Be the first on the road to the future Estonian ElectromobilityBy Jarmo TuiskDirector of technology and innovation divisionMinistry of Economic Affairs and Communications for Estonia program 2011-2013
About Estonia, the innovation backgroud, passanger cars etc.BACKGROUND
ESTONIA Member of EU 2004 Estonia Member of NATO 2004 Member of OECD 2010 Member of EURO 20111,3M inhabitants, largest city. Tallinn 0,4M inhabitantsGDP per capita $19,375 (PPP), GDP total $25,7BIndependent since 1918, occupied by Soviet Union 1941-1991
Estonian way to smart society ElectromobilityRe-independence agenda introduced Electronic voting in MoEaC Program “Tiger leap” : X-Road: XML-based Electromobility heavy investment backbone for government Program to ICT infrastructure apps and databases European PCs to every school Estonian- IT agency E-goverment Finnish grids Digital signature connected NATO Cyber Act etc. ID-card Energy Technology Defence program Centre M-Parking 1998- 1992 1997 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2000
Estonian Green Transportation PlanGoal Measures • Blending biofuels10% of energy 5-7% of liquid fuels from renewables by 2015 • Green Public transportationconsumption in 50% of public transportation totransportation from 100% biofuels/biogas by 2020 • Electromobilityrenewable sources 1% of transport energy consumption from renewable electricity by 2020 • Eco-driving awareness Reduction of fuel consumption by 10%
Situation of passenger cars in EstoniaNumber of cars doubled Cost of transportation doubled 14% Share of transportation costs 12% in househould monthly expenditures, % 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Data: Estonian statistics
CO2 emissions of passenger carsAverage emissions, gCO2/km Estonia compared to EU nations190185180175170165 Estonia160 EU25155150145140 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Data: European Environment Agency
Consumption and cost of gasoline Gasoline spending dynamics in EstoniaConsumption of gasoline, .000 tons (consumption*brent spot price), USD350 300,000,000.00340330 250,000,000.00320310 200,000,000.00300290 150,000,000.00280270 100,000,000.00260250 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 50,000,000.00 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Data: Estonian statistics Data: Estonian statistics, Europe Brent Spot prices
Short overviewELMO – ESTONIANELECTROMOBILITY PROGRAMME
Energy independence Our commitment to climate policy Because we can!Why is Estonia launching EV programme?
Background for electromobility programMid 2010 - Gov. initiates CO2 reduction project calls to use excess AAUs (CO2 credits) Various projects proposed by ministries AAU sales team matches buyes and projects Private Buildings Energy production Public transportation transportation, electric mobility
Our partner in EV program: Mitsubishi Corporation• Mitsubishi was interested in the electromobility project proposal.• The negotiations began in dec 2010 and final set up of the program concluded by Feb 2011.• Government announced the program in the beginning of March.• Total volume of AAUs: 10mAAUs (12% of Estonian AAU balance)
Fitting the pieces together Demo for the project future of electric Infra-Incentives structure cars
1. DEMO PROJECT507 xFOR SOCIAL WORKERSAROUND ESTONIA
507 iMievs to social workers• Estonian government bought 507 Mitsubishi iMievs• The purchase is financed by sellinc AAU (carbon credits) to Mitsubishi Corporation• The cars will remain in the ownership of the Ministry of Social Affairs of Estonia, but they are handed over to local municipalities all around Estonia• The cars are distributed for free• Social workers: public administrators responsible for providing public social services• The cars will be equipped with GPS/GPRS enabled data loggers for future R&D of usage of electric cars
Mitsubishi iMievs in action Photos: Bianca Mikovitš, Maaleht
2. INCENTIVES-50%Max 18 000 EUR PER CAR,NO BRAND RESTRICTIONS, FOR PRIVATE AND COMMERCIALBUYERS, UNTIL THE END OF 2012+ 1000EUR FOR MODE3 HOME CHARGER
Incentive scheme• Eligible cars: fully electric passenger cars (M1)• For private, commercial and public buyers• Support rate 50% of car’s price• Max grant: 18 000 per car + 1000EUR for Mode 3 home charger set-up• You can buy an EV from any EU country• Second-hand (used) EVs are not eligible• Last date to submit grant application 30.11.2012• Budget for 500 EVs
Green certificates• With each grant comes the obligation to use only renewable energy in your electric car for 5 years• This will be ensured by using green certificates (certificates of origin)• EV owner has to report the milage annually to KredEx and submits the equal amount of green certificates
Where can I refill?Now: Now:Home/Summerhouse Gas stationAt workIn future: In future:Home/Summerhouse Gas stationAt workParking houseSupermarket
What is the driving range per 1EUR?13km13km13km 4km13km
What’s the price? Price for me: 18 000 EUR Grant: 18 000 EUR Price for me: 18 000 EUROctavia Elegance 1.4TSI
Myths about...Electric cars Smart phones• Too small to be the real cars • They are too big to be• You can’t use them because convenient there is no infrastructure • You can’t use them, because they don’t have buttons• You can’t drive • They are them, because they don’t unreliable, because the drive more than 120km per battery last only for 24h charge hours• They are too expensive! • They are too expensive! And you know the story...
Fast charging infrastructure1.200-250 FAST CHARGERS AROUND ESTONIA2.CHAdeMO + AC Mode 3 slow charger combo3.Central network management system4.5 year contract for network operating services, 24/7 central customer support5.Innovative solutions: mobile identification and payments, RFID and/or NFC cards, mobile app, web portal etc.
Use cases and technology options AC Normal AC Fast DC superfast 6-8h 1-2h 20-30min Daily office OK Maybe Not OK charging Daily home OK Maybe Not OK charging Routine shared Maybe Maybe OK charging Emergency Not OK Maybe OK charging Travel Not ok OK OK charging
DC quick charging: best match for public chargers Public/shared charger Routine shared Emergency charging charging Travel chargingPre- Extra-ordinaryplanned chargingcharging Daily office charging Daily home charging Dedicated charger
3 main use-cases for Estonian public charging network Emergency • Locations hard to predict charging • Cover the main routes Shared routine • Locations easy to predict charging • Follow the daily routines • Locations easier to predict Travel charging • Emphasize tourist routes
Charger typesCharger Charger output Max nominal Descriptiontype and type output power, kWSL01 1 DC 50 DC fast charger with single output 1 AC 3,7 connector and slow AC (Mode3) outlet socket.SL02 1 DC 50 DC fast charger with single output 1 AC 22 connector and fast AC (Mode3) outlet socketSL03 2 DC 50 DC fast charger with dual output connector 1 AC 3,7 and slow AC (Mode3) outlet socketSL04 2 DC 50 DC fast charger with dual output connector 1 AC 22 and fastAC (Mode3) outlet socket DC is primary output, AC charging will be stopped until DC charges.
Amount of chargers to be procuredKredEx will buy 200 +/- 20% chargers - ~180 SL01 or SL02 - ~20 SL03 or SL04
Standards for chargers Chargers and charger installation must conform to following standardsID Explanation2004/108/EU EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) Directive Decision No 768/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on a common framework for768/2008/EU the marketing of products, and repealing Council Decision 93/465/EEC (Text with EEA relevance) Directive 2006/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the harmonisation of the laws of Member States relating to electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits (codified2006/95/EU version) (Text with EEA relevance)IEC 61851 Electric vehicle conductive charging system Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle couplersIEC 62196 and vehicle inlets – Conductive charging of electric vehicleIEC 61439 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assembliesIEC 60364 Low-voltage electrical installationsIEC 60884-1:2006 (EVS 873:2007 ) Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposesIEC 60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)IEC 62262 Degrees of protection providedy enclosures for electrical equipment against external mechanical impacts (IK code)JEVS G105* Connectors applicable to quick charging system at Eco-Station for Evs Standardised protocol of DC quick charger and electric vehicle communications and charger control maintained byCHAdeMO* CHAdeMO association.ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards – Contactless integrated circuit cards – Proximity cards
Climate conditionsChargers must endure • Corrosion and ice-and operate in Estonian melting salt protectionclimate conditions. • Estonian climate – Abs Max temp 36°C – Abs. Min temp -42,6°C –Chargers must continually Average 5,6°C • Bidder must demonstrate the climatework in temp range -25C tests results (documents)... +40C
Input power parameters• Land-cabel pre-installed• 3 phase, 400V, 50Hz• Main switch parameters – max 100A (SL01, SL02) – max 180A (SL03, SL04)• Input current – SL01 or SL02 80-90A – SL03 or SL04 160-180A
Simultaneous charging• Chargers types SL03 or SL04 must be capable of charging two cars at the same time.• The point is that some load balancing might be possible between simultaneous charging sessions.• Max time added for simultaneous charging must not exceed 30% of single charging.• Kredex is looking to optimize running costs and real estate costs through these type of chargers
AC charging option• Mode 3 Type 2 (Mennekes) socket outlet for those cars not compatible with CHAdeMO (=Renault)• DC fast charging is a priority. During DC charging AC socket outlet must be unpowered.• AC socket outlet must be incorporated to the same body as DC charging• AC charger controller must be able to conform to max current/voltage allowed by car (or charging cord)• No charging cord to be provided by charger Type Nr of phases Freq, Hz Voltage, V Current, A Power, kW SL01 1 50 230 16 3,7 SL02 3 50 400 32 22 SL03 1 50 230 16 3,7 SL04 3 50 400 32 22
Authentication• User athentication to be chosen by the bidder from following options: – Smart card (RFID, NFC etc) IEC14443 or IEC15693 compatible or – Mobile phone (SMS, mobile-id, NFC)• User must authenticate in order to start and stop charging session
Data storage• Chargers should incorporate data storages (hard disks etc.) for offline-operation of the charger (it must include authentication data, like white and black lists)• Data must be stored for at least 7 days• Data to be stored: – Authentications – Charging sessions (duration, energy consumed etc)
Display and control buttons• Functions: – consumption/charging info – User guidance• If touch screen, when needs to be climate compatible• Readability in brigh/dim light• Charger must have control buttons (to operate screen, and/or authenticate)• Main control buttons: start, stop, emergency must be pushables.• Touch screen functions can be doubled with keyboard• Charger must inform user if charger cannot charge the car (technical incompatibility)• Display must inform user if car is charged to maximum, charger may have special light indicator
Body and design of the charger• Exterior must be corrosion proof• No sharp and dangerous edges• Graffity proof color• Interior must be locked for unauthorized access• Color: white (or any other color approved by KredEx)
Safety and security (1)• Tender documents must • Overheating protection include safety and • Remote and local security documentation shutdown feature as well as conformity to • Self shutdown in case of standards emergency• Parts that may be dangerous to users have to be marked with clear and readable signs• CE-mark (768/2008/EU), IP54, IK10 (IEC62262)
Safety and security (2)• Chargers must comply • Special rain protected Estonian electric safety location to hold law CHAdeMO connector• Installation according to • Clear voice signal if standard EVS-HD 60364 connector is not properly (IEC 60364-7-721:2007) fixed during 10sec after• Fault current protection end of charging session max 20mA • AC socket outlet must be• Protection unpowered if cable is not switch/contactor to each connected charging output • NMS must be capable of switching off the charger in case of emergency
Network management system NMS should be capable to support following businessNMS is an functions EV infrastructure operatorintegrated system of Charger network Customer Financialsoftware(s) to control and services services management managementfacilitate the Technical Service management Supplierprovision of maintenance • Charger maintenance • Service developement • Service control management • Energy servicescharging services for • Control of chargers • Other support servicesEV owners. IT-management • Software maintenance Customer support • Real-time customer Billings, account settlements • Interfaces with other support • With buyers software systems • Customer self-service • With suppliers • Software development Energy management Customer relation Payment collection • Energy load monitoring management • Management of payment • Interface with the grid • Customer contracts gateways management • Customer analytics Sales Financial control • Sales management • Accounting • Sales channel • Auditing development and support
Functional modules of NMS Data communications controller (charger <-> NMS)Charger control Control of charging sessionsand management Remote control of chargers System log User accounts (customers, administrators, support)User Access control manegementmanagement Authentication management Tariff managementServicemanagement User agreements’ management Support case management and reportingCustomer Q&A module over the web interfacesupport Billing, invoicingFinancialmanagement Payments Energy consumption analysisAnalytics User analytics
Services to be procured from the operator Control and technicalCustomer support Security maintenance of charging network Financial Financial transactions with transactions with energy supplier customers
Customer support• Phone support 24/7 • Response times to errortickets• 30sec max waiting time in – Hazardous error messages should customer support phone lines be dealt immidiately by shutting down the faulty charger• Bidder should have manned – The charger that is not working service to visit broken charges must be fixed within 24h or and fix it within 60 minutes. If replaced if not fixable within 48h that is not possible bidder should – Software errors must be fixed with arrange the pick-up of stranded next software update if they are EV and transport it to the nearest not security related problems charger • All errors should be reported to KredEx (monthly report) • If error cannot be fixed, ot it’s dangereous to humans or EVs it should be reported to KredEx immidiately
Control and technical maintenance of charging networkCharger control Maintenance• Realtime control over the NMS • Maintenance should be – Status, – Users performed according to – Energy consumption, manufacturer’s standards – Metering functions • Maintenance staff should – Temperature of charger – Status of doors have been trained by – Physical state/tilting manufacturer• On-site inspection twice a year • Charger should be kept – Visual overview and completeness – Functionality clean (dirt, graffity removal – Safety of electrical connections etc.) – Status of the location
Security services• Bidder should provide security cameras to those charging locations with no cameras already attached• Security videos should be stored for at least 3 days• Other security services can be decided by the bidder. They should be included in the price.
Financial transactions with energy supplier• Bidder and energy suppliers have freedom to organize the energy selling agreements between eachother• Contracts between bidder and energy company must be public to KredEx.
Financial transactions with consumers• Bidder is responsible for organizing the financial transactions with consumers (agreements, invoicing, collecting payments etc)• Bidder must provide consumer with their energy consumption data
Other requirements for operating servicesCharging locations Add-on services, personnel• Bidder must monitor the state of • Bidder can develop add-on charging locations and report if services in NMS and in charging they don’t conform to agreement locations if KredEx will accept between KredEx and property them owners • Bidder should state in documents their planned amount of• Charger and charging locations personnel for operating service must have proper lighting • Personnel should have necessary• Bidder is reponsible for directing qualification signs and traffic signage (if • In maintenance works they necessary) should wear identifiable uniforms• If this has been done by property • Leading software developers owner then the bidder do not should be named in the tender have to fulfill those duties documents (with CVs)
Estonia as a role model• Estonia made a bold choice to build up fast charging network• Single operator single network management system – business model test• Scandinavia (Europe?) is watching closely how we are performing
Unique opportunities for EV value chain in Estonia• Flexible and cost-effective test-bed• High concentration of EVs• DC fast charging and impact to grids• Central operating model• Advanced ICT infrastructure• R&D possibilities for “second-life” of car batteries (1000 EVs after year 2017)
Challenges so far• Extreme timescale: everything must be completed by the end of 2012• We have to be robust and decisive• How to gain a public support in these conditions?• How to get big car manufaturers to bring EVs to market?• Mixed public opinion about EVs: lot of discussion about EVs in cold climate, range/price seen as a main problem
ConclusionGOV we provide 360° framework conditions to wider adoption of EV’s.EV value chain must demonstrate the sustainable, competitive solutions for private transportation. Estonia is the best place to do that.
Questions and answersTHANK YOU!JARMO.TUISK@MKM.EE