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biological and cultural evolution

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from australophitecus to homo sapiens

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biological and cultural evolution

  1. 1. Lesson 1: Biological andCultural Evolution: From Australopithecus to Homo Sapiens
  2. 2. Biological Evolution • It refers to the changes, modifications, and variations in the genetics and inherited traits of biological populations from one generation to another. • Scientists study the changes in the physical body of humans, the changes in the shape and size of their bones.
  3. 3. Cultural Evolution • It refers to the changes or development in cultures from a simple form to a more complex form of human culture. • Scientist study the cultural evolution of humans by analyzing the changes in the latter’s way of life.
  4. 4. • The evolution of species happens through the process of natural selection. • The reason for occurrence of evolution. • The outcome processes that affect the frequencies of traits in a particular environment. Traits that enhance survival and reproductive success increase in frequency over time.
  5. 5. • Every species is made up of a variety of individuals wherein some are adopted to their environments compared to others Variations
  6. 6. • Organisms produce progeny with different sets of traits that can inherited • Organisms that have traits most suitable to their environment will survive and transfer these variations to their offspring in subsequent generations Heritability Differential reproductive success
  7. 7. • The general term used to categorize the group of early humans and other humanlike creatures that can walk erect during the prehistoric period. HOMINIDS
  8. 8. Four Categories of Hominids 1. Sahelanthropus 2. Ardipithecus 3. Australopithecus 4. HOMO
  9. 9. • It had both apelike and humanlike characteristics: 1. A skull similar to Australopithecus and modern human. 2. Height almost similar with the chimpanzee 3. Brain size: 320-380 cc 4. Small teeth 5. Had the ability to walk upright 1. Sahelanthropus tchadensis 6-7 million years ago
  10. 10. Orrorin tugenensis 5.7 million years ago Ardipithecus 5.6 million years ago
  11. 11. “ape on the ground”Ardipithecus Ardipithecus Kadabba Ardipithecus Ramidus
  12. 12. • 1. height about 4 feet • 2. weight about 120 pounds • 3. skull size similar to an ape • 4. Small brain • 5. Biped • 6. lived in jungles and forests like chimpanzees
  13. 13. (5 million- 1million years ago) “the Southern Ape” 3.Australopithecus
  14. 14. Characteristics 1. Brain size: 500 cc or almost 1/3 size of the modern human brain 2. Upright 3. Biped 4. Tool users not tool makers 5. Food scavengers
  15. 15. • There are 6 species of the Australopithecus and they are divided into two major categories:
  16. 16. Gracile Australophitecus
  17. 17. -Australophitecus afarensis
  18. 18. Australophitecus anamensis
  19. 19. -Australophitecus africanus
  20. 20. Australopithecus Afarensis Considered as one of modern human’s earliest ancestors and remains as the most famous hominid fossil discovered
  21. 21. Robust Australophitecus
  22. 22. Australophitecus aethiopicus
  23. 23. Australophitecus robustus
  24. 24. Australophitecus boisei
  25. 25. HOMO • They are classified as humans and not humanlike creatures because they had bigger brains and were bipedal
  26. 26. HOMO HABILIS • 3-4 FEET • Brain size: 700 cc
  27. 27. HOMO ERECTUS • Large Brain size: 1,000cc • Lived in shelters • Food gatherers • Crafted materials
  28. 28. Peking Man
  29. 29. HOMO SAPIENS • . • Cro - MagnonHomo sapiens Neanderthalensis

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