E waste-Presentation

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E waste-Presentation

  1. 1. GLOBAL TRENDS & TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRONIC WASTE MANAGEMENT Presentation by: •Rose Okwiya, Materials & Content •Tom Munyasya, Learning Management System (LMS) •Caroline Kiragu, Knowledge and Information Management •Kioko Mang’eli, Systems and Knowledge Genco University (GU) GU E-Waste Presentation: June 10th, 2010 Ole Sereni Hotel, Nairobi Kenya.
  2. 2. Overview • What is Electronic Waste (e-Waste)? • Why is it a problem? (Trends & Insights) • What are the toxic components? • Why e-Waste prioritization today? • Why do we need national legislation and what will it do? •How do we measure success? •Why is this important? GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  3. 3. Statement J I N G L E I Y U , † E R I C W I L L I A M S , * , ‡, M E I T I N G J U , † A N D Y A N Y A NG Electronic waste (e-waste) has emerged as a new policy priority around the world. Motivations to address e-waste include rapidly growing waste streams, concern over the environmental fate of heavy metals and other substances in e-waste, and impacts of informal disposal in developing countries. Policy responses to global e-waste focus on banning international trade in end-of-life electronics, the premise being that e-waste is mainly generated in the developed world and then exported to the developing world. Sales of electronics have, however, been growing rapidly in developing nations, raising the question of whether problem in developing countries driven by international trade or domestic generation. Results show that the volume of obsolete PCs generated in developing regions will exceed that of developed regions by 2016-2018. By 2030, the obsolete PCs from developing regions will reach 400-700 million units, far More than from developed regions at 200-300 million units. Future policies to mitigate the impacts of informal recycling should address the domestic situation in developing countries. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  4. 4. What is e-Waste? GU definition of e-waste: Most of us see e-waste as “any electrically powered appliance that fails to satisfy the current owner for its originally intended purpose”. At GU, we have enriched this definition to include all electric and electronic gadgets that are still in use but are contributing to the e-waste stream through emissions of carbon dioxide and energy waste. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  5. 5. E- Waste The rapid obsolescence of gadgets combined with high demand for new technology has created mountains of E-Waste. E- waste is the fastest growing waste stream in the society today. Fastest growing toxic waste- laptops, mobile phones and other electronics. It has always been perceived as being “clean” but now it has been known that it is not as environmentally friendly as thought. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  6. 6. Global Trends Green IT can be defined as the holistic approach to environmentally friendly sustainable governance and management of the organization its process and projects. Environmentally friendly IT Asset Disposal (ITAD) is now a top priority for millions of businesses and consumers worldwide. Green IT is becoming more and more a corporate social responsibility for most businesses. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  7. 7. Existing & Emerging Technologies Responsible E recycling Use of certified IT Asset Disposal (ITAD) Need to design Electronics whose different components and materials are easy to separate for disposal and /or reuse. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  8. 8. CHALLENGES Poor design and complexity of electronics E waste is full of all kinds of materials e.g. metals, plastics, and chemicals that are mixed bolted, screwed, glued or soldered together. Toxic materials are attached to non toxic materials which are very difficult to separate. Responsible recycling requires intensive labor and / or sophisticated and costly technologies that safely separate these materials Awareness and information on dangers of E-Waste, Carbon dioxide (Co2) emissions has been very limited. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  9. 9. Impacts Global ICT usage accounts for up to 2% of global Co2 emission which is equivalent to aviation emissions which is no longer sustainable. Chemicals waste from the disposal of equipment pollutes the soil with Cadmium and Mercury Gadgets result in high consumption of energy resulting in high energy budgets because all electronics use different types of energy. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  10. 10. Impacts contd.. During standby and idle time the energy consumed may be classified as e-waste. During the said time, the electric and electronic gadgetry also emit carbon dioxide which contributes to e-waste stream. The idle time also eats into the lifetime of the gadgets resulting in a high turnover for e-waste. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  11. 11. Standards Standards can act as a tool for intervention for stakeholders and business: For example, in India the Government has set guidelines on end producer responsibility on best practices for recycling The gadget makers line up for a green make over: Handset makers, Nokia, Samsung and Motorola have started take back programs at various centers across cities. Take back Bins for Nokia Motorola = Ecomoto Program. HP- Computers = Planet partners Recycling program offers customers assistance in disposal of used computers in an environmental responsible manner, including a trade in program. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  12. 12. Regulatory Regimes and Policy Framework on E-Waste Eco-labeling mechanisms as part of the regulatory and governance structure, such as AEM. Certification of responsible recycling bodies – e.g. E- Stewards which has been developed by a group of concerned recyclers under Basel Action Network (BAN) an environmental organization with the singular mission of eliminating the toxic trade in E -Waste with developing countries. Countries coming up with environment laws and regulations with specific articles on E-Waste management. Signing of International and regional protocols on environmental E-Waste management e.g. The Europeans Unions Waste Electrics and Electronics Equipment Directive (WEEE) of 2003. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  13. 13. Specific to KENYA and her environment 1. Dry cells ( 3 No. local factories Eveready plus Chinese(2)); they support archaic lighting economy and depreciate within hours thus depositing greatest amount of toxic waste in the whole country (American Investment and One big mouth Mr. SS) 2. CRT TVs ( mainly those imported from the UK) 3. Plastic dry cell torches (Eveready & Somali Traders) in addition 4. Obsolete 486, 386, 286 Intel and 88000 MOT PCs, Toshiba, IBM Dell, People i586 (Rash for Gold by illiterate traders). 4.1996-2006 laptops, Philips and “Phillibs” CRT Monitors(tech Lapses) 5. Second Hand Fridges and Cookers from UK(personal Belongings) 6. Second Hand Vehicles KS1515:2000 applied to old Vehicles and the problem of KEBS lack of muscle(MD bans Second hand spare parts and PM unbans) 7. Second Hand Phones (Current and former ministers and PSs and MDs of TKL importing cheap and short life phones from Egypt (Part of Cemetry project). 8. Old technology yet new manufacturers(Asian Transfer of Technology) GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  14. 14. What does this imply in e- waste ecological footprint? We all need light in our living and working environment but most probably not second hand cars recycled with more e-waste We all need energy to listen to radios, watch our West African movies and use our lighting gadgets but most probably we will need better specs and good laws and bold women and men to get Eveready and the Chinese out of our environment We have a ICT Government policy but poor schools in Ukambani, Murang’a, Keroka and Kericho and others don’t need these sorts of obsoleteness absolutely to start appreciating digital knowledge There are donors and suppliers who are connected to BIG Government of the Grand Coalition and old Gadgetry makes money because its all e-waste and landfill material (letters from Bishops, lay priests..ad infinitum) Knowledge of product and utility of product is not a big consideration at all, each of it is a tool and an advantage in the market for those making money and toxin for our water systems, our soils, our air and our bodies now and generations to come GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  15. 15. EMBAKASI - Kenya, June 2010 Electronic Waste Nairobi, Kenya June 2010 GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  16. 16. Packing & Putting together to donate to ? Kenya’s Poor; Delaware, USA Remember Njoro & Musembi with Computerization School Programs Package ended up in a warehouse situated between Lavington & Valley Arcade GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  17. 17. Why is e-Waste a Problem? Rapid Increased Increasing Technology Consumer More More Human Changes Electronic e-Waste Hazardous Health Slow adaption Purchases More Toxins Materials Risks To Cheap sales In Kenya Everywhere More “Riches” Change A Kenyan Way Perception Low, cheap sourcing, Cheap Buy, Higher Expenditure for Health Now & Tomorrow GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  18. 18. What Are The Toxic Components? GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010 Add Nickel Cadmium batteries in all laptops and Hand Watches
  19. 19. American and developed Countries Solution eWaste destined to Landfills E-Waste constitutes 40% of lead and 70% of heavy metals in landfills Daily Cover Refuse Cell Leachate Collection Plastic Liner Clay Barrier E-Waste in a landfill in Garissa and Eastern Uganda is very GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010 different, We bury Containers as they are from Italy
  20. 20. What we get & What we Bury Chinese e-Waste Italian Re-processed It’s a business, who cares about the future of e-waste? GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  21. 21. Why are Kenyans not in the Know loop of e-Waste, e-waste burials and landfills ? Ecosystem services are seen as barriers to business Knowledge spread in eco control mechanisms has not been sufficiently available The provisioning of services around eco-systems has not been a trend in the country The regulatory services in the area has not been appreciated as contributing to climate, water, human systems Cultural orientation of our society has not been geared towards spiritual enrichment, reflection, recreation, and other aesthetic values. Support services around the ecosystems such as biomass production, soil enrichment systems, nutrient recycling and habitat re-provisioning has is an area the country can venture into. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  22. 22. Proposed eWaste Solution Create incentives to recycle Large quantity generators ≥ XX amount/year in tax credits Individual tax payers receive one YY amount credit/year for recycling one or more units of eWaste Re-evaluate program in a few years Make it illegal to throw away eWaste if adequate recycling infrastructure is available to public Potential issues Nothing in legislation mandates recycling center creation Re-use incentives noticeably absent Electronic Waste Recycling GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  23. 23. How Do We Measure Success? In Proposed Legislation No performance goals set, but re-evaluation in a few years If successful, reduction of eWaste tonnage into waste stream and increased recycling is expected May encourage manufacturer & supplier responsibility Electronic Waste Recycling http://www.pc-recycling.com/ GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  24. 24. Do We Need National Legislation? Yes in a pragmatic approach encompassing: 1. Cultural approach including education and awareness 2. Industrial approach targeting importers and manufacturers in the country and supplier countries. 3. Market communication 4. Realistic standardization and enforcement GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  25. 25. Why is this Important? eWaste problem growing…needs immediate action New legislation will create recycling industry uniformity & create a culture of responsibility Recycling will become more accessible to individuals First step to more comprehensive legislation Electronic Waste Recycling GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  26. 26. Sustainable enforcement The world is moving towards sustainable production and use of resources based on the following: Vision: World changing solutions for home country, continent and the earth. “Where there is no vision people perish” religious quote. The vision should encompass a turning point (reflection curve) in human civilization, one that requires moral leadership and generational responsibility that will make the future possible. We need courage to think in fresh ways and act to meet this planetary crisis head-on. We need a world changing crew (Kenya). We cannot use today's standards to absolutely solve e-waste and other ecological problems. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  27. 27. Sustainable enforcement contd’ Planetary thinking and sustainability; because we live in a planet that looks large, we forget that we are 6 billion and the current way of life is not sustainable. A Chinese can have an Italian( other mafia) partner and can process Chinese waste in Italian cities and repackage and pay a Kenyan strongman to land fill in north eastern or transit cargo to Uganda real dirty e-waste; it looks far away from china and Italy yet bananas growing in Uganda are transported to Italy. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  28. 28. Technologies & Knowledge Does it really matter? There is no shortage of debate over the advantages of recycling. Plenty of staunch environmentalists argue that the energy required to recycle bottles and newspapers negates the benefit of creating reusable material. But abundant evidence demonstrates otherwise. Stats: 95% conserved through Aluminium recycling 60% conserved through newspaper recycling 70% conserved through plastics recycling 40% conserved through glass recycling The energy conserved through recycling far outweighs the energy and emissions released by-products of incineration and the pollution caused by land filling. Recycling is an intermediary step. If we truly want to save energy and stem the stream of waste to send to landfills we will have to implement new industrial production systems that generate less waste and fewer disposal components to begin with. Recycling meanwhile, is certainly a worthy practice, and by simply tossing the right matter in the right bin. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  29. 29. Technologies & Knowledge cont.. Education for sustainable consumption & development Eco-designs: End of life concepts Eco-taxation & Eco-economic instruments Ethical & fair trade practices GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  30. 30. GU Mitigation At GU, we are committed to provide knowledge and awareness not only through our Bachelor of Science in Environmental Science and Technology undergraduate program but also through professional development certification short courses and post graduate training. GU is 100% open online learning tertiary institution that is conscious of the dynamism of society and aspires to promote positive social values. Kindly visit our website: www.gencouniversity.net for more information. GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010
  31. 31. Thank you very much for your kind attention. The end! GU E-Waste Presentation: Ole Sereni Hotel - June 10th, 2010

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