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Human Biological and Cultural Evolution.

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Comparative Human-nonhuman primate anatomy, fossil hominins, capacity for culture, and toolmaking evolution.

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Human Biological and Cultural Evolution.

  1. 1. Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Cultural Anthropology
  2. 2. Culture in Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>To understand culture, we need to: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Know our biological capacity for culture </li></ul><ul><li>(2) How we fit into the animal kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>(3) How we came to be what we are </li></ul>
  3. 3. Our Capacity For Culture: Our Biological Roots <ul><li>(1) Our language ability </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Our ability to make and use tools </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet </li></ul><ul><li>If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know our own anatomy </li></ul>
  4. 4. First Things First: Taxonomy <ul><li>Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms </li></ul><ul><li>from the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order) </li></ul><ul><li>to the specific (genus, species, variety) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific </li></ul>
  5. 5. Taxonomy: Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Every species has at least two names </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species: sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the splitters’ terms) </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Italicize or underline all names </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize the genus </li></ul><ul><li>Lowercase the species and variety </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens </li></ul>
  6. 6. Taxonomy: The General Taxa <ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves) </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord) </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair) </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Primata: (larger brain, stereoscopic [depth] vision, flexible digits, complex sociality </li></ul><ul><li>Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hominid Taxonomy <ul><li>This is the new taxonomy: </li></ul><ul><li>Hominids apply to all humans and African apes </li></ul><ul><li>Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and </li></ul><ul><li>All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus, Homo habilis, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview: The Human Skeleton <ul><li>You do need to know some of the parts of </li></ul><ul><li>The human skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Use the online graphics (such as this) </li></ul><ul><li>Or your printed handouts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Where It All Begins: The Brain <ul><li>Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex : </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe: Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe: Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Bulb : Smell </li></ul>
  10. 10. Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex <ul><li>Related to Language : Lower Part: </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalization </li></ul><ul><li>Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part: </li></ul><ul><li>Fingers and Thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Arm </li></ul>
  11. 11. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers <ul><li>Parts of Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Area </li></ul><ul><li>Arcuate Fasciculus </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Angular Gyrus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico) <ul><li>So easy a caveman can do it. . . .? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Skull <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>High forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded skull </li></ul><ul><li>No brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Chin is present </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth are small </li></ul><ul><li>The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover </li></ul>
  14. 14. Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human <ul><li>Note the following </li></ul><ul><li>Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp than human’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human </li></ul><ul><li>More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human </li></ul><ul><li>Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp than human </li></ul>
  15. 15. Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure <ul><li>Compare the following </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc) </li></ul><ul><li>It has reduced frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech </li></ul><ul><li>It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language </li></ul>
  16. 16. What This All Means <ul><li>Our brains are larger than the chimps’ </li></ul><ul><li>We have a well-developed frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dentition <ul><li>For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible: </li></ul><ul><li>Incisors (4) for cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing </li></ul><ul><li>Premolars (4) for light grinding </li></ul><ul><li>Molars (6) for grinding </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chimp and Human Jaws <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not </li></ul>
  19. 19. Anatomy of Tool Making and Use: The Hand <ul><li>Note The Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Our digits are straight </li></ul><ul><li>Our thumb is opposable </li></ul><ul><li>The thumb is long </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ape and Human Hands <ul><li>Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human </li></ul><ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Our thumbs are longer than the others’ </li></ul><ul><li>We can make a finer grip than the others can </li></ul><ul><li>Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight </li></ul>
  21. 21. Power and Precision Grip <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object </li></ul><ul><li>Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bipedalism <ul><li>We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet </li></ul><ul><li>Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails </li></ul><ul><li>Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chimp and Human Locomotion
  24. 24. Advantages of Bipedalism <ul><li>Efficient locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Freeing of hands </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging and hunting/scavaging </li></ul><ul><li>Tool making and use </li></ul><ul><li>Care and provisioning of offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking migrating herds </li></ul><ul><li>Predator avoidance </li></ul>
  25. 25. Vertebral Column and Pelvis <ul><li>Note the following </li></ul><ul><li>Human vertebral column is S-Shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium </li></ul>
  26. 26. Pelvis and Femur <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Longer ilium of chimp </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter, more curved ilium of human </li></ul><ul><li>Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur </li></ul><ul><li>Inward angle of human femur </li></ul>
  27. 27. Foot Structure <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits </li></ul><ul><li>Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal arch reflected from </li></ul><ul><li>First metatarsal to </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneus (heel bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse arch can be inferred from </li></ul><ul><li>Lower placement of outside foot. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Overview of Human Evolution <ul><li>Principles of evolution: Natural selection and genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior of our primate cousins </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestry from Australopithecus to Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Tools as evidence of culture evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity for language—and thereby capacity for culture </li></ul>
  30. 30. Principles of Evolution: Natural Selection <ul><li>Darwin’s Contribution: On the Origins of Species </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection: A twofold process </li></ul><ul><li>Variation of species </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of species better adapted to environment than others </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Industrial melanism” among moths in England </li></ul>
  31. 31. Principles of Evolution: Genetics I <ul><li>Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas </li></ul><ul><li>Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (peas, eye color) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup </li></ul>
  32. 32. Principles of Evolution: Genetics II <ul><li>Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>When different alleles combine: </li></ul><ul><li>Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant) </li></ul><ul><li>The other does not (Recessive) </li></ul><ul><li>Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Trends in Human Evolution: Australopithecus to Homo <ul><li>Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus : Gracile Australopithecines </li></ul><ul><li>Paranthropus robustus and boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end? </li></ul><ul><li>A. africanus to Homo habilis : Rise of tool manufacture? </li></ul><ul><li>H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World </li></ul><ul><li>H. neanderthalensis: Dead end? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms, Hands <ul><li>Large bulbous cranium </li></ul><ul><li>Short face compared to ape </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical carriage of head </li></ul><ul><li>Shortened forelimb </li></ul><ul><li>Hands (manipulation, not locomotion) </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Straight fingers, not curved </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced finger sensitivity </li></ul>
  35. 35. Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism <ul><li>S-shaped vertebrae (backbone) </li></ul><ul><li>Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthened hindlimb </li></ul><ul><li>Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Platform (arched) structure of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved </li></ul>
  36. 36. Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger Brains) <ul><li>Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s) </li></ul><ul><li>A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc </li></ul><ul><li>A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc </li></ul><ul><li>A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen </li></ul><ul><li>A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthal: 1300-1750 cc. av: 1450 </li></ul><ul><li>H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Lucy ( Australopithecus afarensis ) and Us (Homo sapiens) <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter (3’6”) </li></ul><ul><li>Longer arms </li></ul><ul><li>Curved fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter lower legs </li></ul><ul><li>Greater prognathism </li></ul><ul><li>Sloped forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller cranial capacity </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Similarities? </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism </li></ul>
  38. 38. When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson) <ul><li>“ Hey! Look! No hands!” </li></ul><ul><li>(Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Gracile and Robust Australopithecines <ul><li>For A. africanus (top), note: </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat rounder skull </li></ul><ul><li>No Sagittal crest </li></ul><ul><li>Prognathous jaw </li></ul><ul><li>For Paranthropus boisei, note: </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive lower jaw (mandible) </li></ul><ul><li>Flatter face </li></ul><ul><li>Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Face is much flatter </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Toolmaking Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Hammerstone used to strike </li></ul><ul><li>A core (lump of stone) to knap </li></ul><ul><li>A Flake (stone chip) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Homo erectus: Cranial Structure <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital bun </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sloping forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced prognathism </li></ul><ul><li>Artist’s conception of H. erectus </li></ul>
  42. 42. Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some): Postcranial Skeleton <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Fully bipedal </li></ul><ul><li>Arms about length of Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average) </li></ul><ul><li>Main apelike features: </li></ul><ul><li>Prognathous lower face </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping forehead </li></ul>
  43. 43. Lower Paleolithic <ul><li>Oldowan Tradition: </li></ul><ul><li>Four or five strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Unspecialized: choppers </li></ul><ul><li>Flakes also made and used </li></ul><ul><li>Acheulean Tradition: </li></ul><ul><li>50-75 strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical design </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping </li></ul>
  44. 44. Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a. “Archaic” Homo sapiens <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Brow ridges much reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Forehead is higher, though sloping </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced prognathiam </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capancity 1200 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves </li></ul>
  45. 45. Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes <ul><li>Knappers: </li></ul><ul><li>Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes the edge of the core </li></ul><ul><li>Knaps the surface of the intended flake </li></ul><ul><li>Knocks off the flake </li></ul><ul><li>Retouches the flake to desired shape </li></ul><ul><li>May knap four to five flakes </li></ul>
  46. 46. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens skull <ul><li>Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal </li></ul><ul><li>Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of chin that human has </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of occipital bun </li></ul><ul><li>Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child </li></ul>
  47. 47. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens : Postcranial Skeletons <ul><li>Note the following for Neanderthals: </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Bones generally more robust </li></ul><ul><li>Larger rib cage </li></ul><ul><li>Broader pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter forearm </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Larger ankle joint </li></ul>
  48. 48. Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and Châtelperronian Traditions <ul><li>Mousterian (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Bordes: 63 types </li></ul><ul><li>Burins (engravers) </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapers and knives </li></ul><ul><li>Even a type of handaxe </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Mesolithic </li></ul><ul><li>Châtelperronian (bottom) </li></ul><ul><li>First blades—by Neanderthals </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated the Upper Paleolithic </li></ul>
  49. 49. Upper Paleolithic: Modern Human Tool Traditions . <ul><li>Commonalities of Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Blades: Ever thinner and smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tool specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Other material: bone, ivory, antler </li></ul><ul><li>Other Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamentation (Venus statuettes) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Review and Conclusion <ul><li>We have. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism </li></ul><ul><li>Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Territory Ahead <ul><li>Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins? </li></ul><ul><li>Language: The medium of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Economics: How goods and services are provided </li></ul><ul><li>Social Control: Governance and law </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all </li></ul><ul><li>The Supernatural: Were there gods before God? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations? </li></ul>

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