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POLITICS
AND
SOCIETY
-Political system is the
institution that meets the
society’s needs for protection
from external enemies,
resolution of group
differences, and the definition
and internal order, pursuit of
societal goals.
-Political system of a country
should be design to give people a
strong voice in determining what
their government should do.
Voting for political leaders is an
important way to express their
will. Young people have the
greatest stake in political
elections.
-The central concern of
political institution on policy
is power. The ability to
control other people’s
behavior and carry out
one’s will despite
resistance.
LEGITIMATE POWER
Is power exercised by
leaders that is generally
approved or accepted as
appropriate by members
of a group or a society.
COERCION
• Is a power based on the threat or
use of force, and is therefore
considered illegitimate by the
people who are forced to act
against their will.
• Illegitimate use of power such as
obstruction of justice or demanding
bribe from someone seeking
personal favors is regarded as
• Power can be used illegitimately
by people who are not officials, for
example, gangsters extort
“protection money” from store
owners, and robbers, steal from
banks.
• When most citizens believe that a
leader’s authority is legitimate, the
exercise of power will be
legitimate.
STATESTATE
• group or groups of people,
permanently occupying a definite
territory
• State is composed of numerous
societies united by a common
sense of right and mutual
participation of its members.
(Cicero, an eminent Roman orator
and writer.)
• State as a union of families and
villages having for its end a
perfect and self-sufficing life.
(Aristotle)
• “a relatively large group of people
inhabiting a more or less definite
area of land, possessing
sovereignty, and living under
government that is generally
obeyed at home and recognized
• State is the dominant political
institution in modern societies.
(Lehman, 1988)
• State is the sole source of
legitimate physical force. (Weber,
1918-1946)
• It is the only institution that can
impose taxes, declare war and
imprison the violators.
VARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF ANVARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF AN
STATESTATE
• the enactment of law
(legislative order)
• the protection of personal
safety and public order
(police)
• the protection of violated
rights (Administration of
• the protection of violated rights
(Administration of Justice)
• the cultivation of hygienic,
educational, social welfare, and
other cultural interest (Various
branches of Administration)
• the armed protection against
outside attack (military
administration)
FOUR ELEMENTS OF STATEFOUR ELEMENTS OF STATE
•people
•territory
•government
•sovereignty
GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT
• Exists in all human groups and
societies.
• Organization through which the state
expresses and enforces its will.
• Exists for the benefit of the governed.
It is important for the protection of the
inhabitants, the administration of
justice and the promotion of the
physical, economic, social and
cultural well-being of the people.
• Preservation of the state from internal
and external danger is one of the
primary functions of the government.
• Needless to say, without an
organized structure form of
government, a feeling of fear and
insecurity, and political anxiety will
prevail and therefore, progress and
development will not be realized.
THREE MAJOR FORMS OFTHREE MAJOR FORMS OF
GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT
• autocracy
• totalitarian
• democracy
AUTOCRACYAUTOCRACY
• Ultimate power is held by a single
person.
• An autocrat may gain position
through heredity (an absolute
monarch) or by the rule of force
(dictator). Among the most
recognizable autocratic ruler in
the world today is Mummar
Gaddafi (Libya)
• Autocrats rely on their ability to
control the military and police
systems of their countries and to
maintain the unquestioning loyalty of
large number of their subjects.
• Criticism of the government and the
autocrat is usually prohibited.
• The government censors the media
and sometimes uses terror to strife
public dissent.
TOTALITARIANTOTALITARIAN
• Form of government involving
state control and regulation of
major institution in the society.
• Form of government involving
state control and regulation of
major institution in the society.
• State is represented by a small
ruling clique of physical force and
terror to maintain social order.
• Exerts over a nation and makes
little distinction between public
and private concern.
• Seeks to control family life as well
as economic and political
institutions.
SIX ELEMENTS
OF
TOTALITARIAN
RULE
[Friedrich and Brzenzinski
(1965)]
• A single political power.
Totalitarian government led by a
dictator or by ruling clique. The
one political party is the only legal
party in the state.
• Control of the Economy.
Totalitarian states exercise control
over all portion of the economy.
The state may set goals for
economic production, established
prices and supplies for goods and
dissolve private ownership of
either industry or farm.
• Control of Media. Totalitarian
states control television, radio,
newspaper, magazines. They
deny a public forum to dissenting
opinions so that no party position
is communicated to the people.
• Control of Weapons. Totalitarian
states monopolize the use of
weapon denying the individual
right to own arms.
• Ideology. Totalitarian states use
an elaborate ideology to explain
every aspect of social life. Social;
goals and values are described in
– simple terms and distortions are
often made about the state
enemies.
• Terror. Totalitarian states rely on
terror to maintain social control,
secret police, torture and
punishment without trial are
common.
(Nazi Germany is a major
example of totalitarian rule.)
DEMOCRACYDEMOCRACY
• Derived from the Greek roots
demos, which means people and
kratia, which means rule.
Democracy then is rule by people.
• Form of government in which there
are periodic opportunities for the
people being governed to retain or
replace governing officials
• A country is democratic when a
large part of the population is able
to “influence major decisions by
choosing among contenders” for
political office.
• Periodic Elections Position
President, senators,
representative, governors, mayors
and other elected officials.
THE PHILIPPINE POLITICALTHE PHILIPPINE POLITICAL
SYSTEMSYSTEM
• Political behavior is the
participation of individuals in
politics why and how they
vote, what political opinions
they hold, why they belong to
political parties and support
political movements.
Political Behavior of FilipinosPolitical Behavior of Filipinos
• There is evidence that people do
not expose themselves to both
sides of the propaganda. If one
belongs to LAKAS ( a party) he
is more likely listen to LKAS
speeches read LAKAS literature
and associate with friends and
party.
• Economic interest is a strong
determinant of party
identification. Other factors such
as nationalism, religion and
morality play a minor role. A
network of kinship and “utang na
loob” relationship affects the
voting patterns.
• More men that women vote
because more women believe
that politics is a man’s affair.
Many older people than younger
participate in politics.
• Voting for the same party,
without examining the issues
involved and the capacity of the
candidates seem to be the
preponderant pattern.
• Educational and occupational
factors affect voting behavior.
Candidates identify themselves
with masses during campaigns.
“Erap para sa Mahirap”.
• Upper and middle classes
exhibit more rational political
involvement than lower class.
• The family exerts strong
influence on the voting behavior
of the individual. Persons vote
for the same party and
candidates as their parents or
grandparents.
Since Philippine politics is
democratic in nature, the powers
exercised by the officials come
from the people and the officials
are responsible to the people.
Elected officials are expected to
exercise their power of their
respective offices to serve people
they represent.
The existence of Nepotism and the
practice of Graft and Corruption
became the background of
Filipino because of strong
influence of the family.
Kinship ties and loyalties are
important in exerting pressures on
government officials to consider
family or private interest above
public welfare.
• Most government legislator
comes from the elite or upper
class and growing middle class
too. There is a tendency towards
marriages between families with
economic power and with political
influence resulting in the
perpetuation of political dynasties.
Elected leaders usually serve that
interest group which has enough
power in the community.
Parties or candidates usually
acquire campaign funds, editorial
support, the assumption that is
elected; they would serve the
wishes and objectives of those
who have extended their
assistance.
THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION INTHE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION IN
THE PHILIPPINESTHE PHILIPPINES
• Corruption diverts money from the
poor and acts as the major barrier to
economic development in poor
nations.
• It has been estimated that corruption
causes a yearly loss of P2 billion
funds: scholarships, hospitals,
irrigation systems, roads and
bridges.
WHAT IS CORRUPTION?WHAT IS CORRUPTION?
• The common idea is that a
government official or
employees is “corrupted” when
he or she accepts “grease
money” or a gift from a private
person in consideration for a
decision or actions that would
promote the interest of the
bribe giver.
THREE ACTIVITIES OFTHREE ACTIVITIES OF
CORRUPTIONCORRUPTION
• Bribery: The giving of money or
gift to promote the interest of the
bribe giver.
• Extortion: When the official or
employee demands a bribe, gift or
favor to carry out public duty.
• Nepotism: The
appointment of unqualified
relatives, friends and
associates to government
positions regardless of the
effect of their appointment
on the public welfare.
SOCIOLOGICALSOCIOLOGICAL
STUDIES GIVE THESTUDIES GIVE THE
OTHER CAUSES OFOTHER CAUSES OF
CORRUPTION:CORRUPTION:
• The weakness of religion and
ethical teachings.
• lack of education
• absence of stiff sensitive
measure
• the structure of government
• The state and society –
corruption in the bureaucracy
affects the state of the entire
society.
ECONOMIC INSTUTIONSECONOMIC INSTUTIONS
• Concerned with the
production, distribution and
consumption of goods and
services to satisfy the basic
needs of man. Basically, their
primary purpose is to provide
people with material benefits
and comforts.
• Interested in resources that are
scarce in relation to human
wants. Various resources are
combined to produce economic
goods, which in turn to satisfy
human wants.
• Concerned with human behavior,
with the choices ones make and
the consequence of these choices
for himself and other people.
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIESINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
• Defined as a society that relies
chiefly on mechanization for the
production of its economic goods
and services”.
• Industrial revolution proceeded,
societies relied on new inventions
and technology and facilitated
agricultural and industrial
production and on new sources of
energy.
CAPITALISMCAPITALISM
• Factors of production are land,
labor and capital.
• Economic system in which the
means of production are
largely in private hands and
the main incentive for
economic activity is the
accumulation of profits.
Laissez-faireLaissez-faire (“let them do”)(“let them do”)
•- People could
compete freely with
minimal government
intervention in the
economy.
Contemporary capitalismContemporary capitalism
•- The tolerance of
monopolistic practices.
• - A monopoly exists in
a market when it is
controlled by a single
business firm.
• - Domination of an industry allows
the firms o effectively control a
commodity so that I can dictate
pricing, standards of quality and
availability.
• - Buyers have little choice but
to yield to the firm’s decision,
there is no other place to
purchase the product or service
clearly.
SOCIALISMSOCIALISM
• has its roots in he writings of
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles
a European radicals disturbed
b he exploitation of the working
class.
• In their view of Capitalism, it
pays workers less than the
value of goods produced.
• Socialist economic system
represents an attempt to
eliminate such economic
exploitation.
• Under socialism, the means of
production and distribution of
goods and services in a
society are collectively rather
than privately owned.
• The fundamental objective of this
economic system is to meet
peoples needs rather than to
maximize profits.
• The reject Laissez-faire. Instead
they believe that basic economic
decisions should be made b the
government, which acts as the
representative of the people.
Government ownership of all
major industries.
COMMUNISMCOMMUNISM
• All property is communally
owned and no social
distinctions are made on the
people’s ability to produce.
Reported by:
Mr. Fernan D.C. Ventura

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Politics and society

  • 2. -Political system is the institution that meets the society’s needs for protection from external enemies, resolution of group differences, and the definition and internal order, pursuit of societal goals.
  • 3. -Political system of a country should be design to give people a strong voice in determining what their government should do. Voting for political leaders is an important way to express their will. Young people have the greatest stake in political elections.
  • 4. -The central concern of political institution on policy is power. The ability to control other people’s behavior and carry out one’s will despite resistance.
  • 5. LEGITIMATE POWER Is power exercised by leaders that is generally approved or accepted as appropriate by members of a group or a society.
  • 6. COERCION • Is a power based on the threat or use of force, and is therefore considered illegitimate by the people who are forced to act against their will. • Illegitimate use of power such as obstruction of justice or demanding bribe from someone seeking personal favors is regarded as
  • 7. • Power can be used illegitimately by people who are not officials, for example, gangsters extort “protection money” from store owners, and robbers, steal from banks. • When most citizens believe that a leader’s authority is legitimate, the exercise of power will be legitimate.
  • 8. STATESTATE • group or groups of people, permanently occupying a definite territory • State is composed of numerous societies united by a common sense of right and mutual participation of its members. (Cicero, an eminent Roman orator and writer.)
  • 9. • State as a union of families and villages having for its end a perfect and self-sufficing life. (Aristotle) • “a relatively large group of people inhabiting a more or less definite area of land, possessing sovereignty, and living under government that is generally obeyed at home and recognized
  • 10. • State is the dominant political institution in modern societies. (Lehman, 1988) • State is the sole source of legitimate physical force. (Weber, 1918-1946) • It is the only institution that can impose taxes, declare war and imprison the violators.
  • 11. VARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF ANVARIETY OF FUNCTIONS OF AN STATESTATE • the enactment of law (legislative order) • the protection of personal safety and public order (police) • the protection of violated rights (Administration of
  • 12. • the protection of violated rights (Administration of Justice) • the cultivation of hygienic, educational, social welfare, and other cultural interest (Various branches of Administration) • the armed protection against outside attack (military administration)
  • 13. FOUR ELEMENTS OF STATEFOUR ELEMENTS OF STATE •people •territory •government •sovereignty
  • 14. GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT • Exists in all human groups and societies. • Organization through which the state expresses and enforces its will. • Exists for the benefit of the governed. It is important for the protection of the inhabitants, the administration of justice and the promotion of the physical, economic, social and cultural well-being of the people.
  • 15. • Preservation of the state from internal and external danger is one of the primary functions of the government. • Needless to say, without an organized structure form of government, a feeling of fear and insecurity, and political anxiety will prevail and therefore, progress and development will not be realized.
  • 16. THREE MAJOR FORMS OFTHREE MAJOR FORMS OF GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT • autocracy • totalitarian • democracy
  • 17. AUTOCRACYAUTOCRACY • Ultimate power is held by a single person. • An autocrat may gain position through heredity (an absolute monarch) or by the rule of force (dictator). Among the most recognizable autocratic ruler in the world today is Mummar Gaddafi (Libya)
  • 18. • Autocrats rely on their ability to control the military and police systems of their countries and to maintain the unquestioning loyalty of large number of their subjects. • Criticism of the government and the autocrat is usually prohibited. • The government censors the media and sometimes uses terror to strife public dissent.
  • 19. TOTALITARIANTOTALITARIAN • Form of government involving state control and regulation of major institution in the society. • Form of government involving state control and regulation of major institution in the society.
  • 20. • State is represented by a small ruling clique of physical force and terror to maintain social order. • Exerts over a nation and makes little distinction between public and private concern. • Seeks to control family life as well as economic and political institutions.
  • 22. • A single political power. Totalitarian government led by a dictator or by ruling clique. The one political party is the only legal party in the state.
  • 23. • Control of the Economy. Totalitarian states exercise control over all portion of the economy. The state may set goals for economic production, established prices and supplies for goods and dissolve private ownership of either industry or farm.
  • 24. • Control of Media. Totalitarian states control television, radio, newspaper, magazines. They deny a public forum to dissenting opinions so that no party position is communicated to the people. • Control of Weapons. Totalitarian states monopolize the use of weapon denying the individual right to own arms.
  • 25. • Ideology. Totalitarian states use an elaborate ideology to explain every aspect of social life. Social; goals and values are described in – simple terms and distortions are often made about the state enemies.
  • 26. • Terror. Totalitarian states rely on terror to maintain social control, secret police, torture and punishment without trial are common. (Nazi Germany is a major example of totalitarian rule.)
  • 27. DEMOCRACYDEMOCRACY • Derived from the Greek roots demos, which means people and kratia, which means rule. Democracy then is rule by people. • Form of government in which there are periodic opportunities for the people being governed to retain or replace governing officials
  • 28. • A country is democratic when a large part of the population is able to “influence major decisions by choosing among contenders” for political office. • Periodic Elections Position President, senators, representative, governors, mayors and other elected officials.
  • 29. THE PHILIPPINE POLITICALTHE PHILIPPINE POLITICAL SYSTEMSYSTEM • Political behavior is the participation of individuals in politics why and how they vote, what political opinions they hold, why they belong to political parties and support political movements.
  • 30. Political Behavior of FilipinosPolitical Behavior of Filipinos • There is evidence that people do not expose themselves to both sides of the propaganda. If one belongs to LAKAS ( a party) he is more likely listen to LKAS speeches read LAKAS literature and associate with friends and party.
  • 31. • Economic interest is a strong determinant of party identification. Other factors such as nationalism, religion and morality play a minor role. A network of kinship and “utang na loob” relationship affects the voting patterns.
  • 32. • More men that women vote because more women believe that politics is a man’s affair. Many older people than younger participate in politics. • Voting for the same party, without examining the issues involved and the capacity of the candidates seem to be the preponderant pattern.
  • 33. • Educational and occupational factors affect voting behavior. Candidates identify themselves with masses during campaigns. “Erap para sa Mahirap”. • Upper and middle classes exhibit more rational political involvement than lower class.
  • 34. • The family exerts strong influence on the voting behavior of the individual. Persons vote for the same party and candidates as their parents or grandparents.
  • 35. Since Philippine politics is democratic in nature, the powers exercised by the officials come from the people and the officials are responsible to the people. Elected officials are expected to exercise their power of their respective offices to serve people they represent.
  • 36. The existence of Nepotism and the practice of Graft and Corruption became the background of Filipino because of strong influence of the family. Kinship ties and loyalties are important in exerting pressures on government officials to consider family or private interest above public welfare.
  • 37. • Most government legislator comes from the elite or upper class and growing middle class too. There is a tendency towards marriages between families with economic power and with political influence resulting in the perpetuation of political dynasties.
  • 38. Elected leaders usually serve that interest group which has enough power in the community. Parties or candidates usually acquire campaign funds, editorial support, the assumption that is elected; they would serve the wishes and objectives of those who have extended their assistance.
  • 39. THE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION INTHE PROBLEM OF CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINESTHE PHILIPPINES • Corruption diverts money from the poor and acts as the major barrier to economic development in poor nations. • It has been estimated that corruption causes a yearly loss of P2 billion funds: scholarships, hospitals, irrigation systems, roads and bridges.
  • 40. WHAT IS CORRUPTION?WHAT IS CORRUPTION? • The common idea is that a government official or employees is “corrupted” when he or she accepts “grease money” or a gift from a private person in consideration for a decision or actions that would promote the interest of the bribe giver.
  • 41. THREE ACTIVITIES OFTHREE ACTIVITIES OF CORRUPTIONCORRUPTION • Bribery: The giving of money or gift to promote the interest of the bribe giver. • Extortion: When the official or employee demands a bribe, gift or favor to carry out public duty.
  • 42. • Nepotism: The appointment of unqualified relatives, friends and associates to government positions regardless of the effect of their appointment on the public welfare.
  • 43. SOCIOLOGICALSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES GIVE THESTUDIES GIVE THE OTHER CAUSES OFOTHER CAUSES OF CORRUPTION:CORRUPTION:
  • 44. • The weakness of religion and ethical teachings. • lack of education • absence of stiff sensitive measure • the structure of government • The state and society – corruption in the bureaucracy affects the state of the entire society.
  • 45. ECONOMIC INSTUTIONSECONOMIC INSTUTIONS • Concerned with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services to satisfy the basic needs of man. Basically, their primary purpose is to provide people with material benefits and comforts.
  • 46. • Interested in resources that are scarce in relation to human wants. Various resources are combined to produce economic goods, which in turn to satisfy human wants. • Concerned with human behavior, with the choices ones make and the consequence of these choices for himself and other people.
  • 47. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIESINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES • Defined as a society that relies chiefly on mechanization for the production of its economic goods and services”. • Industrial revolution proceeded, societies relied on new inventions and technology and facilitated agricultural and industrial production and on new sources of energy.
  • 48. CAPITALISMCAPITALISM • Factors of production are land, labor and capital. • Economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
  • 49. Laissez-faireLaissez-faire (“let them do”)(“let them do”) •- People could compete freely with minimal government intervention in the economy.
  • 50. Contemporary capitalismContemporary capitalism •- The tolerance of monopolistic practices. • - A monopoly exists in a market when it is controlled by a single business firm.
  • 51. • - Domination of an industry allows the firms o effectively control a commodity so that I can dictate pricing, standards of quality and availability. • - Buyers have little choice but to yield to the firm’s decision, there is no other place to purchase the product or service clearly.
  • 52. SOCIALISMSOCIALISM • has its roots in he writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles a European radicals disturbed b he exploitation of the working class. • In their view of Capitalism, it pays workers less than the value of goods produced.
  • 53. • Socialist economic system represents an attempt to eliminate such economic exploitation. • Under socialism, the means of production and distribution of goods and services in a society are collectively rather than privately owned.
  • 54. • The fundamental objective of this economic system is to meet peoples needs rather than to maximize profits. • The reject Laissez-faire. Instead they believe that basic economic decisions should be made b the government, which acts as the representative of the people. Government ownership of all major industries.
  • 55. COMMUNISMCOMMUNISM • All property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the people’s ability to produce.
  • 56. Reported by: Mr. Fernan D.C. Ventura