Core 2 Factors affecting performance Aerobic training


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Term 1 How does the body respond to aerobic training?
The basis of aerobic training
Immediate physiological responses to training
Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training

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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Aerobic training

  1. 1. Factors Affecting Performance How does the body respond to Aerobic Training
  2. 2. How does the body respond to Aerobic Training <ul><li>The basis of aerobic training </li></ul><ul><li>-Aerobic training requires activity that will last long enough to use oxygen (Aerobic system) for energy most of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>-Aerobic training requires long duration and moderate intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>-The basic aim of Aerobic training is to improve the cardio respiratory system when under the pressure of (overload) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>Pre screening </li></ul><ul><li>When the body is involved in cardio vascular exercise the heart lungs and blood vessels must work harder to supply the body’s working muscles with oxygen and nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>As intensity increases the respiratory system and the cardio vascular system is put under stress. </li></ul><ul><li>For unfit people or for those who have not exercised this way before may not be ready to deal with this stress. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>In some cases this lack of conditioning may result in death or serious injury. </li></ul><ul><li>However even when someone who has not trained before, trains slowly and progresses their training with gradual increases their cardio vascular system is improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: Before someone is involved in Aerobic training they should be pre-screened. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>In pre-screening the following criteria must be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>-Age </li></ul><ul><li>-Gender </li></ul><ul><li>-Health Status </li></ul><ul><li>-Previous experience </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore someone who is 40 and has run 3 times a week is at less of a risk of injury than someone who has done no exercise and is obese. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>Pre-screening is super important for the following groups: </li></ul><ul><li>-males more than 45 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>-females more than 55 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>-asthmatics </li></ul><ul><li>-smokers, obese and high blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>-people with family history of heart conditions </li></ul>
  7. 7. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>Anyone who has the above mentioned conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to obtain medical advice first before starting aerobic exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Does this mean that people who are at risk can not exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>NO – Instead they are given a tailored program and that program may need to be completed under medical supervision. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>A planned exercise program is called = exercise prescription. It gives goals to the person. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise Prescription: </li></ul><ul><li>-How often we should work (frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>-How hard we should work (intensity) </li></ul><ul><li>-For how long we should work (time/duration) </li></ul><ul><li>-The kind of work we can do (type) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>Application of the FITT principle </li></ul><ul><li>The FITT principle =Frequency, intensity, time and type. </li></ul><ul><li>When a training program has the FITT principle then the program has the potential for success as it tailors exercise for results. </li></ul><ul><li>By varying any of the four parts of the FITT principle, it can be tailored to any age or sex. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The basis of aerobic training <ul><li>FITT PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: </li></ul>Frequency = how often we train – how many times per week -For general improvements in Aerobic fitness = 3-4 x per week -Endurance athletes = 6 times per week -People trying to loose weight = Aerobic exercise every day -The frequency depends on how hard the session was and how long it takes to recover. -When the athlete works on speed during the Aerobic work out recovery can be longer -ANY LESS THAN 3 SESSIONS PER WEEK = 0 RESULTS
  11. 11. The basis of aerobic training
  12. 12. Application of the FITT principle <ul><li>Intensity: </li></ul>Intensity = How hard the activity is – HR measurement, Lactic Acid build up and oxygen uptake. -Usually intensity is measured in a % of Max HR -What’s the aerobic threshold = 70% -At the aerobic threshold = 120 no real discomfort -If the person is unable to talk during an activity then they are going to hard -Training below the threshold will result in no real fitness gains. -People beginning a training program should aim about 60 % of MHR -Gradual increases in intensity are important to reduce risk of injury.
  13. 13. Application of the FITT principle <ul><li>Time: </li></ul>Time = Duration of activity/ how long -Activity must last longer than 20 mins and reach 70% of MHR -Best results will be achieved when training is extended to 30 – 60 mins -Really unfit people may start with gains with less than 20 mins But this will not last long.
  14. 14. Application of the FITT principle <ul><li>Type: </li></ul>Type = The type of exercise that you choose to do -Activity must be of moderate intensity and it must be sustained for best results (continuous training) -training should focus on large muscle groups -Jogging, cycling, swimming, rowing shadow boxing and fast paced walking
  15. 15. Questions for the weekend! <ul><li>Outline the types of training that could be implemented if somebody wanted to improve their aerobic system? </li></ul>General outline on what the aerobic system is and what the types of training are for that system Continuous training Fartlek training Interval training Circuit training Aerobics Add an example for each on why it works for aerobic fitness!
  16. 16. Question 2 <ul><li>Using a diagram and written analyses. Explain how knowing and understanding the different types of thresholds would help a person get the most out of their training! </li></ul>General outline on Principles of training and their importance Training thresholds Explain the importance Diagram of thresholds at work Examples Of thresholds in training
  17. 17. How does the body respond to aerobic training <ul><li>Immediate physiological response to training: </li></ul><ul><li>The above heading refers to: The changes that occur to the bodies specific body organs and tissues during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes such as increase in Heart Rate- Meaning that an increase in Aerobic exercise could relate to an increase by 20% in blood flow to the working muscles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Immediate physiological response to training: <ul><li>Heart Rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Our resting heart rate is obviously when we are at rest. </li></ul><ul><li>The average RHR = between 75-80, but extreme athletes have experienced RHR at 26-28bmp. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the RHR = the better functioning Cardio Vascular System. </li></ul><ul><li>Our HR increases linearly with the intensity of exercise. This = Working HR </li></ul><ul><li>MH occurs during absolute maximal exercise. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Immediate physiological response to training: <ul><li>Heart Rate: </li></ul><ul><li>As we move from a resting state to a working state, Increases in HR are observed. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Heart Rate: </li></ul><ul><li>In fit people the HR will plateau after a certain amount of time. This is termed = (Steady State) </li></ul><ul><li>In unfit people HR will continue to rise until fatigue sets in. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as exercise stops = The HR will drop dramatically. Then slowly return to normal. </li></ul><ul><li>As above in fit people HR return will be quick. </li></ul><ul><li>For unfit = slow (even in some people, hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore HR IS AWSOME in measuring someone’s Cardio vascular fitness. </li></ul>Immediate physiological response to training
  21. 21. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Heart Rate: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Stroke Volume: </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke Volume is the amount of blood pushed out by the left ventricle during the hearts contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke Volume is determined by: </li></ul><ul><li>-The ability to fill the ventricle with blood </li></ul><ul><li>-The ability to empty the ventricles by contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke Volume increases with exercise rapidly from rest to moderate exercise. However the increases from there are slow. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Stroke Volume: </li></ul><ul><li>In unfit people Stroke volume may reach 70 - 80 ml/beat but in fit people it may reach 160ml/beat. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the larger the stroke volume the larger amount of oxygen delivered to working muscles = better performance. </li></ul><ul><li>So why does SV increase. It is an increase in return blood flow to the heart therefore increasing the blood volume in the ventricle. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Cardiac Output: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Output = the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output is the result of HR AND SV. </li></ul><ul><li>You can calculate it as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>- CO = HR X SV </li></ul><ul><li>(CO = 60HR X 100SV = 6000 or 6 litres per minute.) </li></ul><ul><li>As exercise increases then the demand for blood by the muscles increases meaning a larger amount of blood = larger CO </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles can demand about 84% of blood flow during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>In unfit people and fit people CO will be roughly about 5 litres ( the same) </li></ul><ul><li>However during exercise = untrained = 25-30 litres </li></ul><ul><li>= trained = 35 -40 litres </li></ul>
  25. 25. Immediate physiological response to training
  26. 26. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Lactate Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Lactate is a salt that is formed during anaerobic activity as a by product of lactic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>There is always a small amount of lactate in the body and it constantly gets resynthesised by the ?????? </li></ul><ul><li>As exercise increases every lactate molecule that is formed a hydrogen ion is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is this hydrogen molecule that forms lactic acid and clogs the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen ions increase the acidity of blood (ph level) </li></ul><ul><li>A neutral ph = 7.0 in blood and at rest = 7.4 </li></ul><ul><li>The acidity of muscles increase rapidly if exercise is beyond the LIP (lactate inflection point) </li></ul><ul><li>The lactate molecule does not cause fatigue unless you have reached the LIP! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>A DIAGRAM TO EXPLAIN: </li></ul>LACTATE = sugar burned off = salt Hydrogen ions = formed for every lactate molecule increased Causes acidity in blood LIP is reached = fatigue by increase in lactate levels plus increase in acidity = poor muscle function. PH = amount of Hydrogen ions in blood = low ph means lactic acid build up
  28. 28. Immediate physiological response to training <ul><li>Ventilation Rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the depth and rate of breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation is increased when exercise is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation includes Inspiration and Expiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation is measured in minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>During a minute = on average – 12 breaths </li></ul><ul><li>Even before exercise begins the rate of breathing increases due to nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>As exercise increases so does Ventilation Rate. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of exercise breathing is rapid for a while then it slows down. </li></ul><ul><li>This will depend on what do you think??????? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Immediate physiological response to training
  30. 30. How does the body respond to aerobic training <ul><li>Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: </li></ul><ul><li>In response to aerobic activity the body makes adaptations to the levels of stress that is feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually takes about 12 weeks to achieve the full effects of these adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic training will cause adaptations (changes) to the following headings! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Resting HR </li></ul>Resting HR = Lowers as a person becomes fitter -This is due to an increase in stroke volume -Over 10 weeks a resting heart rate may drop more than 10 beats per minute -Recovery back to resting HR will be quicker for a trained athlete
  32. 32. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Stroke Volume: </li></ul>Stroke Volume = will increase over time if an aerobic activity training program is undertaken. -This is because training causes the left ventricle to fill better in the diastole (relaxation period) than the untrained heart. -There is also an increased amount of blood plasma in exercise = This intern increases blood volume = which intern causes the walls of the ventricle to expand and become more flexible. (why is this good???) -This makes contractions more powerful and therefore supplies more blood to the working muscles
  33. 33. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Cardiac Output: </li></ul>Cardiac Output = With training stroke volume is increased therefore making cardiac output larger (more cycles of blood per minute) -This will also increase the point of MHR not the number but where the anaerobic threshold sits
  34. 34. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Oxygen uptake: </li></ul>The biggest gains in aerobic training = oxygen uptake -this can be termed VO2 or aerobic power -VO2 max refers to the max amount of oxygen that can be used by mitochondria under exercise. -You can test it on the 12 minute run or in the lab on a treadmill -A high VO2 max means an extreme athlete in regards to endurance -The results will be worked out on ml/kg and min -The average for 17yr old boys = 45ml/kg/min Girls are slightly lower why??? -VO2 DECREASES BY 1% EVERY YEAR AFTER 25YRS OLD The highest recorded 94ml/kg/min for a world class athlete male With Aerobic training VO2 MAX will increase over 12 weeks
  35. 35. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Lung Capacity: </li></ul>Lung Capacity = The amount of air that the lungs can hold -The whole blood circulatory system will fail if there is not enough oxygen being delivered eq lung capacity. -Vital Capacity =amount of air that is expelled after maximal inspiration. Will increase slightly. Tidal volume may change slightly in maximal exercise but not at rest or moderate exercise.
  36. 36. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Haemoglobin Level: </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin Level = It is a substance that binds to </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen and transports it around the body. </li></ul><ul><li>-Haemoglobin is carried in the red blood cells and there are </li></ul><ul><li>around 250 million ready to carry oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Without Haemoglobin we would have to carry about </li></ul><ul><li>80 litres of blood instead of 5 litres </li></ul><ul><li>-Haemoglobin INCREASES with exercise </li></ul><ul><li>We can do this by training at high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>General AEROBIC TRAINING WILL </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE HAEMOGLOBIN BY 20% </li></ul><ul><li>This is due to the increase in blood plasma and red </li></ul><ul><li>blood cell count </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes will have thinner blood because of the plasma </li></ul>
  37. 37. Physiological adaptations in response to aerobic training: <ul><li>Blood Pressure: </li></ul>Blood Pressure = the pressure that blood exerts against the inner wall of the blood vessels -Blood pressure responds positively to training Systolic = Force (rises) Diastolic = relaxation (unaffected by exercise) Overall over 12 weeks blood pressure will drop.
  38. 38. Factors Affecting Perfromance <ul><li>How can psychology affect performance? </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>motivation </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>managing anxiety </li></ul>
  42. 42. Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How can nutrition affect performance? </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>balanced diet </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>supplementation </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>guidelines for fluid replacement. </li></ul>