Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Eliminating Difficult Start-ups with State Based Controls

992 views

Published on

This presentation explains the benefits of automated start-up.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Eliminating Difficult Start-ups with State Based Controls

  1. 1. Automated Start-up of a Difficult Process By Dustin Beebe, P.E.
  2. 2. Presenter <ul><li>Dustin Beebe, P.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated from Arkansas with B.S. in Chemical Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined ProSys in 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earned Professional Engineer designation in 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became CEO of ProSys in 2009 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Goals <ul><li>Brief Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What makes processes difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>How to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
  4. 4. About ProSys <ul><li>ProSys is an innovative professional engineering firm specializing in the area of process control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Engineering Services <ul><li>Engineering Services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many More… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Issues that Affect Startup <ul><li>CSB - $10 B per year lost due to operator error </li></ul><ul><li>Aging workforce – experience is retiring </li></ul><ul><li>Variability in Operator expertise on shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing levels </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged start-up time </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment damage </li></ul><ul><li>Greater process complexity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced errors and overshoots </li></ul><ul><li>Positive HSE impact </li></ul><ul><li>More Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Less off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>More benefits depending on situation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Process Stability <ul><li>In a chemical process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability is increased by adding mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More metal (heat sink, spare capacity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More inventory (spare capacity, time to respond) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes at a cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More heat loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More off-spec product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of efficiency / under leveraged asset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials / Labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What makes processes so difficult? <ul><li>Small envelopes </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Computational </li></ul><ul><li>Running next to the limit </li></ul><ul><li>Trip / Interlock logic </li></ul>
  10. 10. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Envelopes represent a process context which when violated result in consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence represents to which envelope the boundary belongs </li></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  11. 11. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Small envelopes make it difficult to maintain operations </li></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  12. 12. Examples of small envelopes <ul><li>Operational / Controllability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exothermic reaction requires an exact stoichiometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variability of just 5% off of ratio results in loss of reaction and requires restart of heater and reduction of feed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of multitasking/computational <ul><li>Operational / Controllability & Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A train of separation columns that have limited inventory within the column to feed the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small adjustment to the column could end up with a dynamic response that starves downstream columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator has to adjust multiple columns to keep from going on total reflux or slopping product </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Override </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  15. 15. <ul><li>Operator Response </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps it running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps it running </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Reproducible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Exposure </li></ul></ul>Process Envelopes Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  16. 16. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Interlocks </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good layer of protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves away from operational and economic envelopes </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  17. 17. Process Envelopes <ul><li>Regulatory Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steers to target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not intelligent of operational objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be coordinated </li></ul></ul>Safety Operational Reliability Environmental Economic Product A Economic Product B
  18. 18. Corralling the Process APC Regulatory Sequence State Logic Interlocks Alarms issued for unexpected or unplanned events Trips due to interlocks should be rare!
  19. 19. Manually Operated Plant <ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows manual procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates regulatory controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates with outside operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights interlocks </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Automated Plant <ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates regulatory controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced manual outside operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates with outside operations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. On the Edge <ul><li>F-16 Fighter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is designed for negative static stability (NSS) in subsonic flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally flies on the verge of going out of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSS design enhances the maneuverability of the aircraft (optimal for fighter jet) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. On the Edge <ul><li>Flight Control Computer (FLCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes input from the pilot and manipulates control surfaces to achieve desired objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains a series of limiters that govern orientation of the aircraft. Prevents conditions which would induce unstable flight </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic envelopes can often fall on the edge of an operational or safety boundary </li></ul>Operational Economic Product A
  24. 24. On the Edge <ul><li>Process Envelopes: </li></ul><ul><li>APCs have constraint control and can be layered with override strategies </li></ul>Operational APC Economic Product A
  25. 25. Total Automation on TDC/TPS State logic Dynamic Alarming and Sequence Coordination Configuration and Maintenance Operation Sequences Sequences Sequences
  26. 27. State Transitions <ul><li>All State Transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls are coordinated in a repeatable manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are at least 2 levels of logic on top of regulatory or discrete layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State logic (Macro logic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controller / Sequence logic (Micro logic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarms are dynamically managed </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. State Transitions <ul><li>Manual or Auto </li></ul><ul><li>States are summarized on display for operator </li></ul><ul><li>Operator can monitor and request state changes from high level and drill for detail </li></ul><ul><li>Logic is available to operator </li></ul>
  28. 29. Elements of Good Implementation <ul><li>Acquire correct tools </li></ul><ul><li>Get trained or use experienced personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Target acquisition / Justification </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate </li></ul><ul><li>Train </li></ul><ul><li>Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain / Improve </li></ul>
  29. 30. Total Automation Results <ul><li>Quicker startups (1/2 to 2/3 reduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatable – like it’s on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced errors and overshoots </li></ul><ul><li>Positive HSE impact </li></ul><ul><li>More Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Less off-spec product </li></ul><ul><li>More benefits depending on situation </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Utilizes process control </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require the same skill level and experience as a manual plant </li></ul><ul><li>Resilient to frequent transition of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Profitable </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Modern Automated Plant <ul><li>Reduces training costs versus a manual plant </li></ul><ul><li>Is safer and more efficient to operate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow’s “stateful control” systems and safety culture have made the company one of the safest in the petrochemical industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J.M. “Levi” Leathers – Dow Chemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control Magazine, May 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Questions ? www.prosys.com [email_address]

×