TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Each element of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) house is essential to supporting the HF Group house. Training and Education The foundation for the other elements. Operators, maintenance staff and stakeholders receive the correct training for improving operator and maintenance skill levels. Also making material available for self-development fosters equipment-competent employees. Autonomous Maintenance Operators assume ownership for the efficiency of their equipment by personal involvement in early problem detection, routine cleaning, lubrication and equipment inspection. This also includes being a member of a Small Group Activity improvement team formed after completion of a workshop. Planned Maintenance Moving from reactive to proactive maintenance using planned and Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) technology with an emphasis on reliability of our assets. Attack Six Big Losses Equipment Failure Setup and Adjustment Idling and Minor Stoppages Reduced Speed 5. Quality Defects Rework Start up Losses Quality Maintenance Achieving and sustaining quality by proactively maintaining equipment and processes. Equipment Design and Startup Management New assets meet production needs and minimize Life Cycle Costs (LCC). Design right, buy right, build right. Safety and Environment Is the roof on the TPM house and paramount in all we do. This coupled with a clean and healthful workplace promotes excellent working and living conditions in our community. .
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance World Class companies will plan and schedule 80% of their total workloads. 80% planned and scheduled work loads is a goal to try and achieve, but will require a structured focused effort and a culture change to understand true planned and scheduled work philosophies. Reactive work will usually cost on average, four to five times more than planned work, and in some cases may cost much greater depending on the asset type and the product being produced.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This example shows the types of planned work in a World Class company and the percent of average reactive work. Planned activities provide the most cost effective methods for an efficient and reliable manufacturing system. In a Lean work environment, asset reliability becomes essential to the manufacturing process. Note: Falling short on any of the green planned activities, the reactive(corrective) activity will increase thus causing cost to rise exponentially. Exercise: Have participants list works as teams and list on their easels why reactive maintenance cost more than planned maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This example shows a measurement for man hours worked against completed work orders. This can be set to any time range, thus allowing you to see the total of actual reactive work versus actual planned work.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This example shows a measurement for man hours worked against completed work orders. This can be set to any time range, thus allowing you to see the total of actual reactive work versus actual planned work.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This measure shows the percentage of completed planned work jobs in a given time frame. Goal should be 100% schedule compliance, which means that every planned job scheduled was actually completed on schedule.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This measure shows the percentage of completed PM jobs in a given time frame. Goal should be 100% schedule compliance, which means that every PM job scheduled was actually completed on schedule. This critical to increase asset reliability.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Maintenance Types: Planned: Activities and actions applied to equipment prior to and during operation to prevent problems, gain greatest reliability, and minimize failures Autonomous Maintenance : Process by which equipment operators accept and share responsibility (with Maintenance) for the performance or health of their equipment. Condition Based Maintenance (CBM): Maintenance action based on actual measured conditions. Preventive Maintenance: Time and Usage based activities designed to prevent unplanned events. Reactive Maintenance: comprises the maintenance procedure taken in response to a breakdown or an unplanned event. Precision Maintenance: Application of precision alignments and balancing to whole systems, often to higher than OEM levels, to achieve maximum life and reduce future unplanned events. Process Improvement: Any improvement activity to assets or processes. Reliability Centered Maintenance(RCM): A structured reliability analysis designed to provide Preventive Maintenance plans based on asset functionality.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This is how the different types of maintenance activities are incorporated in a World Class Planned Maintenance System. Can you think of where some other types of maintenance can fit into these categories?
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Maintenance work planning/scheduling and management is critical to a successful PM process. The maintenance planner/scheduler must coordinate with the production planner to schedule Planned Maintenance activities so that they do not impact production. In turn, the Production Planner must also allow time for Maintenance to conduct their planned activities. Failure to do this will lead to equipment failure.The most effective means is to schedule PM activities into the manufacturing master schedule. Maintenance Information Management is almost as important to TPM as doing maintenance itself. We must establish a robust system and procedures for collecting maintenance information so we can detect problems and determine a means of eliminating those problems. CMMS systems have the capabilities to provide custom reports of specific data that allow basic Root Cause Failure Analysis. Spare-parts management must ensure that we have the critical long lead items on hand when we need them. We must also ensure that we do not have excess inventory on hand that we either do not need or that we can have delivered on a JIT basis. We should have inventory turns of > 2 -3 on our spare parts. Finally is a cost management system that ensures that we are delivering the highest level of service for the best price. This is imperative to achieve and maintain customer satisfaction. TPM when implemented properly can deliver all these things and much more.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance 1. Establish the basic condition of the equipment: Clean equipment and remedy the source of contamination Tighten fasteners and prevent them from loosening Proper Lubrication; Identify lubrication points and surfaces Improve work methods and equipment Remedy difficult work areas Set and follow cleaning and lubricating standards 2. Adhere to the usage conditions of the equipment: Identify design conditions of mass-produced parts and vendor instruction Standardize design conditions Set and improve usage condition in terms of parts, subassemblies and equipment Properly install equipment Prepare accurate operating procedures and supply to production department Adhere to given operating conditions and procedures 3. Inspect and restore defective parts: Determine categories for overall inspection Execute inspection education and practices for operators and maintenance Conduct overall inspection Set and follow routine inspection standards Identify adequate MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) based on the results of routine inspection Extend intervals for parts replacement and overhaul Conduct Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) 4. Correct design weaknesses: Improve Equipment to extend lifetime: Structure and mechanism Shape and material Dimensional accuracy Assembling accuracy Corrosion resistance Etc. Analyze and remedy kinetic condition of equipment 5. Enhance operator and maintenance skill: Operations: Analyze each occurrence of misoperation and take necessary remedial action Install mistake proofs Apply visual controls Standardize operating and adjusting procedures Maintenance: Analyze servicing mistakes and take necessary remedial action Improve disassembling and assembling procedures Establish spare parts control system Install mistake-proofs Apply visual controls Standard servicing procedures
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Remember the goal of Planned Maintenance is to: Improve Reliability (prevent failures) Improve Maintainability (reduce the time to restore a failed asset) Small-group activities have the side-benefit of enhancing skill-level, team-building, etc. The approach (strategy) you use is explained on the next slide.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance If your Autonomous Maintenance program is not going to yield very many positive results than you should select the equipment model. If you expect great results from your Autonomous Maintenance activities then the parts model would be best suited. If there are a large number of “like” equipment, the parts model may be the best strategy. If the equipment is unique, then the equipment model may be the best approach. If the equipment is in deplorable condition then you should select the equipment model. With a large maintenance staff, then both strategies may be used concurrently. If you only have a few maintenance personnel then the parts model will yield the best results. If maintenance skills are low, then the equipment model is best to improve maintenance skill.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Equipment model is good when: The number of like-assets are few The machines are in a poor condition An additional goal is to improve proficiency of maintenance staff Steps 1-3 are activities designed to reduce failures and enhance preventive maintenance Step 4 is designed to increase mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) Step 5 is to reduce mean-time-to-repair (MTTR) Step 6 requires more sophisticated analysis and reliability tools (e.g. root-cause failure analysis) to address the source of failures. Step 7 requires a review of steps 1-5 to improve on weak points, and then the utilization the latest diagnostic technology (Condition-based Maintenance).
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance The best way to evaluate the current condition of the equipment is to conduct “Cleaning is Inspecting” this is done in the same manner as an Autonomous Maintenance Workshop. Clean the equipment and allow the maintenance personnel to become familiar with all aspects of the maintenance technologies involved in maintaining the asset. Tag any defects that are discovered because minor defects eventually lead to failure. Identify all areas that need to be regularly inspected to prevent failure. Review and identify required changes to the Planned Maintenance instructions. Categorize conditions that lead to failure, such as improper use, leaving deterioration undocumented, random failures and insufficient maintenance actions. Then, sort and assign to the appropriate step so that they can be addressed at that step. Classify sorted data into a Malfunction map and a Preventive Maintenance map.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Is this normal or abnormal?
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Based on the malfunction map produced in the previous step, adopt and implement countermeasures. The main purpose of this activity is to prevent the same failure from recurring.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance The main focus of this activity is to develop standards to maintain the gains of the previous steps. When preparing Preventive Maintenance standards, use pictures and work instructions so that any skilled worker who performs the task knows what is expected and performs the task in a uniform, standard way. Many World Class companies also videotape how to perform tasks so it is clear to new employees, or employees not familiar with the equipment how to properly perform the task.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This is an example of the current state of many of our PMs today. Advantages : Easy to write – less time to develop Small file size Disadvantages : Refers you to separate maintenance document Does not show location of adjustments Does not allow comments/tracking by person doing the check Difficult to perform if you’re not familiar with equipment No visual cues
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This is an example of a World-Class PM Instruction. Advantages : Clarity. Easy to perform for qualified craftsman. Less likely to do it incorrectly. Can be performed more quickly, because all information is contained in a single document. Visual Cues Disadvantages : More difficult to develop process. Requires word-processing proficiency, and greater time to create. Large file size
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This section identifies all of the tools, materials, and parts required to perform the tasks in the PM. By kitting the resources up-front, the craftsman may spend their time more efficiently, by performing the PM instead of running around searching for parts, etc. The planning / scheduling function should ensure that all resources are ready for the job before any labor is scheduled.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Steps one through three mainly focused on eliminating Forced Deterioration of the asset. This step focuses on Proactive Maintenance and extending the service life of the equipment. We should also focus intensely on improving the maintenance methods that are used to perform Preventive Maintenance activities. To do this we need to identify the training needed for different maintenance crafts as well as for any necessary machine specific training. Prior to trying to accomplish this step, the maintenance personnel involved should be trained in “5 Why” Analysis and Root Cause Failure Analysis. We will also want to put processes in place for collecting and maintaining Maintenance Prevention data.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Example of a “5 Why Analysis” form: Phenomenon or failure, machines alarm was always on. With X servo error why (#1) was X axis laser faulting causing the Servo Error? Why (#2) was laser not getting a strong enough signal? This was verified by checking the signal voltage at the laser. Why (#3) was: (1) laser and or optics not aligned properly? Checked alignment and found to be OK. (2) Laser is not getting warm enough for beam to lock. Why (#4) was laser heater not heating up to desired temperature? It was noticed that heater was on all the time. Why (#5) was insufficient design from manufacture? (Heater is undersized) Temporary countermeasure isolate laser from metal bed that it is mounted to, to try and keep heat from transferring into the bed. Reduced failures by 50% . Final countermeasure: have laser manufacturer design laser with larger heater element in it so laser reaches desired temperature and is capable of locking in the beam. Reduced the failures to none.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This is a Maintenance Prevention Proposal Form that can be completed by the operator or maintenance personnel to make suggestions for a process improvement to existing equipment, and suggestions for future purchases. These forms should be returned to the Maintenance and Reliability Engineering departments.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance The main focus of this step is to improve the maintenance standards and methods so that they are easier to perform and become more effective through continuous improvement. In other words we should be reducing the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR).
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance For this step execute steps 1-5 with zero quality defects as a goal. We should be focusing heavily on machine specs and how they relate to the quality of the parts being manufactured. We should also focus on how we can use new technologies such as ballbars, vibration analysis and laser technologies to ensure zero defects.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This step emphasizes using Condition Based Maintenance technologies to early detect failures and quality defects, which can save time and money. Predictive technologies can be used to find process problems, maintenance equipment problems, infrastructure problems. Predictive technologies use in industry is only limited to the imagination of those receiving and providing the services.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance The failure patterns of equipment and components over time form what is often referred to as the bathtub curve. It is characterized by a high initial infancy rate of failures that are due to manufacturing or commissioning problems, followed by a period of normal operation with few failures, followed by an increase of failures and deterioration which precedes the end of the normal life cycle of the asset or component. A small percentage (11%) of assets exhibit a pattern predictable enough that age alone will predict the onset of this deterioration. The remainder of equipment (89%) will include enough randomness to the failure pattern that condition monitoring is necessary to determine the assets progression into the deterioration curve. In one study 68% of component failure patterns were predominated by high infancy failures. Reliability qualification (precision) process can manage these.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Vibration Analysis The analysis of system and equipment vibration levels is considered the workhorse of Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Vibration Monitoring is used to determine the condition of rotating equipment, structural stability in systems, and sources of airborne noise. Vibration is the periodic motion of a body about its equilibrium position. A fault in a rotating machine will cause a vibration at a specific frequency. If left uncorrected, the vibration amplitude will increase and eventually the machine will be damaged Applications: All rotating equipment - motors, pumps, turbines, compressors, engines, bearings, gearboxes, and shafts. In addition, modern data loggers will support resonance testing, equipment balancing, and airborne noise measurements. Conditions Monitored: Wear, imbalance, misalignment, mechanical looseness, bearing damage, belt flaws, shiv and pulley flaws, gear damage, flow turbulence, cavitation, structural resonance, and fatigue. Detection Interval: Narrow band vibration analysis can provide several weeks or months of warning of impending failure. The time interval is based on the experience of the analyst and the type, quantity, and quality of data collected. Accuracy: Studies by the U.S. Navy have found probabilities of detection to be as high as 92% and as low as 76%. The corresponding false alarm rate was found to be 8%. probability of detection and of false alarm rates are optimized by selecting the appropriate monitoring intervals and alarm criteria.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Tribology and Lubrication Tribology is the study of friction, wear, and lubrication between surfaces in relative motion. The analysis of lubricants, wear particles and post mortem analysis of failed parts correlating with other Condition Based Maintenance technologies such as vibration analysis and Thermography allows not only the condition of the equipment to be determined but also aids in identifying the root cause of the failure. A typical analysis offers information for two areas of interest: First, oil condition is determined by viscosity testing and additive/contaminant analysis. Second, machine condition is determined by ferrography and particle counting. Conditions Monitored: Wear and corrosion products, condition of additives, pH, contaminates, and viscosity Application: Circulating oil and hydraulic systems, gearboxes, sumps, and storage tanks. Detection Interval: Several months. Accuracy: Proper drawing and handling of the sample as well as the skill of the analyst are the limiting factors for analysis accuracy. The American Society for testing and Materials (ASTM) has published guidelines on reproducibility and repeatability which should be followed if samples are to be considered valid.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Thermography/Infrared Monitors the emission of radiated energy in the infrared wave lengths, i.e., temperature, to determine their operating condition, and detecting thermal anomalies, areas that are hotter or colder than they should be. Conditions Monitored: Surface, bearing, and internal structure temperature; electrical connections, insulation breakdown, changes in heat transfer characteristics due to fouling. Applications: Heat exchangers, electrical distribution and control systems, roofs, steam traps, transformers, cable trays, switch gear refratories, bearings, piping processes, insulation, valves, and as a damage control tool to locate fires and leaks. Detection Interval: Depends on the application and monitoring technique. Accuracy: The skill of the analyst determines the accuracy if infrared monitoring devices since thermal characteristics of the object monitored affect the results. IR imagers have a measurement accuracy specification of +/- 2 degrees Celsius or 2% of the total temperature which ever is greater.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance MOTOR CONDITION EVALUATION: Motor circuit analysis tells us the condition of motor windings, the motor rotor, and motor control supply circuit. Motor current gives the operating and running condition, and general health of the motor, and also a picture of the incoming power to the motor. Application: All electric motors and generators. Conditions Monitored: Rotor bar condition (broken or loose), rotor eccentricities, unbalanced voltage supply, shorted winding turns, impending catastrophic failures. Detection Interval: Perform on the same frequency as vibration measurements are taken. The time interval is based on the experience of the analyst and the type, quantity, and quality of data collected. Equipment which shows bad performance should be monitored more frequently until the problem is fixed. Accuracy: Many of the relationships to failure are still under development with respect to the current spectrum. Rotor bar indications have a high degree of correlation, almost as good as vibration data. the trending data will indicate motor problems with a high degree of accuracy. Pinpointing the exact problem is dependent on analyst skill and knowledge.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Visual Observations Visual observation is perhaps the oldest and most common Predictive Maintenance technique used in industry. It can be surprisingly effective on virtually any machine found in an industrial plant. So, it is important that any discussion of machine condition monitoring techniques include a mention of visual observation techniques. In many cases, human observations help to identify a problem that is undetected by other predictive techniques or maintenance inspection. This can include loose, visibly worn or broken parts, oil leaks, chattering gears, or hot bearing housing. Typical applications are usually limited to less critical plant machines that are not included in a formal predictive data collection route. There is no appropriate frequency for observations; they should occur whenever personnel are in the plant. Both Operations and Maintenance personnel need to be trained observers, since that will provide the most complete and knowledgeable coverage of plant machinery. A good way to start this teaming effort is to introduce a Work Cell Customer Service Agreement, which outlines what observations and tasks can be worked together as a team.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Data collection points can be used to plan and schedule specific maintenance tasks.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Parts model is good when: · The number of like-assets are many · The machines are in good condition (forced deterioration is low and Autonomous maintenance is high). · Maintenance personnel are few, and skill level is high. One benefit of the parts model is that the machine does not have to be stopped until step 5. If parts AND equipment models are being executed concurrently, they should come together at step 6. Steps 1 and 2 require analysis of machine component failures and current maintenance processes Steps 3 and 4 create and improve maintenance processes (inspection standards, division of responsibilities between shop and maintenance, methods to protect key components, etc.) Step 5 is to optimize preventive maintenance tasks (frequency, efficiency) and to evaluate possible CBM methodologies (vibration, anti-corrosion, installation of sensors, etc.) for inclusion in steps 6 & 7. Steps 6 and 7 are identical to the equipment model.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance As shown above parts should be ranked by both criteria, and priority parts should then be selected. Parts that rank high on both list are ideal candidates. A possible option to consider is the performing of a Reliability Centered Maintenance workshop(RCM), which will drive out specific parts to be identified as run to failure, critical spares, and normal spares all based on functions that effect asset performance.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance You should already be collecting this data in some shape or form if you are not now is the time to start. Most people collect the data, but spend very little time analyzing the data. By analyzing the data we can tell what parts are causing are problems and improve those parts or find better parts to use in their place.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This example is taken directly from Maximo CMMS system. The longer the Mean Time Between Failure is the more reliable the part. This is a real example. It is also a bad example because it does not categorize failures down into parts. It is rather generic thereby impeding Root Cause Analysis. MTTR is the amount of time to repair an item. The less time it takes to repair an item the more maintainable that item is. Parts with long MTTR should be addressed and countermeasures implemented to make them more maintainable. Average MTBF and MTTR can be reported by groups of assets as well. This structure would allow an overall view of how well a group of assets work together. In a Lean system this can become valuable information on making improvements.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance This asset group reflects the top 10 assets in reactive man hours for a year. The blue bar reflects a the actual reactive man hours, the yellow bar represents the targeted goal for each asset, and the green bar addresses the actual reactive man hours for the following year. This allows the ability to quickly track basic improvements in asset performance based upon maintenance reactive man hours. The following slide will illustrate the follow on actions Reliability Engineering should focus on.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance The arrows indicate assets whose performance did not meet the goals set for a given year. These assets now become a focus for specific reliability efforts including detailed Root Cause Failure Analysis.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Any time a part fails tear it apart and find the reason for its failure. Then track that information so that design improvements can be made to extend the life of the part. To improve MTTR focus on creating and improving maintenance procedures. If needed make special tooling that will make the maintenance task easier and safer to perform hence reducing MTTR.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Step three focuses on preparing standards for both Periodic Maintenance and Routine Maintenance. We will also determine what inspections our Autonomous Maintenance counterparts should be conducting.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Examples of use conditions, temperature and functions, vibration or shocks and function, humidity and function, electrical quality and function. Examples of protection of part function, change of parts layout, protective covers, improvement of the quality of energy such as voltage constant power sources, and air dryers
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance At this step we want to improve upon the previous standards that we have developed. We also want to investigate non-invasive inspection and diagnostic technologies
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Understanding when to integrate the equipment model and parts model is important, but not critical. The important thing is to begin using a model.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Integrated 5 Year Plan - incorporate both the Operations and Facilities “Vision” and “Strategic Business Plan” into an integrated operating agreement (Customer Service Agreement). The development of this plan should drive out a number of things: 1- the need for a documented “Vision” at the Vice President level of all organizations. The purpose would be to develop 5 year operating plans that would support the long range “Vision” of our leadership. 2 - the need for both Facilities and Operations to develop and document 5 year plans at all levels of the organization. 3 - the need to get all levels of the organization involved with planning and working toward common goals and objectives. The benefits from this exercise would be: a) common direction throughout all levels of Facilities and Operations. b) commitment to that direction throughout all levels of the organizations, and c) establish a “working together” environment throughout all levels of the organizations. Integrated Safety Plan- incorporate both the operations and Facilities safety plans into a workable plan at the shop floor level. The anticipated benefits from this activity would be that everyone associated with this particular agreement would have the same understanding and commitment to the safety of the equipment and each other. This could also carry over into their everyday dealings with others both at work and at home. One common safety message up and down the organization. TPM Implementation Plan- establish and document a TPM implementation plan and schedule. This will help integrate the BCAG initiative into the work group dynamics. AMaP Implementation Plan- educate the workshop participants on the AMaP process. Identify the key elements and how they can positively effect the availability of the selected equipment. This information could be key to getting the customer on board with scheduling maintenance activities. Autonomous Maintenance Implementation Plan- establish and document an Autonomous Maintenance implementation plan and schedule. This will help integrate the BCAG initiative into the work group dynamics. Critical Equipment List- establish and document the “critical equipment list” for each agreement. This list should include all support and ancillary equipment. It should be evaluated from both the Facilities and Operations perspective. This will provide each participant the information required to make decisions on how and when to re-deploy resources if necessary. Documented Equipment Priorities- establish and document the priority system that is to be employed. Educate the Operations folks on the SERP, how it works, what it means, how is changes. This could go a long way to getting both sides to understand how priorities change and the effect of those changes on normal operating procedures.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance 7. Defined Levels of Service- establish and document expectations from both the operations and Facilities organizations. This is done today on a very informal basis. We tend to assume that each knows what the other needs and wants, we don’t know for sure until someone feels that they aren’t getting what was agreed to and complains. That’s when and where the finger pointing starts. 9. Planned Maintenance Schedules- establish and publish maintenance routines and schedules. Educate the Operations folks on what it is we need to do, why we need to do it, and when and how it needs to be done. This will give them some visibility of what maintenance really does do. It will also give them a better understanding of why we do it. Hopefully, we can start a dialog around getting the operators involved with some Autonomous Maintenance activities. 10. Acquire/Modification Project Schedules- establish and publish major project schedules that will provide visibility to both the operations and maintain folks so they can integrate all of the required activities into one dynamic schedule. This should certainly allow for better visibility and allow for more efficient resource utilization. 11. Documented Goals and Objectives- establish and document the goals and objectives for this work group. These goals and objectives must support the “Vision” , the BCAG initiatives, the AMaP key elements, and the performance improvements of TPM. This element should foster the “working together” environment that is essential to a productive work cell. 12. Equipment Performance Improvement Plan- establish and document a plan for improving the performance of all identified equipment. The measurement of the success of this step will be Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). This will tie in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) with the CSA’s. This information will provide participants with the understanding of how the implementation of a TPM plan can help improve equipment performance. 13. Equipment Performance Measurement Plan- develop a plan that will measure the “six big losses” as outlined in the TPM plan. This is an essential step in the agreement, if there is no agreement on these performance measures, there can’t be any effective improvements made and no long term benefits realized. 14. Performance Improvement Incentive Plan- establish an incentive plan that will provide the participants with some type of reward for meeting their established performance improvement targets. This element will, again, develop that “working together” environment that is critical to success.
TPM Leader Training Planned Maintenance Techniques to achieve zero failures 12/20/2005
Maintenance Activities <ul><li>Planned Maintenance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance tasks including inspection, service and / or replacement conducted at planned and scheduled intervals. Includes all work that can be planned. Includes work order types such as PM, PS, PD, PC, PI. PJ. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactive Maintenance (breakdown maintenance): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection and periodic replacement is not performed at all, equipment is run to failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: This is a valid strategy, where assets production impact costs are less than the costs of performing PM, thus should be classed as ‘Run to Failure”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An unplanned event </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005 Present Future 20% 20% 80% 80%
12/20/2005 Derived From: AMS Associates Planned Maintenance in a World Class Company Things that Initiate Maintenance Scheduled Maintenance Activities Expected Failures Unexpected Failures Total Maintenance Excellence Reliability Centered Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Less Than 20% Preventive Maintenance Run-to-Failure Then Fix Time-Based Maintenance Condition-Based Maintenance (Based on Predictive Maintenance) Failure Finding Maintenance Known Age Reliability Relationship Performance Monitoring Performance Testing Analysis Hidden Failures Conscious Decision
Audit Point <ul><li>Understand the difference between planned work and reactive work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, can explain the difference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, go over detailed explanation again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand the cost of planned work versus reactive work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, can explain the factors that drive high reactive costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, go over detailed explanation again. </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
12/20/2005 P1 : Reactive work to be started in 0-24 hours P2:Reactive to be started in 2-7 days P3 : Planned work All work is identified All work is prioritized Reactive work is assigned Planned work is identified Planned jobs resources are identified and kitted Planned work is not scheduled unless all resources except labor are ready Planned work is scheduled And executed All work is recorded and completed into CMMS Measures are reported from CMMS
12/20/2005 P1 : Reactive work to be started in 0-24 hours P2 : Reactive to be started in 2-7 days P3 : Planned work
Maintenance Philosophy 12/20/2005 Maintenance Types PI PM SR Condition Maintenance Based CBM AM Precision Maintenance RCM Reliability Centered Maintenance Autonomous Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Reactive Maintenance Process Improvement
Maintenance System <ul><li>Stopping Failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping failures completely is impossible but serves as a goal to reach for. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing Failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive Maintenance activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition Based Maintenance activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability Centered Maintenance(RCM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Equipment Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promptly Rectifying Failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive Maintenance response and diagnosis </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
Activities of a World Class Maintenance Process <ul><li>Maintenance work planning/scheduling and management </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance information management </li></ul><ul><li>Spare parts management </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance cost management </li></ul>12/20/2005
Five Remedies to Achieve Zero Breakdowns: 12/20/2005 Production Maintenance 1) Establish the basic condition of the equipment 2)Adhere to the usage conditions of the equipment 3) Inspect and restore defective parts 4) Correct design weaknesses 5) Enhance operator and maintenance skill Operation and manual manipulation Inspecting and lubricating Setup and adjustment Detection of abnormal signs Check and Inspect Repair and overhaul Condition monitoring and machine diagnosis Establish planned maintenance system
Seven Steps to Implement Planned Maintenance <ul><li>Best performed through small-group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Two approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important Parts model </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
How to choose whether to conduct an equipment model or a parts model 12/20/2005 Pieces of equipment Level of deterioration No. of Maint. Personnel Maintenance skill level Level of Autonomous Maintenance Medium Level High Level Low Level High Level Low Level Medium Level Intermediate Many Few Medium Level High Level Low Level Intermediate Many Few Parts Equipment
Steps to Implement PM (Equipment Model) 12/20/2005 1) Evaluate the current condition of the equipment 2) Improve the conditions to what they should be 3) Evaluate or prepare Preventive Maintenance inspection standards 4) Implement Proactive Maintenance to improve service life 5) Improve inspection and maintenance efficiency 6) Implement quality maintenance 7) Implement CBM
Step 1: Evaluate Current Condition <ul><li>Learn the function, structure, and principle of the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Identify apparent and minor defects & rectify </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze reasons for failures </li></ul><ul><li>Sort out reasons for failures </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a Malfunction map and Preventive Maintenance map </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 2: Improve the Conditions <ul><li>Eliminate Forced Deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify spots that require cleaning and lubrication to maintain equipment function </li></ul><ul><li>Update “Cleaning is Inspecting” and lubrication routes for Autonomous Maintenance counterparts to cover any new items </li></ul><ul><li>Improve equipment condition </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 3: Preventive Maintenance Inspection Standards <ul><li>Improve any standards that are lacking, and improve any unclear points </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the division of responsibility with Autonomous Maintenance counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Record how long each task takes to execute </li></ul><ul><li>Record any work that is difficult and why it is difficult </li></ul>12/20/2005
12/20/2005 Preventive Maintenance Work Instruction – Today
12/20/2005 Preventive Maintenance Work Instruction – The Future
12/20/2005 Preventive Maintenance Work Instruction - Resources
Step 4: Extend Service Life <ul><li>Analyze Malfunction Map, PM tasks and Mean Time Between Failure(MTBF) </li></ul><ul><li>Failures are corrected using Root Cause Failure Analysis and 5 Why Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement items are classified under “reliability”, “maintainability”, “autonomous maintainability”, “operability” and “safety.” Results are proposed as maintenance prevention information. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance skills and training are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of maintenance calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of information between parts model SGA and Autonomous Maintenance SGA </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 5: Improvement of Inspection and Maintenance Efficiency <ul><li>Accurate inspection and improvement in the ease of its execution </li></ul><ul><li>Research on symptoms of deterioration and use of research results as a measurement indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Machine-specific training to reduce breakdown repair time </li></ul><ul><li>Review of maintenance standards and calendar </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 6: Implement Quality Maintenance <ul><li>Identify the relationship between equipment conditions and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Determine conditions for preventing quality defects, and execute the improvement of equipment and maintenance methods to meet the goal of zero quality defects </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare and improve maintenance standards that guarantee defect-free operation </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 7: Implement CBM <ul><li>Prediction of maintenance time for priority parts </li></ul><ul><li>Research and utilization of equipment diagnosis function </li></ul><ul><li>Research adding self-diagnostic functions to equipment </li></ul>12/20/2005
12/20/2005 Concept of Condition Based Maintenance Appropriate time for maintenance or replacement Deterioration curve Time [Service life of part] Equipment failure quality defects Too early: over-maintenance Too late: equipment outside manufacturing specification BAD [Start of deterioration] [Appropriate time to take Action] Control limits Periodic maintenance CBM
12/20/2005 Suspected misalignment of motor due to 2x running speed on the horizontal reading. Vibration Analysis
Condition Based Maintenance: Example <ul><li>Call for vibration check when Hour Meter reads 250 </li></ul><ul><li>Pull Bearing Packs and Inspect when Hour meter reads 4000 </li></ul><ul><li>Call for oil analysis when Hour reads 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Meter </li></ul>12/20/2005 216 93 1394 Spindle #1 Servos Power On Hrs Hrs Hrs
Audit Point <ul><li>Understand the concept of Condition Based Maintenance? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, can explain basic CBM concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, go over detailed explanation again. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand the benefits of each predictive technology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, can explain basic technologies, Vibration, Thermography, Tribology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, go over detailed explanation again. </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
Steps to Implement PM (Parts Model) 12/20/2005 1) Selection of priority parts 2) Improvement of the present maintenance method 3) Preparation of maintenance standards 4) Service life extension; Measures to address shortcomings 5) Improve inspection and diagnostic efficiency 6) Implement Quality Maintenance 7) Implement CBM
Step 1: Selection of Priority Parts <ul><li>Selecting parts to improve MTBF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select equipment whose failure will result in serious production losses should be selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a pareto chart of replacement parts history to choose the important parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze individual parts to determine if the failures are initial failure, random failure, or wear-out failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting parts to shorten MTTR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts which are expensive or require many maintenance-hours to replace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts requiring advanced skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts with long lead times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts that require long downtime </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
12/20/2005 Maintainability Information Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) ____________________________ Total Operating Time 55,000min = 6.36% ____________________________ ____________________________ FFR = Number of Failures 28 Total Operating Time 55,000min X 100 = .05% Failure Duration Rate (FDR) Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) Failure Frequency Rate (FFR) X 100 MTBF = Total Operating Time 55,000 min Total Failures 28 = 1964 min ____________________________ FDR = Total Failure Downtime 3500 MTTR = Total Repair Time 3500 min Total Failures 28 = 125 min
12/20/2005 Asset fails every four days Average repair time is 25 hours Data indicates that for each failure it takes 25 hours to bring asset back to operation Target is to reduce this rate by 50% (12.5 hours) Data indicates every four days a failure takes place on this asset. Target is to increase this rate by 300% (12 days)
12/20/2005 Reliability Engineering Target Assets for 2002
Step 2: Improvement of the Present Maintenance Methods <ul><li>Activities to improve MTBF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to removal examine if the parts were properly installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove and thoroughly examine failed parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the parts show signs of deterioration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there methods to prevent deterioration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the proper routine inspection and preventive maintenance procedures in place and being followed to prevent failure? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities to Improve MTTR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can failures be easily detected? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of maintenance work methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of spare parts management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of disassembly, inspection and maintenance procedures </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005
Step 3:Preparation of Maintenance Standards <ul><li>Prepare routine inspection standards </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare periodic inspection standards( both cycles and procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare maintenance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Study meeting with equipment model SGA (if conducting parallel activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Autonomous Maintenance inspection activities </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 4: Service Life Extension <ul><li>Analysis of the relationship between use condition and parts functions </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of part function </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of what is causing the components to fail </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 5: Improvement of Inspection and Diagnosis Efficiency <ul><li>Further improvement of the maintenance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Development of inspection and diagnosis technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Research on equipment diagnosis technologies </li></ul>12/20/2005
Step 6 and 7 <ul><li>Steps 6 and 7 expand to cover the equipment as a whole therefore they are the same as steps 6 and 7 of the equipment model </li></ul><ul><li>If equipment model activities are taking place it is beneficial to join forces at this point </li></ul>12/20/2005
Audit Point <ul><li>Understand the concept of asset reliability data collection? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, can explain basic reliability data collection concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, go over detailed explanation again. </li></ul></ul>12/20/2005