ADAPTATIONS TO TRAINING
Endurance - two different concepts - muscular
e., cardiorespiratory e.
Muscular E - ability of muscle to sustain high-
intensity, repetitive or static exercise (important for
sprinters, weight lifter, boxer, wrestler) - related to
muscular strength and anaerobic development.
Cardiorespiratory E. - ability of the body to sustain
prolonged exercise. (cyclist, distance runners, swimmers)
related to development of cardiovascular and respiratory
systems, thus aerobic development.
Evaluation E. Capacity
Aerobic Power - Vo2 max
with endurance training - more oxygen
delivered - 6 months training - increase
in VO2 max of 20 percent - perform e.
activities at higher work rate, faster.
Oxygen Transport System
shared by CR systems - VO2
SV x HR x a - VO2 diff.
A - CV Adaptations To Training
1) Heart Size - heart´s weight, volume, LV wall
thickness, chamber size increase - „Athlete´s
LV internal dimension increases - increase in
ventricular filling (rise in plasma
volume), LV wall
thickness, increase (hypertrophy) - increase in
strength potential of its contractions.
2) Stroke Volume - higher after endurance tr. at
stronger heart, availability of greater blood
3) Heart Rate (HR) - decrease of HR after endurance
tr. (elite athletes 30 - 40 beats (min.) - increase
in parasympathetic tone. At submaximal exercise
tr. - decrease of HR by about 20 - 40 beats/min.
after 6 months. Maximal HR - unchanged
or slightly decreased (allowing for optimum SV
to maximize CO). HR recovery time - decrease -
well suited to tracking an indvidual´s progress
4) Cardiac Output (CO) - at rest, during submaximal
levels of ex. - unchanged , at maximal levels -
considerable increase (mainly by of SV). CO
in untrained 14 - 16 l/min., 40 l intrained athletes.
5) Blood Flow (BF)
enhanced muscle blood supply following
a) increased capillarization of trained muscles
- new capillaries develop - capillary to fiber
b) greater opening of existing capillaries
c) more effective blood redistribution (shunting
away from areas that don´t need high flow)
6) Blood Pressure (BP) - resting blood pressure
reduced, no changes during submaximal
or maximal work rates.
7) Blood Volume (BV) - E. tr. - BV, mainly
by increase in blood plasma volume
( ADH, aldosterone, amount of plasma
proteins). Red blood cells count
increases, (pseudoanemia). Blood
viscosity - improvement
Plasma volume - high correlation with
VO2 max increase in plasma volume
- most significant training effect
B - Respiratory
Adaptations To Training
Lung Volumes - no change in
VC, RV, TLC, slight increase in TV
Respiratory Rate increase in maximal exercise
levels of pulmonary ventilation - slightly
reduced at rest, maximal pulmonary
ventilation substantially increased. Untrained -
120 l/min, trained - 240 l/min.
Pulmonary Diffusion - no change at
rest, increase in maximal exercise
A-v O2 diff. - increase after training (↓mixed
venous O2 content)
Lactate Threshold - E. tr. - lactate thr.
n - higher rate of work at higher rate of O2
consumption without raising blood lactate.
Maximal blood lactate levels increase slightly.
Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) - at rest -
RER (greater utilization of FFA), at maximal
levels of work - RER in trained individuals.
(sustained hyperventilation excessive CO2
Maximal O2 Consumption - substantial
increase following training - individual
limitation, major limiting factor
- oxygen delivery to the active muscles
(lack of oxidative enzymes in
mitochondria, central and peripheral
circulatory factor limit endurance capacity)
Long-term Improvement in Endurance
Highest attainable VO2 max usually
reached within 18 months of intense e.
conditioning, further improvement with
continued tr. for many additional years
- body´s ability perform at increasing
percentage of VO2 max for extended
periods - result of increase in lactate
Factors Affecting the Response to Aerobic
Heredity Genetic factors establish
boundaries for an individual endurance
training can push Vo2 max to the upper
limits of these boundaries.
Age related decrease - decrease in activity
Decline in VO2 max
- attenuated by continuing training
Highly conditioned female e. athletes
- 10 percent lower VO2 max values
Responders x Nonresponders
Large improvements - responders, little
or no improvement (nonresponders)
to the same training programs - genetic
Specificity of Training
Selection of appropriate training program
- closely matched with athlete´s
individual needs to maximize the
physiological adaptations to training
Training for more than one sport at the
same time or tr. for several fitness
components (endurance strength) at one
Cardiorespiratory Endurance and Performance
E. - the most important component of physical
E. - athlete´s major defense against fatigue -
major deterrent to optimal performance –
(muscle strength decreased, reaction and
movement times prolonged, neuromuscular
coordination reduced, concentration and
Extent of endurance training needed
varies, dependence on E. demands of chosen
activity (marathon runner x baseball, golf
All Athletes Can Benefit from Maximizing Their