Evolution II.
Dating of fossils <ul><li>Relative   </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute </li></ul>
Relative dating
Absolute dating <ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul>5 730 704 .10 6 14 .10 12 1,3 .10 12 Half-live (years) K 40 C 14 U 23...
P rinciple of radiometric dating 0,5 1,0 0 t Share of isotope time isotope decay product Half-life
Mesozoic K-T Border (66-65 mil.y.): mass extinction 190 Triassic 66 Cretaceous 136 Jurassic TIME (milions of years) PERIOD
Chixculub Crater (Mexiko)  Site of colision with an asteroide measuring 10-20 km across
Kenozoic Homo sapiens sapiens Occurence of   Prosimii 53 Homo habilis Homo erectus  Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Hominids...
Cladistics <ul><li>A method of analyzing the evolutionary relationships between groups to construct their family tree. Phy...
x x   x x elephant                          x x   x x cat                            x   x x opossum                      ...
Simple cladogram of mammals
A cladogram derived from the molecular data (DNA sequence)
Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides I. Time (milions of years) Tertiary Quarternary 6 5 4 3 2 1 0,5 0 0,25 Hom...
Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides II.
Kenyantropus
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus africanus Skull of „Taung child“ – found in south Africa
Australopithecus afarensis
Autralopithecus afarensis skeleton „Lucy“
Footsteps of  A.afarensis  (Laetoli, Tanzania) Australopithecus  walked upright (bipedal)
Australopithecus afarensis
Homo habilis
Homo erectus the first hominide living outside Africa
Homo erectus
Homo erectus
Homo heidelbergensis
Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides Time (milions of years) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0,5 0 0,25 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo „...
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis  X  Homo sapiens
Modern  Homo sapiens Lascaux cave (France) –  paintings of wild horses and aurochs (17 000 years ago).
http://www.modernhumanorigins.com/
About the origin of  Homo sapiens <ul><li>Monocentric models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens  evolved in one site (prob...
Out-of-Africa Theory
Mitochondrial Eve <ul><li>The rate of mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is constant – roughly 1/1500-3000 year...
What hapenned with  Homo neanderthalensis ? <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens  evolved from  H. neanderthale...
Results of the mtDNA studies? <ul><li>Hypervariable sequences HVR I a HVR II of the mtDNA (aDNA) isolated from the fossil ...
 
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Evolution Ii

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Evolution Ii

  1. 1. Evolution II.
  2. 2. Dating of fossils <ul><li>Relative </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute </li></ul>
  3. 3. Relative dating
  4. 4. Absolute dating <ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul>5 730 704 .10 6 14 .10 12 1,3 .10 12 Half-live (years) K 40 C 14 U 235 Th 232 Isotope
  5. 5. P rinciple of radiometric dating 0,5 1,0 0 t Share of isotope time isotope decay product Half-life
  6. 6. Mesozoic K-T Border (66-65 mil.y.): mass extinction 190 Triassic 66 Cretaceous 136 Jurassic TIME (milions of years) PERIOD
  7. 7. Chixculub Crater (Mexiko) Site of colision with an asteroide measuring 10-20 km across
  8. 8. Kenozoic Homo sapiens sapiens Occurence of Prosimii 53 Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Hominids ( Australopithecus ) 1,8 Occurence of Dryopithecus 5 Occurence of Hominoidea 25 Occurence of Anthropoidea 35 Tertiary recent Holocene 0,01 Pleistocene Quarternary CHARAKTERISTIC Time (mil.y.) PERIOD
  9. 9. Cladistics <ul><li>A method of analyzing the evolutionary relationships between groups to construct their family tree. Phylogenetic relationship between organisms is derived from the similarity of certain characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Result of cladistic analysis – cladogram. </li></ul>Cladogram
  10. 10. x x   x x elephant                        x x   x x cat                          x   x x opossum                          x x x echidna                             x x x platypus                        placenta? livebearing? lay eggs? milk? hair?
  11. 11. Simple cladogram of mammals
  12. 12. A cladogram derived from the molecular data (DNA sequence)
  13. 13. Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides I. Time (milions of years) Tertiary Quarternary 6 5 4 3 2 1 0,5 0 0,25 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo „sapiens“ neanderthalensis Homo erectus Homo habilis Australopithecus afarensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus. africanus Homo heidelbergensis
  14. 14. Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides II.
  15. 15. Kenyantropus
  16. 16. Australopithecus africanus
  17. 17. Australopithecus africanus Skull of „Taung child“ – found in south Africa
  18. 18. Australopithecus afarensis
  19. 19. Autralopithecus afarensis skeleton „Lucy“
  20. 20. Footsteps of A.afarensis (Laetoli, Tanzania) Australopithecus walked upright (bipedal)
  21. 21. Australopithecus afarensis
  22. 22. Homo habilis
  23. 23. Homo erectus the first hominide living outside Africa
  24. 24. Homo erectus
  25. 25. Homo erectus
  26. 26. Homo heidelbergensis
  27. 27. Possible fylogenetic relationships of hominides Time (milions of years) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0,5 0 0,25 Homo sapiens sapiens Homo „sapiens“ neanderthalensis Homo erectus Homo habilis Australopithecus afarensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus. africanus Homo heidelbergensis
  28. 28. Homo neanderthalensis
  29. 29. Homo neanderthalensis
  30. 30. Homo neanderthalensis
  31. 31. Homo neanderthalensis X Homo sapiens
  32. 32. Modern Homo sapiens Lascaux cave (France) – paintings of wild horses and aurochs (17 000 years ago).
  33. 33. http://www.modernhumanorigins.com/
  34. 34. About the origin of Homo sapiens <ul><li>Monocentric models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens evolved in one site (probably in the Africa) – out-of-Africa theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polycentric models (multiregional evolution) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens evolved independently in a few different sites. Modern humans originated of crossbreedind of these different strains. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Out-of-Africa Theory
  36. 36. Mitochondrial Eve <ul><li>The rate of mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is constant – roughly 1/1500-3000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of these mutations could explain differences on possible relationship between different human populations. Its also possible to estimate the time of evolutionary division of their ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>mtDNA studies showed that the modern humans ( Homo sapiens sapiens ) differed from other species of the genus Homo before some 150 – 200 thousands of years. Homo sapiens originated from a small group of females (or only one female) – such called „ mitochondrial Eve “, which delivered to us her mitochondrial genes. </li></ul><ul><li>„ Eve“ lived probably in Africa. It supports the hypothesis, that the whole mankind originated from only one ancestor (i.e. „out-of-Africa theory). </li></ul>
  37. 37. What hapenned with Homo neanderthalensis ? <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens evolved from H. neanderthalensis </li></ul><ul><li>H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis were different species, but H.neanderthalensis failed in competition with H. sapiens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( H.n. was a trophy of H.sapiens ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There was numerous crossbreeding between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Current human population consist of descendants of the both of species. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Results of the mtDNA studies? <ul><li>Hypervariable sequences HVR I a HVR II of the mtDNA (aDNA) isolated from the fossil materials were analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Intraspecific variability within the population of the modern humans reaches maximum only 11pb. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in HVR squences between the modern human and H. neanderthalensis are 35 pb. It could be explained as a interspecific difference. </li></ul>

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