has shown a positive correlation between high levels of cholesterol and an increased risk of CHD, but it is not certain that lowering cholesterol intake reduces the risk of CHD: • Most research involves total blood cholesterol levels but only cholesterol in LDL is implicated. • The liver synthesizes it’s own cholesterol • Reducing dietary cholesterol…very little overall effect on CHD Rates • Genetic factors appear to be more important • There is a positive correlation between intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. Is saturated fat the issue?
  19. 19. 4. APPETITE CONTROL AND THE BRAIN Hypothalamus - Appetite Control Center Receives hormone stimuli: • Insulin – secreted by pancreas when Glucose levels are high • Peptide YY36 - “gut hormone” • Released by small intestine in response to food intake • Increases with number of calories eaten • Leptin – hormone released by adipose tissue . More secreted as more fat is stored. • If hypothalamus receives hormone, reduces desire to eat
  20. 20. 5. NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY DISEASES/DISORDERS Malnutrition – a deficiency, imbalance, or excess or specific nutrients in the diet. Starvation – severe lack of intake of both essential and non-essential nutrients. • Results in breakdown of body tissue
  21. 21. VITAMIN AND MINERALS • Can be distinguished by their chemical nature Minerals – • Chemical elements; usually ionic Vitamins – • All organic Cannot be made by the body - essential
  22. 22. VITAMIN C • Vitamin C = Ascorbic Acid • Needed for synthesis of collagen fibers in: • Skin • Blood vessel walls • Humans cannot synthesize • Not exclusive to humans SCURVY – Vit. C deficiency disease. Patients develop anemia, edema, ulcerations, lose teeth.
  23. 23. SCURVY
  24. 24. VITAMIN D – DEFICIENCY • Calciferol • Oily fish, eggs, milk* • Needed for calcium absorption in the intestines. • Calcium: bone and teeth strength • Symptoms of deficiency similar to calcium deficiency • Diseases: • Rickets – soft bone disorder • Osteomalacia – bone thinning • Synthesis: • Skin, Food, Supplement
  25. 25. PROTEIN MALNUTRITION: PHENYLKETONURIA CAUSES: • Autosomal recessive – causes a mutation of the gene for the enzyme PAH • Condition where a baby is unable to breakdown the a.a. phenylalanine into tyrosine. • Deficiency in the enzyme PAH • Levels of phenylalanine accumulate
  26. 26. PHENYLKETONURIA • Most infants are tested soon after birth. Symptoms: Early: seizures, small head size Long term – severe mental retardation Treatment: diet low in phenylalanine
  27. 27. PKU DIET
  28. 28. 6. CONSEQUENCES OF OBESITY
  29. 29. SOME GENERAL FACTORS THAT LEAD TO OBESITY • Food – • high fat and sugar content • Smaller quantities of high fiber foods eaten • Economic • Growth – larger portions • Food is cheaper • Transport • More cars ----less walking • Jobs • Physically undemanding • Technology • Tasks done by hand --- now done by machine. •Video games and television watching = “couch potato” generation!
  30. 30. TYPE II - DIABETES
  31. 31. TYPE II - DIABETES • Diabetes Mellitus • Adult Onset Diabetes • Medical Cause: • Auto immune destruction of insulin- secreting cells in pancreas (TYPE 1) • Decreased responsiveness of body cells to insulin. (TYPE II)
  32. 32. TYPE II - DIABETES Risk Factors: • Obesity due to overeating • Diets rich in fat/low in fibre • Inactivity • Genetics • Ethnic background
  33. 33. TYPE II - DIABETES Symptoms: • Elevated blood/urine glucose • Frequent Urination • Dehyradtion/Increased thirst • Extreme hunger • Weight Loss • Fatigue • Slow healing and more frequent infection
  34. 34. COMPLICATIONS – TYPE II DIABETES If not carefully managed: • Atherosclerosis/circulation issues • Hypertension • CHD
  35. 35. ANOREXIA NERVOSA
  36. 36. • Unusual obsession with food, weight, body shape, and excessive exercise • Affects more women than men Psychological disorder: • Emotional issues • Perfectionism • Control • Self worth
  37. 37. PHYSICAL CONSEQUENCES • Circulatory • Anemia - bruising • Low blood cell count & electrolyte balance • Heart failure • Respiratory – lung tissue • Skeletal – bone loss; osteoporosis • Muscle – loss of muscle mass, weaker • Hair Loss • Women – interruption of ovulation • Men – low testosterone
  38. 38. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES • Depression • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Drug Abuse • Personality Changes
  39. 39. D.2 - DIGESTION
  40. 40. STOMACH The Basics: • J – shaped muscular organ. Thick walled • Chemical and physical digestion • Sphincter – cardiac and pyloric • Stores food • Begins protein digestion….
  41. 41. STOMACH • Stomach lining: • Contains Gastric Glands: • Has three kinds of cells: • Parietal: Secretes HCl – activates pepsinogen; kills pathogen. • Chief: Secretes Pepsinogen; activates to PEPSIN (gastric protease) begins protein digestion. pH – 2. • Neck: Releases mucous; provides protection • Stomach processes food in 2-6 hours • Semisolid food: chyme.
  42. 42. CONTROL OF GASTRIC JUICE SECRETION • Controlled by nerves and hormones: • Sight and smell of food sends nerve impulses to Parietal cells – secretes acid (REFLEX) • Na and Cl ions secreted. Water moves into stomach by osmosis. Forms Gastric Juice. • Chemoreceptors detect amino acids – move stomach wall. • Impulses are sent to brain. Brain sends impulses to endocrine glands via VAGUS NERVE to secrete Gastrin. • Gastrin stimulates further secretion of acid and pepsinogen. • Secretin and Somatostatin - inhibit gastrin secretion
  43. 43. SMALL INTESTINE
  44. 44. SMALL INTESTINE
  45. 45. SMALL INTESTINE • Small diameter….7 meters long/ 23 ft (appx) • Some physical; mostly chemical digestion. • Receives secretions from the liver and pancreas. • 3 sections: duodenum (digestion), jejunum (digestion and absorption) and ileum (for absorption) • Absorption of nutrients begins in the lining of the small intestine.
  46. 46. SMALL INTESTINE - ENZYMES • Bicarbonate – from pancreas to neutralize acid (not an enzyme) • Protein – • Trypsin - (pancreas) continues protein digestion. (pH 8) • Endopeptidase - (small intestine) completes protein digestion to amino acids (pH – 7.5) • Fat – • Bile – (liver) not an enzyme. Breaks down large fat molecules • Lipase – (pancreas) digests fats. (pH – 8) • Carbohydrates • Amylase (pancreas) continues starch digestion (maltose) (pH 7) • Maltase - (small intestine) = (maltose into glucose). (pH 7) • Sucrase – glucose and fructose (pH – 7) • Lactase – glucose and galactose (pH – 7)
  47. 47. TISSUE OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT Mucosa Epithelium Longitudinal Circular Muscle
  48. 48. MICROGRAPH OF A CROSS SECTION – SMALL INTESTINE
  49. 49. MICROGRAPHS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE- TRANSVERSE VIEW
  50. 50. SMALL INTESTINE - FOOD ABSORPTION • Absorbed food travels to the liver for assimilation. Structure Function Finger-like shape Large surface area Surface cell with – microvilli Huge increase in surface area Surface cells with – enzymes Digestion Surface cells with – large number of mitochondria Active transport Dense capillary network Blood supply to remove water soluble nutrients Lacteal Removes end products of fat digestion. Lipid soluble vitamins. Part of lymphatic system
  51. 51. VILLUS
  52. 52. METHODS OF ABSORPTION • Simple Diffusion – hydrophobic nutrients – fatty acids • Facilitated Diffusion – hydrophilic nutrients (fructose) • Active Transport – mineral ions….Na, Ca, Fe • Endocytosis – Triglycerides, cholesterols
  53. 53. ASSIMILATION • Taking molecules to cells to become part of the body: • Carbohydrates: produce ATP, DNA, RNA, Cell membrane • Fat: Adipose tissue, phospholipids, mitochondrial membranes, hormones • Amino acids: cells=proteins. Excessive amino acids are deaminated by the liver to form urea
  54. 54. DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM D.3 - THE LIVER
  55. 55. FUNCTIONS • Composed of hepatocytes (Liver cells): 1. Detox: removes toxins from blood. Converts them to less toxic/non-toxic. 2. Conversion of Cholesterol to Bile Salts: part of BILE. Bile helps to emulsify fats in small intestine. 3. Production of Plasma proteins: rER of liver cells produce 90% of plasma proteins (Albumin & Fibrinogen). Processed by Golgi in liver cells 4. Nutrient storage and regulation: • GLUCOSE STORAGE • Iron, Vitamin A, Vitamin D
  56. 56. FUNCTIONS 5. Breakdown of Erythrocytes (RBC) • Kupffer Cells – walls of sinusoids. • Specialized macrophages that absorb and breakdown RBC by phagocytosis. • Recycle the components: • Hemoglobin split • Globins hydrolyzed • Iron separates from heme – taken to bone marrow • Remainder of the heme forms BILIRUBIN – used to form bile.
  57. 57. KUPFFER CELLS
  58. 58. BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE LIVER
  59. 59. BLOOD FLOW (HEPATOCYTE) • Blood is supplied by these vessels: • HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN – blood from stomach, sm. Int. & spleen directly to liver. Not a true vein. Bring nutrients to liver. • HEPATIC VEIN – blood -- no Oxygen to heart from liver • HEPATIC ARTERY – blood supplies Oxygen from heart • HPV separates into SINUSOIDS • Capillary- like (wider), thin celled, many pores: allows blood flowing through it to come in close contact to liver cells. • HA branches to form capillaries that join sinusoids: provides Oxygen to liver cells.
  60. 60. 7. DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  61. 61. JAUNDICE • Condition in which the skin and eyes become yellow • Due to accumulation of BILIRUBIN in blood plasma • Causes: Liver (Hepatitis or Cancer), Gall Bladder (gall stones), Bile duct disease • Result: could damage the brain, in infants – cerebralpalsy
  62. 62. CHOLERA • Infection of the intestines • Source: Vibria cholerae (bacteria) • Bacteria releases a toxin that binds to receptors in the intestines. • Toxin enters cells: endocytosis • Toxin triggers release of Cl & HCO3 Water follows leading to acute diarrhea. • Fluid loss can cause death within hours if untreated.
  63. 63. STOMACH ACID SECRETION AND ULCERS Stomach Acid • secreted by parietal cells • Disrupts ability of cells to be held together in tissue • Leads to denaturing of proteins (except pepsin)
  64. 64. ACID REFLUX • occurs when cardiac sphincter malfunctions • Acid enters the esophagus • Heartburn! • Production of acid in stomach – • proton pump (H+,K+ - ATPase Pump) • Uses ATP to exchange 2H+ for 2K+ • Reduce Acid – • Use of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) • Bind to a single pump – irreversibly • Provides temporary relief • NEXIUM, PREVACID
  65. 65. ULCERS • Open sore • Partial digestion of stomach lining by pepsin/HCL • Causes: • Stress • Excessive acid production • Infection with Heliobacter pylori bacteria (80%) • Lack of treatment can lead to stomach cancer
  66. 66. D.4 – THE HEART
  67. 67. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham THE HEART
  68. 68. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham The Heart and Blood Flow in Mammals General:  Double-sided pump. Blood content:  Right: low in O2, high in CO2  Left: high in O2, low in CO2 Basic Structure:  Right and Left side separated by the SEPTUM.  Atrium – upper chambers.  Ventricles – lower chambers.  Chambers separated by valves  Flow from the heart separated by valves.
  69. 69. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  70. 70. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham The Mammalian Heart INNER BODY
  71. 71. Cardiac Muscle  Myogenic - ABILITY OF THE HEART TO CONTRACT WITHOUT BEING STIMULATED BY AN “OUTSIDE” NERVE.  Blood supplied by coronary arteries.  Involuntary  Striated 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  72. 72. Properties of Cardiac Muscle  Intercalated discs – separate cardiac muscle cells.  Allows for rapid movement of ions  Rapid conduction of nerve impulse  Branched – allow impulses to move rapidly. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  73. 73. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  74. 74. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham The Human Heart
  75. 75. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham Valves and Nodes
  76. 76. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham Valves VALVES  Atrioventricular – allows blood to flow between atria and ventricle  Semilunar – allows blood to flow from ventricles Cardiac Angiography
  77. 77. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham CARDIAC CYCLE – Control of the Heartbeat!!!
  78. 78. Nodes  Sino Atrial – (SAN) –  Wall of right atrium  Pacemaker  Initiates contractions  Atrioventricular (AVN) –  Wall of lower RA.  Receives impulse from SAN  Connecting Fibers –  Bundle of His connected to Purkinje Tissue  pass through septum to base of heart to all parts of the ventricles 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  79. 79. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham • The “pacemaker” sets the tempo of the heartbeat.
  80. 80. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham Cardiac Cycle
  81. 81. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  82. 82. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham Cardiac Cycle 1. Walls of atria contract (Systole = 0-1)  SAN fires – ventricles about 70% full  Pushes blood from atria to ventricle  AV open; Semilunar closed  Ventricles fill; volume rises 2. Walls of ventricles contract(Systole = 1-4.2)  More powerful;  Initial rise in blood pressure in ventricles: AV valves close;  Further rise in BP: SL valves open  Blood PUMPED into aorta and pulmonary artery  Volume decrease
  83. 83. Events of the Cardiac Cycle 3. Ventricles stop contracting (diastole = 4.2-9)  Pressure falls  Semilunar valves close – prevents backflow  Blood pressure in Vena cava push blood into atria  Ventricular pressure falls below atrial pressure: AV valves open 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  84. 84. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  85. 85. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham CONTROL OF HEARTRATE 1. Myogenic 1. Pacemaker – region of the heart (wall of R.A.) responsible for initiating contraction. 2. Nerves from the brainstem carry messages to pacemaker - speed up heartbeat 3. Adrenaline – carried to heart in blood --- tells pacemaker to speed up heartbeat.
  86. 86. Cardiology 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  87. 87. Basic Techniques in Cardiology 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  88. 88. Measuring Heart Rate  Typically uses:  Radial artery in wrist  Carotid artery in neck  DO NOT USE THUMB!  It has its own pulse.  Variables affecting:  Demand for oxygen  Demand for glucose  Removal of CO2  Exercise  Body Position  Temperature 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  89. 89. Electrocardiograms (ECG)  P wave – atrial systole  QRS – Ventricular Systole  T – ventricular diastole 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  90. 90. Artificial Pacemakers  Inserted to treat malfunctioning SAN OR  A block in the conduction pathway.  Can provide a regular or just when needed impusle.  Regulates heart rate and rhythm 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  91. 91. Pacemakers 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  92. 92. Defibrillators  Treats ventricular fibrillation  Application of 2 paddles in a diagonal line – with the heart in the middle  Detects fibrillation  Electrical shock to return to normal rhythm 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  93. 93. Stethoscopes and Heart Sounds  1st sound – closing of AV valve (lup)  2nd sound – closing of SL Valve (dup) 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  94. 94. Measuring Blood Pressure  Cuff placed around upper arm (Brachial Artery)  Blood is constricted  Cuff slowly deflated  Stethoscope used for sounds of blood flow  1st sound systolic  2nd diastolic 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  95. 95. Blood Pressure 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  96. 96. Hypertension and Thrombosis  Causes – not clear  Risk factors:  Obesity  Lack of exercise  Too much salt  Too much alcohol/coffee  Smoking  Genetic  Consequences:  Kidney damage  CHD  Causes:  High LDL  High SAT/TRANS FAT  Inactivity  Smoking  Hypertension  Ethnic  Genetic  Consequences:  Heart Attack  Stroke  Atherosclerosis 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  97. 97. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham
  98. 98. 4/10/2016 2:58 PM cottingham

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