Political System, Final Version


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Political System, Final Version

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Politics and Government in Global Perspective
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • Politics Power and Authority • Political Systems in Global Perspective • Perspectives on Power and Political Systems • The U.S. Political System
  3. 3. Chapter Outline • Government Bureaucracy • The Military and Militarism • Terrorism and War • Politics and Government in the Future
  4. 4. Sharpening Your Focus • What are the major political systems around the world? • How does the center of power differ in the pluralist and the elite models of the U.S. power structure? • How is government shaped by political parties and political attitudes?
  5. 5. Political Sociology • Examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies, as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power.
  6. 6. Politics, Power and Authority • Politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised. • Government has the legal and political authority to regulate relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders. • The state possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals.
  7. 7. Sharpening Your Focus • Why are government bureaucracies so powerful? • What is the place of democracy in the future?
  8. 8. Political Systems in Global Perspective • Political institutions emerged when agrarian societies acquired surpluses and developed social inequality. • When cities developed, the city-state became the center of political power. • Nation-states emerged as countries acquired the ability to defend their borders.
  9. 9. Nation-states • Approximately 190 nation-states currently exist throughout the world. • Today, everyone is born, lives, and dies under the auspices of a nation-state • Four types of political systems are found in nation-states: monarchy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and democracy.
  10. 10. Types of Political Systems • A monarchy is a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance. • Authoritarianism - A political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government.
  11. 11. Types of Political Systems • Totalitarianism - A political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people's lives. • Democracy - A political system in which the people hold the ruling power directly or through elected representatives.
  12. 12. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE POLITICAL INSTITUTION Tischler, 1993 Kendall, 2008 • social control • maintain law & order • establish societal • plan & direct society goals • meet social needs • Promote economic • handle international stability relations • provide protection th Tischler, 1993.(4 Edition) Introduction to Sociology. The Harcourt Press. ISBN 0-03-076681-8
  13. 13. Recently, some analysts have suggested that the U.S political system is evolving into a democratic socialistic form of government. Along these same lines, the United States is seen to be assuming…” many of the characteristics of a welfare state (a state that uses extensive government action to provide support and services to its citizens” (Kendall, pg. 430). A consequence of this is that our country’s constitutional fabric pertaining to our inalienable rights, (i.e., referenced in the Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution) is being unwoven. In other words, many of our constitutional rights and freedoms are being sacrificed along the way; related to how we become a member of and function within each of the five primary social institutions (i.e., marriage and family, economic institution, political system, education and religious institution).
  14. 14. Identify and discuss 2 constitutional related principles, rights and/or freedoms related to each of the 5 social institutions that either are being undermined, are in the process of being relinquished and/or have been virtually discarded for the sake of promoting a stronger U.S. political system; a government that is being called upon to offer ever-increasingly expansive services and financial support for its growingly “needy” constituency.
  15. 15. A Balance of Rights Classical republicanism refers to the idea that individuals should put the needs of the community before self- interest. In natural rights philosophy (modern liberalism), the purpose of government is to protect individual rights. The ideal government achieves and maintains a balance between the two ideas. The key word here is balance, there was no either/or intended when the framers wrote the United States Constitution. It was suggested by one of the speakers that we need to cultivate the capacity to hold contradictory ideas simultaneously and that we cannot become terrorized by dichotomies basicsproject.org/constitutional_literacy/government/government.htm
  16. 16. http://www.whitehouse.gov/our_government/the_constitution/ “James Madison introduced 12 amendments to the First Congress in 1789. Ten of these would go on to become what we now consider to be the Bill of Rights. One was never passed, while another dealing with Congressional salaries was not ratified until 1992, when it became the 27th Amendment. Based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the English Bill of Rights, the writings of the Enlightenment, and the rights defined in the Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights contains rights that many today consider to be fundamental to America.”
  17. 17. How Much Do You Know About the Media? True or False? • Most journalists identify themselves as Republicans.
  18. 18. False • Forty-four percent of journalists identify themselves as Democrats, 16.3 percent as Republicans, and 34 percent as independents.
  19. 19. Summary: Far from protecting man's rights, the . nation's highest Court has been instrumental in multiple violations of rights over the last two centuries. As long as the Supreme Court persists in practicing the contradiction between inalienable rights and the altruist-collectivist ethics, it is man's rights that will lose out. Article address: http://www.CapMag.com/article.asp?ID=160
  20. 20. The Supreme Court's violation of rights can be traced all . the way back to the eighteenth century. In one of its very first decisions, Calder v. Bull (1798), the court ruled that "the right of property is conferred by society," "private rights must yield to public exigencies," and "if the owners should refuse voluntarily to accommodate the public, they must be constrained, as far as the public necessities require." The altruist-collectivist ethics is clearly manifested in Calder v. Bull, which does not view property rights as inalienable, but as concessions from society, a profoundly collectivist notion.
  21. 21. Two chilling rulings during that period demonstrated that even . the most explicit constitutional guarantees had become dead letters in the eyes of the Court. The first one upheld the military draft in the Selective Draft Law Cases of 1918. In response to the claim that such power violated the Thirteenth Amendment's prohibition of involuntary servitude, the Supreme Court ruled that the exaction by the government from the citizen of the performance of his "supreme and noble duty" of defending the country in a war declared by "the great representative body of the people" did not constitute servitude. This language clearly reflects the Court's sentiment that altruist-collectivist ethics override individual rights, which makes it proper for the government to compel individuals to sacrifice their liberty and their life if this is required to fulfill their duty to the collective
  22. 22. . When the case reached the Supreme Court (1919), its unanimous ruling was that in time of war "many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight." Thus the protection of free speech fell victim to the altruist-collectivist ethics, with the alleged guardians of the Constitution ruling that the freedom of speech ought to be brushed aside in the presence on an overriding social goal
  23. 23. Principle of Representative Government in the U.S. ?
  24. 24. Pluralist Model • Decisions are made on behalf of the people by leaders. • Competition among leadership groups makes abuse of power difficult. • Power is dispersed, and people influence policy by voting. • Public policy reflects a balance among interest groups.
  25. 25. Purpose of a Political Party • Develop and articulate policy positions. • Educate voters about issues and simplify the choices for them. • Recruit candidates, help them win office and hold them responsible for implementing the party’s positions.
  26. 26. Running for Office • Running for political office takes large sums of money. • Arnold Schwarzenegger, shown with his wife, Maria Shriver, contributed large sums to his campaign for governor of California and received large contributions because of his name recognition.
  27. 27. Special Interest Groups • Advocates may run for public office and gain a wider voice in the political process. • Former U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell of Colorado, a Cheyenne chief, is shown after participating in a ceremony for the National Museum of the American Indian.
  28. 28. Special Interest Groups • Special interest groups are political coalitions made up of individuals or groups that share a specific interest they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system.
  29. 29. Costs of Campaigning • The cost of mounting a campaign for president of the United States has grown dramatically with each passing decade. • Prior to celebrating President Bush’s second- term victory at the 2005 inaugural gala, his campaign raised more than $367 million.
  30. 30. Campaign Funding by Party
  31. 31. Attorney Vital Statistics There are over ONE MILLION lawyers in the United States today. About forty thousand new lawyers graduate and begin to practice law every year. Ten percent of all lawyers practice for the legal system of "Here are some vital statistics about attorneys and in the United States." some level government Annually, Americans spend more than 150 billion dollars on legal fees. 40% of all lawyers actually do not practice law. Some of these are law-related (teaching law, serving as judges or arbitrators.) Others leave the law profession and engage in activities that have little to do with the legal system. http://www.usattorneylegalservices.com/attorney-vital-statistics.html
  32. 32. The U.S. Congress has long been dominated by lawyer-politicians. "From 1780 to 1930, two thirds of the senators and about half of the House of Representatives were lawyers; the percentage seems to have stayed fairly stable" (Friedman 1985: 647). . . . at the beginning of the 101st Congress in 1989, 184 members (42%) of the U.S. House of Representatives were lawyers (47% of the Democrats and 35 % of the Republicans). Sixty-three senators were lawyers, roughly equally distributed between the two parties (Ornstein, Mann, and Malbin 1990: 20-21, 26-27). At the beginning of the 102nd Congress in January, 1991, 244 of the 535 members of both houses (46%) claimed attorney as their profession (Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 1/12/91: 118). http://polisci.wisc.edu/~kritzer/teaching/ls415/Miller 1993CP.htm
  33. 33. The biggest problem with the large number of lawyers in elective office today is that, disregarding everything else, they increasingly control all branches of our government: The Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary. This in contravention of what the founders of our nation were trying to avoid when they divided our government into three branches so as to provide “checks and balances” and a “separation of powers”. Though James Madison author of the U. S. Constitution realized that this checking of each branch on the other made for a far less efficient government, he realized, as he wrote in Federalist 47, that the sacrifice was worth it to prevent tyranny by a government “in the same hands”:
  34. 34. Today 46% of our government branches are in the same hands of lawyers. Who, although as lawyers constitute a very sizeable number, still make up only ½% of our population. Lawyers make up 38% of our Legislative branch, 100% of our Judicial branch and 100% of our Executive Branch Irrespective of one's political party this is untenable if one wishes to prevent government "in the same hands". The same hands of
  35. 35. Multiple professional and business benefits accrue to the lawyer who is elected to an office: He obtains in effect free advertising for his practice by using campaign funds to tout himself and at the same time by default—his practice. He makes contacts with various special interests to whom the cost of his services as an occasional lawyer is peanuts compared to the benefits that those special interests can receive if he is in the legislature. When he passes legislative bills which become our laws he can make them to such a degree of complexity that he is the only one who really understands the bills and therefore he would need to be hired to administer them. And in a more general way the fact that he is a lawyer will cause all laws to be written to a greater degree of complexity than necessary and as a result more lawyers will need to be hired to implement them. And in Texas a lawyer as a member of the legislature is allowed to suspend the progress of any case while the legislature is in session . If a client wishes to delay a case in this way he must hire a lawyer in the legislature. Thus increasing the member’s value in the market.
  36. 36. .. .too many lawyers cause the law not to be made in a commonsense way but in a legalistic way. Process is worshiped over result because the lawyers get paid more for the process than the result. What could be more enjoyable to a lawyer than arguing the law after making the law which to be argued— as a legislator. Because lawyers control all legal rulemaking an increase in the number of lawyers does not cause a reduction in their individual activity. It simply increases their percentage take of the American economy.
  37. 37. Conflict Perspectives: Elite Models • Power in political systems is in the hands of a small group of elites and the masses are relatively powerless. • Decisions are made by the elites, who agree on the basic values and goals of society. • The needs and concerns of the masses are not given full consideration by the elite.
  38. 38. Elitist Model • Decisions are made by a small group of elite people. • Consensus exists on the basic values and goals of society. • Power is concentrated at the top of a pyramid shaped social hierarchy. • Public policy reflects the values of the elite.
  39. 39. Unhealthy Lawsuits By INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY | Posted Thursday, December 18, 2008 4:20 PM PT
  40. 40. Suit-happy attorneys have also helped weaken patient safety. To shield themselves, doctors often order unnecessary imaging tests that increase radiation exposure and can cause severe allergic reactions to contrast dye, and perform or arrange surgeries, such as Caesarean sections, when textbook care indicates they're not needed. Some doctors, particularly specialists, have done just the opposite, by closing their practices or refusing to see high- risk patients. An annual physician study found that over the last five years, an average of 44% to 48% of Massachusetts doctors reported they're changing or limiting their practice due to fear of lawsuits. The Massachusetts Medical Society surveyed 900 doctors in eight specialties — including family, emergency and internal medicine — and found the cost of practicing defensive medicine was $1.4 billion a year in that state
  41. 41. Legal Reform: A physicians' group has found that the practice of defensive medicine wastes Read more than a billion dollars a year in Massachusetts alone. Trial lawyers should be ashamed of what they've done to health care. Nine of 10 doctors practice defensive medicine — ordering unneeded laboratory and diagnostic tests, referring patients to consultations they don't need, performing procedures that aren't called for, sending patients to hospitals without cause — to avoid being sued, not to benefit their clientele. Doctors are a favorite prey of trial lawyers, whose litigation against the profession has forced malpractice insurance to unaffordable heights in some cases, driven doctors out of their chosen vocation and sent medical care costs far higher than they should be. The trial bar has also effectively made it harder for seriously ill patients to be properly diagnosed and treated as doctors clog facilities with patients who are in need of neither. alone
  42. 42. But in reality, the amount is higher, because some measures of defensive medicine were not included in the survey, the medical group says, "and the fact that less than half of the state's doctors were represented in the survey." The actual cost of defensive medicine, the group said, is "significantly higher" than its own estimate. Nationally, the cost is roughly $210 billion a year (likely due to costs being higher in some states because it is easier to sue in those states). That's close to 10% of total yearly health care spending in this country, a percentage that can't be easily dismissed as insignificant or a rounding error. We're confident there's no family or employer out there that wouldn't be happy to cut health care expenses by 10%. None of this is to say that physicians are perfect or that medical errors don't happen. Sometimes doctors miss the mark. But real negligence is rare. Physicians are human, practicing an imperfect profession that hasn't caught up to every malady and condition. Trial lawyers sometimes fail, as well. Their record, however, is worse than doctors', particularly in malpractice litigation.
  43. 43. The New England Journal of Medicine found in nearly 40% of all medical malpractice cases, no medical error was committed. In other words, in four in 10 cases, there was nothing to sue for. Similarly, some studies have found that as many as 80% of all medical litigation verdicts are wrong, unjustified by science. So that doctors can practice the healing arts without resorting to defensive medicine and setting in motion its ill effects, our civil justice system needs to be reformed in a way that discourages both abusive malpractice suits and absurdly high jury awards. One solution would be to cap damages. Another would be to set up special medical courts, where health care experts, not a jury of truck drivers, accountants, teachers and salesmen settle injury disputes based on actual medical science. Make no mistake: Sometimes patients need lawyers. Sometimes doctors need them. But what we all need is a system that protects both from the voracious appetites of a few attorneys who know no bounds in their quest for riches, and make us all poorer and less healthy as a result.
  44. 44. The Sixth Amendment assures the right to a speedy trial by a jury of one's peers, to be informed of the crimes with which they are charged, and to confront the witnesses brought by the government. The amendment also provides the accused the right to compel testimony from witnesses, and to legal representation. The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments.
  45. 45. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
  46. 46. Voter Apathy • 10% of the voting-age population participates at a level higher than voting. • Over the past 40 years, less than half the voting-age population has voted in nonpresidential elections. • In many other Western nations, the average turnout is 80 to 90% of all eligible voters.
  47. 47. Why Voters Don’t Vote Conservative argument: • People are satisfied with the status quo, are uninformed and lack an understanding of government processes. Liberal argument: • People feel alienated from politics due to corruption and influence peddling by special interests and large corporations.
  48. 48. The Federal Bureaucracy • Massive government buildings filled with “faceless bureaucrats” is a negative image people have of the U.S. government.
  49. 49. Power and Authority • Power is the ability of persons or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others. • Authority is power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.
  50. 50. The Iron Triangle of Power
  51. 51. The Military And Militarism • U.S. government expenditures for weapons and fighter jets such as the one shown here have contributed to the expansion of the military— industrial complex
  52. 52. Explanations for Militarism 1. The economy. 2. The role of the nation and its inclination toward coercion in response to perceived threats. 3. Patriarchy and the relationship between militarism and masculinity.