Key Terms•Government: procedures and institutions by whichpeople govern and rule themselves.• Why Is Government Necessary? Order Authority Liberty Legitimacy•Politics: the process by which people decide who shall govern and what policies shall be adopted.•Politicians: people who fulfill the tasks of operating government.“Politicians are like diapers. They both need changing regularlyand for the same reason.” - Anonymous
Key Terms Forms of Government • Totalitarian • Theocracy • Authoritarianism • Oligarchy • Aristocracy • Monarchy • Democracy • AnarchyDerived from the Greek words demos(“the people”) and kratos (“authority”).
Key Terms •Political Science: the study of the principles, procedures, and structures of government; and the analysis of political ideas, institutions, behaviors, and practices.•Democracy: a political form ofgovernment carried out eitherdirectly by the people or bymeans of elected representativesof the people, with free andfrequent elections.“Democracy is not so much a form ofgovernment as a set of principles.” Thomas Jefferson, one of our best-known champions of - Woodrow T. constitutional democracyWilson
Whose Words are These? “Political competition is the heartbeat of democracy…” “Today, the quality of our state does not match civil society’s readiness to participate in it.” “The problem…comes from the lack of transparency and accountability of government...”
Defining Democracy Democracy Direct DemocracyGovernment by the people, Government in which citizenseither directly or indirectly, vote on laws and select with free and frequent officials more directly electionsRepresentative Democracy Constitutional DemocracyGovernment that derives its Government that enforces powers indirectly from the recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of thepeople, who elect those who people to be heard through free, will govern fair, and relatively frequent elections
Direct Democracy• Political decisions are • Initiative made by the people • Referendum directly, rather than by their elected • Recall representatives• Attained most easily in small political communities. (AP Photo/Nam Y. Huh)
American Government and Politicians in Context•Government by the people requires faithconcerning common human enterprise.•Constitutional democracy requires constantattention to protecting the rights and opinionsof others.•Constitutional democracy is necessarilygovernment by representative politicians.Is Direct Democracy Dangerous?
A Democratic RepublicDemocratic republic and representativedemocracy really mean the same thing -government based on electedrepresentatives - except for the historicalquirk that a republic cannot have avestigial king. (National Portrait Gallery) • Principles of Democratic Government – Universal suffrage – Majority rule • Constitutional Democracy – Limited government
Defining Democracy• Conditions Conducive To Constitutional Democracy •Educational conditions - Democracy puts a premium on education •Economic conditions - Extremes of poverty and wealth undermine the possibilities for a healthy constitutional democracy •Social conditions - Overlapping associations and groupings, so that allegiance to one group is not overpowering •Ideological conditions - Acceptance of the ideals of democracy and a willingness from the majority to proceed democratically
Defining Democracy• Democracy As A System Of Interacting Values • Personal liberty Democracy • Respect for the individual • Equality of Demos Kratos (The People) (authority) opportunity • Popular consent Government byThese basic values of democracy do the People not always coexist happily.
Defining Democracy•Democracy As A System of InterrelatedPolitical Processes •Fair and free elections •Majority rule •Freedom of expression •The right to assemble and protest“Democracy encourages the majority to decide things aboutwhich the majority is blissfully ignorant.” - John Simon
Defining Democracy•Democracy As A System OfInterdependent Political Structures •Federalism •Separation of powers •Bicameralism •Checks and Balances •Bill of Rights
The Constitutional Roots of the American Experiment•The Colonial Beginnings•Mayflower Compact - Legalized the Pilgrim’s position asa body politic•Colonial assemblies - Every colony in the New World hadan assembly•The Rise of Revolutionary Fervor•The Declaration of Independence - We hold these truths to beself-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed bytheir Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Chronology of EventsAmerican Revolution begins on 04/18 /1775Second Continental Congress convenes on 05/10/1775Ben Franklin presents a plan for confederation on 07/21/1775Richard Henry Lee introduces independence resolution on 06/07/1776Declaration of Independence adopted on 07/04/ 1776 – “That to securethese rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving theirjust powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Formof Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of thePeople to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, layingits foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in suchform, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety andHappiness.”Third Continental Congress convenes on 12/20/1776Articles of Confederation proposed on 11/15 /1777Articles of Confederation ratified on 03/01/1781English declare hostilities at an end on 02/04/1783America declares hostilities at an end on 04/11/1783Revolutionary War Ends (Treaty of Paris) on 01/14/1784Constitutional Convention opens on 05/25/1787Final draft of the Constitution sent to Congress on 09/17/1787
The Colonial BackgroundSeparatists were dissatisfiedwith the Church of Englandand sought a place where theycould practice their religiousbeliefs.The compact they formed setforth the idea of consent of (The Granger Collection)the governed.
British Restrictions & Colonial Grievances In 1763, the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the colonies as a unit. The major reason for these laws was to raise revenue to help pay off the war debt incurred during the French and Indian Wars (1756–1763). First Continental Congress The focus was to restore the political structure that was in existence before the passage of legislation affecting the internal operations of each colony by Parliament. Had the Crown and Parliament relented on many of their demands it is possible the Declaration of Independence would never have been issued.
Second Continental CongressEstablished an armyMade Washington thegeneral in chief andpursued theRevolutionary War Painting by John Trumbull, 1819, Library of Congress
The Political Theory and Practices of the Revolutionary Era• Conflicts over the meaning of democracy and liberty in the new nation – Initially, the Revolution was fought to preserve an existing way of life. – Traditional rights of life, liberty, and property seemed to be threatened by British policies on trade and taxation. – The Revolution was inspired by a concern for liberty together with the development of sentiments for popular sovereignty and political equality.
Prelude to the Declaration of Independence• Delegates to the Second Continental Congress did not originally have independence in mind.• By the spring of 1776, delegates concluded that separation and independence were inescapable.• A special committee was appointed to draft a declaration of independence.• The Declaration of Independence was unanimously adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776.
The Rise of RepublicanismRepublicanism vs. The Republican PartyWhile republicans were opposed to rule by theBritish, they were also opposed to rule by anycentral authority. They were even skeptical ofa permanent union of the states.Each state was seen as the sovereign authorityand the only legitimate ruling force.
Key ideas in the Declaration of Independence• Human beings possess rights that cannot be legitimately given away or taken from them.• People create government to protect these rights.• If government fails to protect people’s rights or itself becomes a threat to them, people can withdraw their consent from that government and create a new one
Omissions in the Declaration of Independence• Did not deal with the issue of what to do about slavery• Did not say anything about the political status of women, Native Americans, or African Americans who were not slaves
The Articles of Confederation:Our First Form of GovernmentStates retained most ofthe powerCitizens loyal to theirstateThe ConfederalGovernmentStructure Under theArticles ofConfederation Library of Congress
The Articles of Confederation: The First Constitution• Provisions of the Articles – A loose confederation of independent states – Weak central government• Shortcomings of the Articles – Indebtedness and inability to finance its activities – Inability to defend American interests in foreign affairs – Commercial warfare among the states
Accomplishments Under the ArticlesArticles established to: Organize the states so they could defeat the British forces Gain independence from Britain Weaknesses of the ArticlesStill no central authority to resolve disputes between thestates. To organize the states for the collective good,including the organization of a militia, was crucial to thedevelopment of the Constitutional Convention.
The Constitutional Roots of the American Experiment•Toward Unity and Order •The Articles of Confederation - Adopted on March 1, 1781 to bring the thirteen states together while allowing each state to remain independent •Shays’s Rebellion - Economic depression of mid-1780s •Daniel Shays - Rallied farmers to demand change from government•Tensions Over Big Government Today • How much power should the American government have and what role should it play in the lives of citizens?
Aftermath of Shay’s Rebellion• Shay’s Rebellion reinforced the fears of national leaders about the dangers of ineffective state governments and of popular democracy out of control.• In this climate of crisis, a call was issued to meet in Philadelphia to correct defects in the Articles of Confederation.• Delegates to the Philadelphia convention were instructed to propose revisions for the Articles of Confederation, but they wrote an entirely new constitution instead.
Why the Founders Were Worried• An Excess of Democracy in the States – In the mid-1780s, popular conventions were established to monitor and control the actions of state legislators. – The Pennsylvania state constitution replaced the property qualifications as a requirement to vote with a very small tax.• The Threat to Property Rights in the States – Popular opinion – Stay acts – Shay’s Rebellion
Convening the Constitutional Convention• Consensus that a new Constitution was desperately needed• Yet, growing concern by influential citizens about democratizing and egalitarian tendencies
The Constitutional Convention• By 1787, most of America’s leaders were convinced that the new nation was in great danger of failing.• Delegates to the Constitutional Convention – Wealthy men, well-educated, landowners – Young, but with broad experience in American politics – Familiar with the great works of Western philosophy and political science
Consensus Among the Delegates• Agreement that a new constitution must replace the the Articles of Confederation• Republican form of government• Support for a substantially strengthened national government• Concern that a strong national government is potentially tyrannical• Belief in a republican form of government based on popular consent• Desire to insulate government from public opinion and popular democracy
TABLE: The Virginia and New Jersey PlansVirginia Plan New Jersey PlanLegitimacy derived from Derived from states, basedcitizens, based on popular on equal votes for eachrepresentation stateBicameral legislature Unicameral legislatureExecutive size More than one person,undetermined, elected removable by stateand removable by majorityCongressJudicial life tenure, able to No Judicial power over statesveto state legislation
Table: The Virginia and New Jersey PlansVirginia Plan New Jersey PlanLegislature can override Government can compelstate laws obedience to national lawsRatification by citizens Ratification by statesA Council of Revisions to A “Supremacy clause”review national laws similar to Article VI of Constitution
Disagreement Among the Delegates• Representation of the states in the legislature• Status of slavery• Selection of the PresidentOverall, Conflict Often Centered Around Disagreements Between Large and Small States. Slavery• Three-fifths Compromise• Enactments against the slave trade were prohibited until the year 1808, but a tax or duty on such importation was permitted.• Return of runaway slavesOverall, these provisions explicitly recognize the legal standing of slavery
Conflict and Compromise: The Conflict The CompromiseState-based approach versus an House of Representatives: individual-based approach Proportional; Senate: Equal number of representatives from each state The Conflict The CompromiseThe fact that Northerners hated slavery Slaves counted as three-fifths of a worried Southerners, who feared that free person; protection of thetheir greater representation in Congress Atlantic Slave Trade for at least 20 would be used to end slavery years The Conflict The CompromiseSoutherners feared that the North’s Slaves counted as three-fifths of a freegreater representation in Congress person in determining representation in would be used to end slavery the House of Representatives; protection of the Atlantic slave trade for at least 20 years
Understanding the Constitution — What the Framers Created• Republican form of government – Popular consent and some popular participation, but barriers to majoritarian democracy Library of Congress – Purposes and powers of government limited The Madisonian Model Separation of powers Checks and balances
The Struggle to Ratify the Constitution• Delegates had been instructed to propose alterations to the Articles of Confederation, but they wrote an entirely new Constitution instead.• Ratification was a difficult process. – Federalists — favored ratification – Anti-Federalists — opposed ratification
To Adopt or Not to Adopt?•Federalists Versus Antifederalists•The Politics of Ratification The Federalist Papers – James Madison – Alexander Hamilton – John Jay The “Brutus” Essays
Ratification of the U.S. Constitution State Date VoteDelaware December 7, 1787 30 - 0Pennsylvania December 12, 1787 46 - 23New Jersey December 18, 1787 38 - 0Georgia January 2, 1788 26 - 0Connecticut January 9, 1788 128 - 0Massachusetts February 6, 1788 187 - 168 *Maryland April 28, 1788 63 - 11South Carolina May 23, 1788 149 - 73 *New Hampshire June 21, 1788 57 - 46 *Virginia June 25, 1788 89 - 79 *New York July 26, 1788 30 - 27 *North Carolina November 21, 1789 194 - 77 *Rhode Island May 29, 1790 34 - 32 *
Ratifying AmendmentsThe Time for Ratification of the 27 Amendments to the Constitution
Four ways to Amend the Constitution• Cope with any new and unforeseen problem• Taken on with extreme caution• Rigorous process
Amending the Constitution• Although 11,000 amendments have been considered by Congress, only 33 have been submitted to the states after being approved, and only 27 have been ratified since 1789.11,000 27 The Bill of Rights• A “Bill of Limits”• No explicit limits on state government powers• Did not apply to state governments