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Re-examination of theNeandertal and Archaic Homosapiens complex in Levantine             Southwest Asia.
Major Sites to be Covered.
“Neandertal” characteristics   Low, long skull   Heavy Brow Ridges   Robust Skeleton and Cranium   Retromolar gap.   ...
Cro-Magnon Man, or AMHS, fromEurope.
“Classic” Neandertals fromWestern Europe.
Qafzeh.
Qafzeh Skull, considered to beAMHS.
Qafzeh
Qafzeh VI, also consideredAMHS
Skhul
Skhul, also considered AMHS
Skhul side view.
Location of Amud.
Amud.
Amud 1
Amud 1.
Amud Comment:   Don Johansen (1994): “Amud I shows    affinities with the neandertals of Shandiar    Cave in Iraq and Tab...
Kebara.
Tabun.
A Neandertal with a Chin!   Neandertals have been referred to affectionately    as “chinless wonders”, as they do not    ...
Amud and Skhul compared.
Qafzeh VI and Tabun Compared.
Qafzeh IX and Skhul VI
Shared Time.
Thermoluminescence Dates   Tabun 386-151 kya   Qafzeh 102-85 kya   Skhul 119-118 kya   Kebara 61.6-48.3 kya   Amud 70...
Electron Spin Resonance Dates  TABUN 386-151 kya  AMUD 59-43 kya
Time Line Conflict for linearevolution/gradualism   The problem arises here that the supposed    AMHS sites of Qafzeh and...
Multiregional Evolution vs.Replacement Theories.   Multiregional Evolution posits that our species    evolved in the vari...
Shared Technology and Culture.   At all sites in the Levant, the Mousterian    Culture is present and dominant.   Earlie...
Mousterian Technology.
More Mousterian Technology
My argument.   Shared/overlapping time.   Shared/overlapping space.   Shared/overlapping morphology.   Shared material...
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/neanderthals/skulls.html
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Re examination of the neandertal and archaic

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My 2004 power point presentation supporting my senior seminar thesis.

My argument at that time was that the hominids found in the ancient Near East were the results of admixture, as there was shared anatomical features, shared culture, time and space. One population was represented rather than two.

Vindication came with Svante Paabo's and the Max Planck Institute's nuclear DNA sequencing and subsequent comparisons of Neandertal DNA from three individuals from Croatia and our own DNA.

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Re examination of the neandertal and archaic

  1. 1. Re-examination of theNeandertal and Archaic Homosapiens complex in Levantine Southwest Asia.
  2. 2. Major Sites to be Covered.
  3. 3. “Neandertal” characteristics Low, long skull Heavy Brow Ridges Robust Skeleton and Cranium Retromolar gap. No chin. Large, cold adapted nose. Occipital Bun
  4. 4. Cro-Magnon Man, or AMHS, fromEurope.
  5. 5. “Classic” Neandertals fromWestern Europe.
  6. 6. Qafzeh.
  7. 7. Qafzeh Skull, considered to beAMHS.
  8. 8. Qafzeh
  9. 9. Qafzeh VI, also consideredAMHS
  10. 10. Skhul
  11. 11. Skhul, also considered AMHS
  12. 12. Skhul side view.
  13. 13. Location of Amud.
  14. 14. Amud.
  15. 15. Amud 1
  16. 16. Amud 1.
  17. 17. Amud Comment: Don Johansen (1994): “Amud I shows affinities with the neandertals of Shandiar Cave in Iraq and Tabun, but is also has some similarities to the Skhul and Qafzeh populations of early Homo sapiens.”
  18. 18. Kebara.
  19. 19. Tabun.
  20. 20. A Neandertal with a Chin! Neandertals have been referred to affectionately as “chinless wonders”, as they do not characteristically possess a chin. At the Tabun site, specimen II Rak(1998) states: “I would like to stress, therefore, that my insistence on recognizing a true chin in Tabun II is based on the topography of the anterior section of the mandible, which consists of the unique morphological components defined as constituting a true chin”.
  21. 21. Amud and Skhul compared.
  22. 22. Qafzeh VI and Tabun Compared.
  23. 23. Qafzeh IX and Skhul VI
  24. 24. Shared Time.
  25. 25. Thermoluminescence Dates Tabun 386-151 kya Qafzeh 102-85 kya Skhul 119-118 kya Kebara 61.6-48.3 kya Amud 70-50 kya
  26. 26. Electron Spin Resonance Dates TABUN 386-151 kya AMUD 59-43 kya
  27. 27. Time Line Conflict for linearevolution/gradualism The problem arises here that the supposed AMHS sites of Qafzeh and Skhul predate some of the supposed Neandertal sites. Explanations of why this situation resulted is the “ebb and flow theory”, where cold adapted Neandertals come down when the glaciers expand, and AMHS retreat to Africa. Bar-Yosef describes the Levant as the “central bus station”
  28. 28. Multiregional Evolution vs.Replacement Theories. Multiregional Evolution posits that our species evolved in the various areas that Homo erectus/ergaster colonized in the first ‘out of Africa’ migration, and evolved into AMHS with a constant gene flow out of Africa Replacement Theory says there were only two migrations out of Africa, with the latter one coming ~100 kya and replacing all prior homininds completely
  29. 29. Shared Technology and Culture. At all sites in the Levant, the Mousterian Culture is present and dominant. Earlier Levallois technology is present at the oldest site of Tabun, which is to be expected There is no technological ‘tool kit’ in the Levant comparable to the advances present in Cro-Magnon sites in Europe.
  30. 30. Mousterian Technology.
  31. 31. More Mousterian Technology
  32. 32. My argument. Shared/overlapping time. Shared/overlapping space. Shared/overlapping morphology. Shared material culture in the form of the Mousterian technology. If you have all of these represented in one region, you have one variable population and not two separate species.
  33. 33. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/neanderthals/skulls.html

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