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Grade 10 1st Term IT Notes


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Grade 10 1st Term IT Notes

  1. 1. Syllabus– Grade 10 úIh ksrAfoaYh - 10 jir 1. Investigates the place of the computer in the world of information mrs.Kl, f,dalfha we;s f;dr;=re yd iïnkaOù mj;sk wdldrh wOHkh lsrSu 1.1 Investigates the contribution of ICT towards national development cd;sl ixjrAOkhg ICT ys jeo.;alu  Definition of ICT  Uses of ICT in society  Importance of ICT 1.2 Investigates the computer as a system for converting data into information mrs.Klh moaO;shla f,i i,lñka thg o;a; we;=,;a lr tajd f;dr;=re njg mrsjrA;kh jk wldrh wOHkh  Parts of a system  Difference between data and information  Data and information as input and output  Processing as the method for converting data into information
  2. 2. 1.3 Explores the evolution of computers to identify its major developments. mrs.Klfha úldYkh iy kùk mrs.Klh olajd tys is¥jQ m%Odk ixjrAOkhka  Computer Generations  Hardware changes Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits LSIC VLSIC  Related changes in characteristics Size Capacity Speed Accuracy Efficiency
  3. 3. 2. Selects and uses computer hardware mrs.Kl oDvdx. j, Ndú;h 2.1 Classifies computers using a variety of methods. mrs.Kl Ndú;d lrk wdldr wkqj jrA. lsrSu  Computer classifications Mainframe/Mini/Micro/Super Digital/Analog/Hybrid General purpose/special purpose 2.2 Classifies computer peripherals by function. mrs.Kl Wmdx. tajdfha l%shdldrs;ajh wkqj jrA. lsrSu  Functions of computer peripherals Input Processing Output Storage Dissemination
  4. 4. 2.3 Identifies and connects basic peripherals to the computer. uQ,sl mrs.Kl Wmdx. yÿkd .ekSu iy tajd mrs.Klhg iïnkaO lsrSu Basic computer components Keyboard, mouse, system unit, monitor  Ports PS/2 ports, Serial port, Parallel ports USB port ,RJ 45 2.4 Uses the basic block diagram to demonstrate the computer system. mrs.Klh moaO;sh lÜà rEm igykla weiqfrka meyeos,s lsrSu  Flow path Data/instruction signals Control Signals
  5. 5. 2.5 Investigates benefits and concerns of computer networks for optimal communication. mrs.Kl cd,hkaf.a yelshdjka iy tajd ikaksfõokh i|yd fhdojd .; yels wdldrh  Purpose of computer networks Data communication Resource sharing  Components of a network Network Interface Cards Internal/External Transmission Media Network cable Twisted Pair, Co-axial, Fiber optics Microwaves Client/Server Computers Modems Hub/Switches  Network Operating Systems  Types of computer Networks LAN, MAN, WAN  Disadvantages of Networks
  6. 6. 3. Investigates the methods used for data representation in computer systems mrs.Kl moaO;shl o;a; ksrEmkh lsrSu i|yd Ndú;d lrk l%ufõohka wOHkh 3.1. Uses the Binary number system to represent data in computer systems mrs.Kl moaO;shla ;=< o;a; ksrEmKh lsrSu i|yd oaùuh ixLHd moaO;sh Ndú;d lrhs  Methods for data representation One and zero to represent two states  Binary number system to represent the two states
  7. 7. 3.2. Converts decimal numbers to Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal oYuh ixLHdjka oaùuh,wIaguh iy Iâ oYuh ixLHd njg mrsjrA;kh  Number systems Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal  Methods for related conversions 3.3 Converts Binary numbers to Decimal, Octal, Hexadecimal numbers and vice versa oaùuh ixLHd oYuh,wIaguh iy Iâ oYuh ixLHd njg mrsjrA;kh iy tajd kej; oaùuh ixLHd njg mrsjrA;kh  Methods for relevant conversions Binary to Decimal Binary to Octal  Binary to Hexadecimal and vise versa
  8. 8. 3.4 Determines the capacity of computers in terms of data storage mrs.Kl ;=< o;a; .nvd lsrSfï Odrs;djhka yÿkd .eksu  Bit  Byte  Kilobyte  Megabyte  Gigabyte  Terabyte 3.5 Uses coding systems in computers mrs.Kl ;=< Ndú;d jk fla; moaO;s  BCD  EBCDIC  ASCII  Unicode
  9. 9. End Show What is an Information and Communication Technology ? Processing of data via computers using the technologies from Computing, Electronics, Telecommunications, Mechanism and Mathematics to process, store, manage, use and distribute information in digital and other forms. mrs.Kl, bf,lafg%dksl, ÿrl:k ikaksfõok, hdka;%sl iy .Ks;uh ;dlaIKhkao fhdod .ksñka, mrs.Kl Ndú;d lsrSfuka o;a; .nvd lr, l<ukdlrKh lr, Ndú;d lr, ie,iqï lr f;dr;=re njg m;alr tu f;dr;=re wxls; (Digital) fyda fjk;a wdldrhlg f,dalh mqrd fnod yerSu f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKhg wh;afõ'
  10. 10. End Show Information and communication technology (ICT) is a broad subject concerned with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, specially in large organizations. ICT makes us realize how small the world, we live in, can be called as Global village or Globalization. f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh hk úIh ;dlaIKhka iuÕ ukd iïnkaO;djhla mj;ajd .kakd úIhls. fuys úIh m:h b;d mq¿,a jk w;r f;dr;=re tl;= lsrSu, ie,iqï lsrSu, l<ukdlrKh lsrSu iy fnod yerSu i|yd úYd, ixúOdkhka ;dlaIKh fhdod .kakd wdldrh .ek wOHkh f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh úIhg wh;afõ. f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh wm cSj;a jk f,dalh l=vd lsrSug odhl ù we;. úYaj .ïudkh fyj;a f.da,ShlrKh hk jpkhka ksrAudKh ù we;af;ao f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh ksidh.
  11. 11. A computer is manmade, electronic, programmable and multipurpose machine that accepts data ( e.g. raw data, facts & figures) and process it into information with more faster, accurate and efficiently. A computer uses stored programmed concept. ñksid úiska ;kk ,o, bf,lafg%dksl, l%u f,aLkhka Ndú;d lrk, nyqldrAh hka;%hla f,i mrs.Klh y÷kajhs' mrs.Klh, th ;=,g o;a; we;=,;a lr .ksñka tu o;a; ie,iqïlr f;dr;=re njg mrsjrA;kh lsrSu fõ.j;aj, ksjerosj iy ldrAhÌuj isÿlrk l%u f,aLkhka .nvd lr.ksñka ls%hd;aul jk hka;%hls' What is a computer ?
  12. 12. Importance of ICT f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKfha jeo.;alu • Making learning more interesting specially for hard-to-understand issues f;areï.ekSug wmyiq lreKq fyd|ska wdlrAIKShj wOHkh l< yelsjSu • Bridging distances ÿria: nj wvq lsrSu ex. using e-mails, phone, video conferencing etc. • Breaking literacy barriers in communication ikaksfõokfhaoS we;s jk NdIduh .eg¿ wju lr.; yelsùu ex. using video,presentation and animation • Research and useful Information sharing jeo.;a f;dr;=re .fõIKh yd yqjudre lr.; yelsùu ex. using Internet
  13. 13. • Access information on jobs/internships /lshd i|yd wjYH f;dr;=re ,nd .; yelsùu • Creation of new employment opportunities kj /lshd wjia:d fidhd .ekSug yelsùu • Enhance interaction with peers over long distances ÿria: mqoa.,hka iuÕ woyia yqjudre lr .; yelsùu • Create entertainment opportunities õfkdaodiajdoh i|yd wjia:d i,id .; yelsùu ex. games, music, video • Provide more realistic information on life elsewhere tosfkod cSú;fhaoS ks;r wjYH jk f;dr;=re imhd .; yelsùu • Provide educational information (distance learning) wOHdmkh i|yd wjYH f;dr;=re imhd .; yelsùu • Provide health information, including on sensitive issues fi!LH lghq;= j,g wod, úfYaI f;dr;=re ,nd .; yelsùu
  14. 14. More Speed ^ jeä fõ.h & A computer can do mathematical operations move and copy documents at a speed in the order of million or billion instructions per second. Computer speed measure unit is MIPS or BIPS. ( Million / Billion of Instructions Per Second) More Reliability ^ jeä úYajdi;dj & Computer output is generally very reliable subject to the conditions that the input data is correct and the program instructions should be reliable and correct. ( Garbage In Garbage Out - GIGO concept) mrs.Klh ,nd fok f;dr;=re j, úYajdih rod mj;skafka mrs.Klh ;=<g wdodkh lrk o;a; iy l%uf,aLkhka j, mj;sk Wmfoia ksjeros jkafka kï muKs. Characteristic of Computers mrs.Klfha ,ÌK
  15. 15. High Storage capability (Power of Remembering) .nvd lsrSfï yelshdj jeäùu ^ u;l Yla;sh jeäùu & As various computer media can store millions of characters of data in a condensed form, there is a tremendous saving in the storage area required to maintain the vital records necessary in a business environment. mrs.Kl ;=< úYd, o;a; iy f;dr;=re m%udKhla .nvd lr .; yels neúka fj<| jHdmdr j, mj;sk ish,q f;dr;=re mrs.Klhka ;=< .nvd lr ;nd .kS Accuracy ^ jeä ksjeros;dj & Computers are very accurate. They can perform their millions of operations with great accuracy as their circuits have no mechanical parts to wear and malfunction. mrs.Kl ;=< bf,lafg%dksl mqjre wvx.= jk w;r tajd ;=< hdka;%sl fldgia fkdue;s neúka wl%sh;djhkag m;aùu isÿ fkdjk neúka b;d ksjerosj l%shd;aulfõ
  16. 16. Diligence ^;a nj jeäùu & Unlike human beings, a computer free from tiredness and lack of concentration. ñksid fuka fkdj mrs.Klh uykaisùfuka iy wjodkh íojeàfuka f;drj wLKavj ls%hdjkays fhoSu Versatility ^ nyqldrAh;djfhka hqla;ùu & A computer is capable of performing any task. iEu ldrAhlau lsrSug we;s yelshdj No feelings ^ ye.Sï oekSula fkdue;&
  17. 17. Present Role of ICT in Economy f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh wdrAÓlh ;=< ls%hd;aul jk wdldrh
  18. 18. Word Processing Calculation Drawing Presentation Medicine Television Astronomy Store Data Computer
  19. 19. Present Role of ICT in Economy (1) Education ^ wOHdmkfhaoS & • Learning ( bf.kSu ) CAL – Computer aided learning • Teaching ( b.ekaùu) CBT - Computer based teaching WBT – Web based teaching • Educational administration ( wOHdmk mrsmd,kh) Computer aided school administration
  20. 20. Computer aided Learning CAL involves the use of computers in learning and training. At present we have powerful and friendly application software to design and develop attractive education software. CAL software are coupled with Internet we see a new dimension in education popularly called “e-Learning” with provides opportunities to deliver education from one corner of the world to another instantly. CAL uD¥ldx. mrs.Kl ;=< fhdod f.k bf.kSu iy mqyqKq lsrSfï lghq;= fyd|ska isÿl, yel. jrA;udkfha b;d wdlrAIKSh wOHdmk uD¥ldx. ksmoùu i|yd fhdod.; yels Ndú;hg b;d myiq, ksrAudKYS,S fh¥ï uD¥ldx. (Application Software) mj;S. CAL uD¥ldx. wka;rAcd,fha fjì wvú (Web Site) yd iïnkaOj mj;sk úg wOHdmkh f,dj mqrd iEu ia:dkhlgu fnod yersh yels fjhs. jrA;udkfha wka;rA cd,h ;=,ska wOHdmkh ,nd .ekSfï l%shdj,sh úoHq;a wOHdmkh f,i yÿkajhs.
  21. 21. Computer assisted school administration mrs.Kl Wmldrfhka wOHdmk mrsmd,kh This involves the use of IT to automate activities in school administration such as keeping records of students, examination results, making school time table, normal office work and communication with other schools via e-mail and School Net. wOHdmk mrsmd,kfha l%shdj,shka jk isiqkaf.a f;dr;=re iy úNd. m%;sm, .nvd lsrSu, mdi,a ld, igyk iEoSu, mdi,a ldrAhd,fha jev lghq;= iy fjk;a mdi,a iuÕ ikaksfõokh i|yd úoHq;a ;emE, ( E - Mail) yd mdi,a cd,h ( School Net) Ndú;h ;=<ska mdi,a mrsmd,k lghq;= iajhxlS%h lrùu i|yd f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dlaIKh fhdod .kS.
  22. 22. (2) Accounting and Banking nexl= iy .sKqï lghq;= IT is used to automate manual accounting systems such as general ledger, sales and purchases, stock control ( with point of sales terminal connected to stock data base ) in banking the use of Automatic Teller Machine is a useful application of IT. E - Money Transferring ( Debit Card, Credit card) E – Commerce Telebanking, PhoneBanking, Netbanking f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌKh, w;ska lrk ,o .sKqïlghq;= j,g iïnkaO m%Odk .Kka fmd;, fj<| lghq;= iy ñ,g .ekSu, nvq f;d. md,kh jeks l%shdjka ( .nvd o;a; mdolhg iïnkaO lrk ,o úl=Kqï ia:dkh i|ydjQ moaO;shla ) ñksidf.a ueosy;aùu wvqlsrSu ;=,ska iajhxl%Sh bgqlr .ekSug fhdod f.k we;. nexl= lafIa;%fha Ndõ;d jk iajhxl%%Sh fg,rA hka;% ( ATM) u.ska uqo,a ,nd .ekSu b;d myiq ù we;. úoHq;a uqo,a yqjudrej ( yr m;, Kh m;) úoHq;a jdKscHh ≥ria: nexl=l%uh
  23. 23. ATM Machine Point of sales System
  24. 24. (3) Transportation ( m%jdyk lafIa;%h) IT is used in transportation by railways and airlines for reservation of seats, control of traffic and maintaining time- tables of vehicles and duties of crew. It is used all fields of air traffic. Every air craft has a small computer fitted to help pilots in various ways. Air ticket controlling system ( electronic ticket ) Air traffic controlling system f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌKh fhdod .ksñka .=jka yd ≥ïrsh wdik fjka lsrSu, udrA. ndOd, ld, igyka iy lKavdhï ldrAh md,kh ukdj is≥ lr .; yel. .=jka kshuqjdg úúO wdldrhg Woõ lr .; yels l=vd mrs.Klhla .=jkahdkh ;=, iú lr we;. .=jka wdik fjkalsrSfï moaO;sh ( bf,lafg%dksl m%fõY m;% ) .=jka .uka md,kh lsrSfï moaO;sh
  25. 25. (4) Medicine ( ffjoH lafIa;%h ) In hospitals special computers are built inside different equipment. For example CAT scanners ( Computer Axial Tomography ),CT scanners, MRI scanners, ECG and EEG machines.Further maintenance of patients records in electronic databases enhances service provided to them. Tele – Medicine E - Channeling úfYaI ldrAhka bgqlsrSu i|yd úúO WmlrK iïnkaO lr f.k l%shd;aul jk mrs.Kl frday,a ;=, we;. WodyrKhla f,i CAT ( Computer Axial Tomography ) Scanners .; yel. frda.Skaf.a f;dr;=re o;a; mdolhla ;=, ( Database ) .nvd lr .ksñka Tjqkag b;d fyd| fiajdjla ,ndosu wo ffjoHjreka úiska is≥ lrhs. úoHq;a ffjoH l%uh E - Channeling
  26. 26. (5) Engineering ( bx‚fkare lafIa;%h) Engineers use ICT to prepare drawings of machines, tools, bridges, buildings. ex. Computer Aided Design - CAD . Computers are used to control manufacture of items. ex. Computer Aided Manufacture - CAM . The use of Robots in industries is another example. f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌK uD≥ldx. fhdod f.k bx‚fkarejka úiska hka;%, fuj,ï, md,ï iy f.dvke.s,s ksrAudKh lrhs. WodyrK :- mrs.Kl wdY%s; ksrAudK uD≥ldx. ( CAD ) mrs.Kl fhdod f.k NdKav ksIamdok l%shdj,shka md,kh lrhs. WodyrK :- mrs.Kl wdY%s; ksIamdok uD≥ldx. ( CAM ) frdafnda ksIamdokfhaoS f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌKh Ndú;h w;HjYH fõ.
  27. 27. Computers are used in Manufacturing Computers are used in robotics
  28. 28. CAD Software
  29. 29. (6) Defense & Security ( wdrÌl lafIa;%h) IT is very useful in tracking down of criminals by maintenance of their databases. In warfare computers are used to guide missiles. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses to find out enemy targets. f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌK fhdod f.k wmrdOlrejkaf.a f;dr;=re o;a; mdol ( Dtabase ) ;=, .nvd lr .ekSu ;=,ska Tjqka y∫kd .ekSu b;d myiqfõ. hqO lghq;= j,oS ñihs,a md,kh lsrSu i|ydo f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌKh fhdod .kS. i;=rka isák ia:dk y∫kd .eksu i|yd f.da,Sh ia:dk y∫kd .ekSfï moaO;sh ( Global Positioning System ) fhdod .kS.
  30. 30. Security Information Systems Global Positioning System
  31. 31. (7) Entertainment ( úfkdao lghq;= i|yd) This basically covers video games, music and movies played back by computers with multimedia facilities and which helps to feel virtual reality. nyq udOH ( Multimedia ) myiqlï Wmfhda.S lr .ksñka mrs.Kl, l%Svd, ix.S; iy Ñ;%má ri úkaokh i|yd f;dr;=re ikaksfõok ;dÌKh fhdod .kS. mrs.Kl nyq udOH ;=,ska mqoa.,hdg icSù nj ( Virtual reality ) ms<sn| yeÛSï we;sfõ. Special purpose computers are used in modern house hold appliances like washing machines, microwave ovens, television sets and video cassette players . kùk .Dy WmlrKhka jk fros fidaok hka;%, microwave W≥ka, rEmjdyskS iy Cassette hka;% ;=,o mrs.Kl ;=, wvx.= jk u;lh iy Microchips we;=,;a lr we;s ksid fuu WmlrK úfYaI ldrAhhka i|yd ieliqKq mrs.Kl f,io y∫kajhs Using 3D graphical devices Using Music Organ as a input device
  32. 32. ICT Tool f;dr;=re ;dÌKsl fuj,ï Tools used in creation, processing, transfer and sharing of data and information is called IT tools. IT tools can be referred as hardware, software and communication. f;dr;=re iy o;a; ksrAudKh lsrSug, ie,iqï lsrsug iy yqjudre lsrSug Ndú;d lrk ish¨u foa f;dr;=re ;dÌKsl fuj,ï j,g wh;afõ. f;dr;=re ;dÌKsl fuj,ï f,i oDvdx., uD≥ldx. yd ikaksfõok WmlrK ish,a, ie,lsh yel.
  33. 33. Defining a computer system mrs.Kl moaO;sh ye|skaùu A computer has more than one part. All these parts are called hardware of the computer. And also these parts are the tangible things that make up a computer. A computer system consists of Display unit, System unit, Keyboard and Mouse. Computer has no intelligence or IQ ( Quotion of intelligence.) mrs.Klh ksrAudKhù we;af;a fldgia lsysmhl tl;=fjks. fuu fldgia ish,a, w;ska we,a,sh yels oDvdx. ( Hardware) tl;=ùfuka ksrAudKhù we;. mrs.Kl moaO;shl ms<sônq tallh (Display Unit), moaO;s tallh (System Unit), h;=re mqjrej (key Board) iy uQislh ( Mouse) hk fldgia wvx.=fõ. mrs.Klh i;=j nqoaêu;a nfõ M,h ( IQ ) uekSula ke;. Display Unit key Board System Unit Mouse
  34. 34. A computer will not be useful without making a computer system. A computer system is a combination of six elements. 1. Hardware – Basic electronic and electro - mechanical parts in a computer. 2. Software – instruction to hardware 3. Data and Information 4. Procedures and Instructions 5. People (Live Ware) 6. Communication mrs.Kl moaO;shla ksrAudKhùfuka muKla mrs.Klh iïmQrAK jkafka ke;. thska m%fhdack ,nd .ekSug kï wjhj yhla Bg iïnkaO úh hq;=h. 1. oDvdx. - mrs.Klfha bf,lafg%dksl yd hdka;%sl fldgia j, tl;=j 2. uD≥ldx. - oDvdx. i|yd wjYH Wmfoia ,nd fohs 3. o;a; iy f;dr;=re 4. l%shd ms<sfj, yd Wmfoia 5. mqoa.,hka 6. ikaksfõokh
  35. 35. Data and Information o;a; iy f;dr;=re
  36. 36. 320C 12mm 15Kmh-1 Satellite Picture No meaning Facts & Figures Raw data
  37. 37. How Data becomes Information o;a; f;dr;=re njg m;ajk wdldrh Today is a Rainy Day. Please take your Umbrella with you! Wow, I got it.
  38. 38. Data ( o;a; ) Data are the basic facts about things, persons, places, business activities and events that in unprocessed form. Data have little meaning and are defined as raw materials that inputs into computer. we can not make decisions and forecasting by using data. hïlsis fohl, mqoa.,hl=f.a, ia:dkhl, fj<| l%shdj,shl iy fkdfhla l%shdjkag iïnkaOj mj;sk ie,iqïlrKhg Ndckh fkdlrk ,o uQ,sl ir, lreKq o;a; f,i y∫kajhs. o;a; b;d l=vd woyila f.k fok mrs.Klh ;=,g wdodkh lrk wuqøjH f,io y∫kajhs. wmg ;SrK .ekSug iy wkdjels m%ldY lsrSu i|yd o;a; Ndú;d l< fkdyel. E.g. :- Data concerning an employee Wod. :- fiajlhl=f.a o;a; ie,l+ úg Employee number fiajl wxlh Name ku Date of employment fiajhg ne≥kq oskh Department fomdrA;fïka;=j Job title /lshdj Salary jegqm
  39. 39. Data Types o;a; jrA. Text ( jpk) Digits – numerical ( b,lalï ) - 0...9 Letters - Alphabetical ( wl=re) - a .. z, A .. Z Punctuation marks ( úrdu ,l=Kq ) - . , : Special Characters ( úfYaI wkq,laIK ) - $, # @ ^ * ! Space Audio ( Yíohka ) - Tones and other sounds, voice Imaging ( rEm) - Dots, Lines, Circles, rectangles diagrams, images, pictures.
  40. 40. Qualitative data ( .=Kd;aul o;a;) Ex:- He is a obedient student He is a good boy She has a long hair. Quantitative data ( m%udKd;aul o;a; ) Ex:- Saman is 5 feet tall. Temperature is 20 C0 He got 90 marks for IT
  41. 41. Nature of Data ( o;a; j, iajNdjh) • Data can be – Collected and stored. – Retrieved from a storage medium. – Communicated. – Processed. • Well managed data can – save time and money – increase productivity – enhance decision making  o;a; tl;= lsrSu iy .nvd lsrSu i|yd fhdod .; yel  o;a;hka ;ekam;a lr we;s o;a; .nvd ;=,ska kej; ,nd .; yel  o;a; ikaksfõokh l, yel  o;a; ie,iqï l, yel o;a; ukd f,i ixúOdkh lsrSu ;=,ska  ld,h iy uqo,a b;srs lr .; yel  M,odhs;dj jeä lr .; yel  ;SrK .ekSfï yelshdj jeä lr .; yel
  42. 42. Information ( f;dr;=re) Computer data that has been well organized and presented in a systematic fashion with meaningful way. we can make decisions, planning and forecasting by using information. mrs.klh ;=< we;s o;a; ukd f,i ixúOdkh lr, úêu;a wdldrhg wrA:dkaú;j bosrsm;a lsrsu ;=,ska ,efnk m%;s:,h f;dr;=rla f,i ye|skaúh yel. f;dr;=re ;SrK .eksu, l,ska hula ixúOdkh lsrSu iy wkdjels m, lsrSu i|yd fhdod .; yel. Processing into meaningful form Data Information INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
  43. 43. Characteristics of Information ( f;dr;=re j, ,ÌK) Information • is meaningful • is a surprise element • is an action • is an action motivator • confirms and refreshes previous knowledge • is considered an economic resource • is an economic commodity which helps to stimulate the worldwide growth of a new segment of national economics • can only be shared in transactions and not exchanged. • is relative. f;dr;=re • wrA:dkaú;hs • uú;h okjk wjhjhls • l%shdjla we;s lrhs • l%shdjla lsrSu i|yd fmd<Ujhs • l,ska ,nd.;a oekqu ;yjqre lsrSu iy kej; fufkys lsrSu is≥ lrhs • wdrA:slfha iïm;la f,i i,lhs • wdrA:sl øjHhla th cd;sl wdrA:slh jrAOkh lsrSug odhl jk idOlhls • NdKav fuka fjka fjkaj yqjudre l, fkdyels w;r fldgia jYfhka yqjudre lr .; yel • iïnkaO;djka fmkajhs
  44. 44. Factors that improve the quality of information f;dr;=rl .=Kd;aul nj jeäùu flfrys n,mdk idOl • Relevance wod, nj • Completeness iïmQrAK nj • Accuracy ksjeros nj • Clarity (Clearness) meyeos,s nj • Timeliness wjYH kshï; fõ,djg ,nd .; yels nj • Make of Communication ikaksfõokfhaoS fyd|ska Ndú;d l, yels nj • Origin W;amdokh jQ m%Njh / uQ,drïNjQ ia:dkh Uses of information f;dr;=re j, Ndú;h • Day – to – day routine work tosfkod jev lghq;= i|yd • Knowledge oekqu ,nd .ekSu i|yd • Planning wkd.; ie<iqï i|yd • Forecasting wkdjels m< lsrSu i|yd
  45. 45. End Show Value of information f;dr;=rl jákdlu The value of information is determined on the basis of its relevance. The moment you create or receive information, it has a great value but this drops rapidly with time. This leads to a very important rule called the ‘Golden Rule’ of information. It states that the highest value of information occurs at time zero. f;dr;=rl jákdlu ;SrKh lsrSu flfrys f;dr;=frys wod, nj iy tu f;dr;=r b;d wvq ld,hloS ,nd .; yelsùu hk idOl jeo.;afõ. tA wkqj wod, jk f;dr;=rla b;du wvq ld,hloS ,nd .; yels jkafka kï tu f;dr;=rg ‘Golden Rule’ ixl,amh we;=,;a ù w;ehs i,lhs. fuu ixl,amhg WmrSu jákdlu ,efnkafka f;dr;=r ,nd .ekSug lsisu ld,hla jeh fkdjkafka kï muKs.
  46. 46. Methods of converting data into information o;a; f;dr;=re njg m;aùfï l%u 1) Data received by a computer via its input devices mrs.Klfha wdodk WmlrK j,ska mrs.Klhg o;a; we;=,;a lsrSu 2) Stored in memory prior to processing wNHka;r u;lh ;=, ie,iqï lrk f;la ;djld,slj .nvd lsrSu 3) Data get processed o;a; ie,iqï lsrSu 4) Results (Information) sent to the output devices f;dr;=re m%;sodk WmlrK j,g heùu Memory ProcessorKey board
  47. 47. History of Computers Ancient Times In the beginning, man used his fingers and toes to perform simple computations such as addition and subtraction. uq,a ld,fhaoS tl;= lsrSu iy wvq lsrSu jeks .Ks; lrAu lsrSu i|yd ñksid úiska ;u w;af,a iy mdofha weÛs,s Ndú;d lrk ,oS.
  48. 48. 3000 BC - The first man-made computing device is the “Abacus”. In the Abacus, small beads are arranged on a series of vertical rods in a manner that by manipulating them, it is possible with some skill and practice, to make rapid calculations. l%s. mq. 3000 oS muK ñksid úiska .Kka lsrSu i|yd m%:u mrs.Kl WmlrKh f,i wenli hka;%h Ndú;d lrk ,oS. wenlih isyska ;Sre iys; ,S rduq j,g iú lrk ,o fnda, j,ska hqla;h. .egΩjg wkqj fuu fnda, tyd fuyd lrñka tu .egΩj úi|sh yel. yelshdj iy mqyqKqj u.ska .Ks; lrAu úi|Su jvd fõ.fhka is≥ lr .; yel. Abacus
  49. 49. 1617 – Napier's Bones • John Napier (1550-1617), a Scottish mathematician, invented the Napier’s Bones - an aid to multiplication with using log tables. • A set of bones consisted of nine (9) rods, one for each digit 1 through 9. A rod is essentially one column of a multiplication table. 1617 fcdaka fkamshrA úiska ,>q .Kl j.= Ndú;fhka .=K lsrSu i|yd fkamshrA fndkaia Ndõ;d lrk ,oS. m;=re iuqyh ;=, l+re 9la wvx.=fõ. tu l+re j, 1 isg 9 olajd wxl fhdod we;. l+re ( Rod ) jeä lsrSu i|yd fhdod .kakd j.=fõ tla ;Srhlafõ. John Napier Napier’s Bones ( Napier's Rods ) Can Multiply two numbers
  50. 50. 1642 - Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, invented an adding machine. The machine has adopted partly the principles of the abacus but did away with the use of the hand to move the beads or counters. Instead, Pascal used wheels to move counters. 1642 oS m%xY cd;sl .Ks;{hd wdl,k hka;%h ( Adding machine) ksrAudKh lrk ,os. fuu hka;%fha wenlifha uq,OrAu Ndú;d jk w;r fnda, ( Beads ) yqjudre lsrSu i|yd w; Ndú;h wvq fldg tA i|yd oe;s frdao Ndú;d lrk ,oS. Pascaline Machine
  51. 51. 1674 - German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz made improvements on Pascal’s machine. With Leibnitz’s improvements, it was possible for the machine to divide and multiply as easily as it could add and subtract. 1674 oS crAuka cd;sl .Ks;{hl= jk Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz úiska meial,a ksrAudKh lrk ,o hka;%h oshqKq lrñka tl;= lsrSu iy wvq lsrSug wu;rj jeä lsrSu iy fnoSu i|ydo fhdod .; yels whqrska ilia lrk ,os. Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibnitz
  52. 52. Charles Babbage Charles Babbage the first person introduced the stored program concept and built mechanical memory. And also he introduced input, processing, storing and output units in his Analytical engine machine. He laid the foundation for the modern computer. Charles Babbage is credited with being the “Father of Computer”. l%uf,aLk .nvd lsrSu iy hdka;%sl u;lhla ksrAudKh lrk ,o m%:u mqoa.,hd jkafka pd,aia nefícah. Tyq ksrAudKh lrk ,o Analytical Engine WmlrKh ;=, kùk mrs.Klhl wka;rA.; wdodk fldgi, ie,iqï fldgi, .nvd lsrSfï fldgi iy m%;sodk fldgi wvx.=fõ. tu ksid fudyq mrs.Klfha mshd f,io y≥kajhs. Analytical Engine Difference Engine DIFFERENTIAL ENGINE (In 1822) ANALYTICAL ENGINE (In 1833)
  53. 53. 1880 – Dr.Herman Hollerith developed the punched card ( is≥rem;a ;dlaIKh) that would contain data coded in form of punched holes. World famous IBM computer production company was established by Dr. Herman Hellorith. PUNCHED CARD MACHINE (Tabulating Machine)Herman Hollerith 1840 – Ada Augusta Lovelace, the first programmer suggested binary data storage. ( Machine Language )
  54. 54. 1944 – Howard Aiken built Mark 1 the first automatic, sequence controlled calculator (MARK 1) used by military. Electromechanical Relays ( úoHq;a hdka;%sl fldgia ) were used in MARK 1. 1945 - John von Neumann introduced the stored various programs in a computer and used that programs for multipurpose task.
  55. 55. 1. First Generation (1939-1957) - vacuum tube 2. Second Generation Computers (1957-1959) - transistor 3. Third Generation Computers (1959-1971) - IC 4. Fourth Generation (1971-1990) - microprocessor 5. Fifth Generation ( Present and beyond ) – Artificial Intelligence Generation of Computers
  56. 56. 1947 – Mauchy and Eckert built ENIAC – 1st Electronic digital computer. 18000 Vacuum tubes were used in ENIAC. 1951 – Mauchy and Eckert built UNIVAC 1 – 1st commercially sold. 1957 - IBM 704 was developed by IBM corporation. 1. First Generation (1939-1957) - Vacuum Tube Characteristic of first generation computers 1. Using magnetic drum for main memory. 2. Generate lot of heat 3. Need high Voltage 4. Computers are very large and required very large space 5. Using machine language for programming
  57. 57. Atanasoff- Berry Computer 1939, from IEEE magnetic drum memory of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer 1939, from Smithsonian NMAH Whirlwind core memory 1951, from IEEE UNIVAC 1951, from Smithsonian NMAH UNIVAC I ca. 1955, from Smithsonian
  58. 58. "First transistor (model), December 1947. Constructed by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley at Bell Laboratories," 2. Second Generation Computers (1957 -1959) – Transistor John Barden, Walter Brattain and william Shockly constructed the first Transistor.  IBM introduced the 702 business computer Bendix G-15A small business computer sold for only $45,000 designed by Harry Huskey. Characteristic of Second generation computers 1. Reduce the heat generation 2. Increase the storage capacity 3. Increase in speed 4. Computers are smaller than 1st generation computers 5. No need high Voltage
  59. 59. 3. Third Generation Computers (1959 -1971) – IC 1959 - Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments patented the first integrated circuit and he made his first germanium IC in Oct. 1958. 1964 - IBM produced SABRE, the first airline reservation tracking system for American Airlines 1968 - DEC introduced the first "mini-computer", the PDP-8 1969 - Development began on ARPAnet Characteristic of Third generation computers 1. Using keyboard and monitors 2. Computers are very smaller than 2nd generation computers 3. Using the portable disk pack 4. Manufactures produced similar and compatible computers
  60. 60. End Show 4. Fourth Generation (1971-Present) – microprocessor 1971 - Gilbert Hyatt at Micro Computer Co. patented the microprocessor; Ted Hoff at Intel in February introduced the 4-bit 4004. 1972 - Intel made the 8-bit 8008 and 8080 microprocessors 1973 - IBM developed the first true sealed hard disk drive, called the "Winchester" 1976 - Jobs and Wozniak developed the Apple personal computer 1984 - Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh personal computer January 24 Intel 4004 microprocessor in 1971, from Intel Museum Wozniak and Jobs introduced Apple II in 1977, from History of Apple Apple I of 1976, from Smithsonian NMAH
  61. 61. Characteristic of fourth generation computers 1. Use mini computers ( l=vd m%udKfha mrs.Kl ) and Micro computers ( iQlaIu mrs.Kl ) 2. Produced very small computers 3. Using large memory and high storages 4. Using Mouse, Joys stick and scanners as input devices
  62. 62. 5. Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) 1991 - World-Wide Web (WWW) was developed by Tim Berners-Lee. 1994 - Internet browser Navigator 1.0 was released Dec. 1994. 1996 - Microsoft failed to recognized the importance of the Web, but finally  released the much improved browser Explorer 3.0. This generation of computers represents a unification of four separate areas of research. 1. Artificial Intelligence 2. Knowledge base expert system 3. Very high level programming languages 4. Very large scale Integration technology mrs.Kl mrïmrdfõ fuu wjêh ms,sn|j wOHkh lsrSfïoS my; oelafjk lreKq y;r fj; úfYaIfhka wjOdkh fhduq lr we;. 1. lD;su nqoaêh 2. oekqu mokï fldg .;a úfYaI« moaO;s 3. b;d by< iSudfõ l%uf,aL NdIdj 4. w;ss WÉp mrsudfõ ixhqla; ;dlaIKh
  63. 63. Technical Evolution of Computers • Increase in speed • Increase in storage capacity • Increase in reliability • Increase in efficiency Period Circuitry Input Output Storage Language Typical computers 1951- 1959 Vacuum Tubes Punched cards & magnetic tapes Punched cards Magnetic Tapes Machine Assembly UNIVAC-1 1959- 1965 Transistors Punched cards & magnetic tapes Punched cards Magnetic Tapes Magnetic disk High level languages FORTRAN IBM 1400 1965- 1971 Integrated Circuits Keyboards Monitors Magnetic disks PASCAL IBM System/360 • Increase in accuracy • Reduction in system cost • Reduce the size
  64. 64. Classification of Computers mrs.Kl jrA.SlrKh • According to generation – mrïmrdj wkqj • According to computational method – ksrAudK ;dlAIKh wkqj • According to Size and capability – m%udKh yd yelshdj wkqj • According to Purpose – lrk ldrAh wkqj Selects and uses Computer hardware mrs.Kl oDvdx. j, Ndú;h
  65. 65. Classification based on Computational method (Technology) 1. Digital – ixLHdxl mrs.Kl 2. Analog – m%;siu mrs.Kl 3. Hybrid - ñY% fyda fouqyqï mrs.Kl Digital Computers They recognize data by counting discrete signal representing either a high or low voltage (1 and 0 ) state of electricity. The input devices convert data into electronic pulses. Advantages of the use of digital computers is that they are very accurate and hence are most suitable for business applications. The main disadvantage is their high cost and the complexity in programming. fuu mrs.Kl o;a; y∫kd .ekSu i|yd fjka fjkaj msysgk ix{d f,i ú≥,sh jeä iy wvq ;;ajhka folla (1 iy 0) Ndú;d lrhs. wdodk WmlrK u.ska o;a; mrs.Kl ;=,g we;=,q lsrSfïoS tu o;a; 1 iy 0 njg m;a lrhs. ixLHdxl mrs.Kl j, jdishla f,i b;d ksjerosj l%shd;aulùu ie,lsh yel. tu ksid fj<| lghq;= i|yd fuu jrA.fha mrs.Kl Ndú;h jvd iq≥iqfõ. jeä ñ, iy l%uf,aLkhka Ndú;h ixlSrAKùu fuu mrs.Kl j, we;s wjdisfõ.
  66. 66. Analog Computers These computers recognize data as a continuous measurement of a physical property (voltage, pressure, speed and temperature). Example: Automobile speedometer, Electric current Meter Analog computers process data input in a continuous form. Data such as voltage, resistance or temperature are represented in the computer as a continuous, unbroken flow of information, as in engineering and scientific applications, where quantities to be processed exists as waveforms of continually rising and falling voltages, pressure and so on. The analog computer offers low cost and ease of programming. The main disadvantage of an analog computer is the accuracy factor, and the limited storage capacity. Hence it is not suitable for processing business data. fuu jrA.fha mrs.Kl o;A; y≥kd.ekSfï oS wLKavj .,d hk fN!;sl idOlhkaf.a ( fjda,aàh;djh, mSvkh, fõ.h, WIaK;ajh) ñKqï Ndú;d lrhs. Wod :- jdykhl fõ.udkh fuu mrs.Kl j, ix{d .uka lrkafka taldldrj jk w;r tu ix{d fjda,aàh;djh, m%;sfrdaOh,mSvkh jeks fN!;sl idOl wvq jeäùfuys ;rx.dldrh wkqj o;a; ,nd .ekSu iy ilia lr f;dr;=re ,ndoSu is≥ lrhs. wvq ñ, iy l%uf,aLkhka Ndú;h myiqùu fuu mrs.Kl j, we;s jdisfõ. m%;siu mrs.Kl j, wjdis f,i b;d ksjerosj l%shd;aul fkdùu;a,wvq Odrs;djh;a ie,lsh yel. tu ksid fj<| lghq;= i|yd fuu jrA.fha mrs.Kl Ndú;h jvd iq≥iqfkdfõ.
  67. 67. Digital Computer Analog Computer
  68. 68. Hybrid Computer A computer can also be built using some parts employing digital computations and some parts based on Analog principles. Such computers are called Hybrid Computers. Ex:- Modern Fuel filling Machines m%;siu iy ixLHdxl hk fojrA.fhau ix{d hgf;a l%shd l, yels, fohdldrfhkau f;dr;=re ,ndoSfï yelshdj we;s mrs.Kl fuhg wh;afõ. Wod :- kùk f;,a msrjqï hka;%
  69. 69. Classification based on Size and Capability 1. Super Computer ( iqmsrs mrs.Kl ) 2. Mainframe computer ( uyd mrs.Kl ) 3. Mini Computers ( uOH mrs.Kl ) 4. Micro Computer ( laIqø mrs.Kl ) Super Computer These are the largest and fastest computers available but are typically not used for commercial data processing. Instead they are used in specialized areas as in Defense, Aircraft design, Artificial intelligence, Scientific and nuclear experiments and weather research. Suppliers of supercomputer are CRAY, CDC, FUGITSU, NEC . Supercomputers can process 64 bits or more at a time. Their processing speed ranges from 10,000 million instructions per sec (MIPS) to 1.2 billion instructions per sec. They can support 10,000 terminals at a time. They have huge numbers of storage and other devices connected to them. fõ.j;au iy úYd,u mrs.Kl jk iqmsrs mrs.Kl jdKscuh o;a; ie,iqï lsrSu i|yd idudkHfhka fhdod fkd.kS. tu ksid fuu mrs.kl wdrlaIl, .=jkahdkd ksraudK, lD;su nqoaêh, úoHd;aul iy kHIaál w;ayod ne,Sï iy ld,.=K f;dr;=re wëlaIK jeks úfYaI lghq;= i|yd fhdod .kS. iqmsrs mrs.Kl ksIamdok wdh;k f,i CRAY, CDC, FUJITSU, NEC ye|skaúh yel. iqmsrs mrs.Kl 64 bit fyda Bg jeâ ie,iqï lsrSï i|yd fhdod .kS. fuu mrs.kl j, ie,iqï lsrSfï fõ.h 10,000 MIPS j, isg 1.2 BIPS w;r mrdihl mj;S. tljr terminals 10,000 iuÛ jqjo, iqmsrs mrs.Kl l%shd;aul l, yel. fuu mrs.Kl iuÛ wdphk tall iy fjk;a WmlrK úYd, m%udKhla iïnkaO l< yel.
  70. 70. Cray T 90
  71. 71. Mainframe Mainframes are less powerful and cheaper than Super computers. However, they are big general purpose computers capable of handling all kinds of scientific and business applications. Mainframes can process several million instructions per second. More than 1000 remote terminals can be supported by a Mainframe. Mainframes have large on-line secondary storage capacity. A number of different types of peripheral devices like magnetic tape drivers, hard disk drive, visual display units, plotters, printers and telecommunication terminals can be attached to Mainframe computers. Mainframes are used for payroll computations, accounting, business transactions, information retrieval and airline seat reservations.
  72. 72. Mini Computers This type of computer performs data processing activities in the same way as the Mainframe but on a smaller scale. The cost of minis is lower. As the name implies, a minicomputer is small compared to a Mainframe and may be called a scaled down Mainframe as the processor and the number of peripherals are physically smaller. A mini computer can typically support 10 to 50 terminals. The most popular Minicomputers or minis are Nova, Dec, PDP_II and IBM series.
  73. 73. Micro Computers / Personnel Computers (PC) This is the smallest category of computers, consisting of a microprocessor and associated storage and input/output devices. These are also called Personal Computer systems. Microcomputers were first available for widespread use in the 1970’s, when it became possible to put the entire circuitry of computers (CPU) in to a small silicon chip. Ex:- Desktop - Computers that can be placed on top of a desk but are not very portable Laptop - that are small enough to be set up on the lap of a user Note book – Computers that are the size of a book Palmtop / PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )- that can be put in a pocket or palm Workstation – That are same as desktop. But more powerful than desktop. Use for 3D graphic design and animations. DesktopPDA Lap Top Note Book Portable Computers
  74. 74. Classification based on Purpose 1. General purpose Computers ( idudkH lghq;= i|yd Ndõ;d lrk mrs.Kl ) 2. Special Purpose Computers ( õfYaI ldrAh i|yd Ndõ;d lrk mrs.Kl )
  75. 75. 1. General purpose Computers A General Purpose Computer is a machine that is capable of carrying out some general data processing under program control.
  76. 76. 2. Special purpose Computers A computer that is designed to operate on a specific class of problems. Use special purpose computer equipment to obtain patient diagnostic information.
  77. 77. Basic function of a computer Basic organization of computer performs five major operations. 1. The input functions – accepts data or instructions by way of input. ( wdodkh fyj;a o;a; iy Wmfoia we;=Ω lsrSu ) 2. The storage function - Stores data and instructions ( wdphkh fyj;a o;a; f;dr;=re ;ekam;a lsrSu ) 3. The processing function – processes data by required by user ( ieliSu ) 4. The output function - gives result in form of output ( m%;sodkh fyj;a o;a; f;dr;=re msg;g ,ndoSu ) 5. The control function - controls the all operations inside the computer ( md,kh )
  78. 78. Basic organization of a computer
  79. 79. Block Diagram of a computer
  80. 80. In a computer system 4 main elements uses to perform the function. 1. Central Processing Unit – uOH ieliqï tAllh 2. Input unit – wdodk tallh 3. Output unit – m%;sodk tallh 4. Storage unit – wdphk tallh Central Processing Unit – uOH ieliqï tAllh It contains main 2 parts. 1. Control Unit - md,k tallh Interprets stored instructions in sequence. Issues command to all elements of the computer. mrs.Klfha ish,qu md,k lghq;= is≥lrkq ,nkafka fuu tallh u.sks. wjYH lrk wjia:d j,oS wjYH wdldrfhka jq wK lsrSu ,nd foñka mrs.Klfha ish,q fldgia md,kh lrhs, 2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit - wxl .ksluh iy ;dr®lsl tallh Performs all arithmetic and logic operations. ish,qu wdldrfha jq wxl .Ks;uh ldr®hhka iy ;dr®lsl lghq;= is≥ lrhs.
  81. 81. Input unit ( wdodk tallh ) Input devices are used to input data that is to be processed and programs that includes processing instruction to the computer. wdodk WmlrK u.ska ie,iqï lsrSu i|yd wjYH jk o;a; we;=,a lsrSu;a, l%u f,aLkhka ;=, mj;sk ie,iqï lsrSug wod, úOdkhka we;=,a lsrSu;a is≥ lrhs.
  82. 82. Input Devices  Key Board ( h;=re mqjrej )  Mouse ( uqislh )  Track Ball  Joy Stick  Touch Screens ( iamrAY ;srh )  Digital camera / Web camara  Digitizer  Light Pen ( m%ldY mEk )  Scanners Image scanners Fingerprint scanners Bar code reader optical Character recognition (OCR) Optical Mark recognition (OMR) Magnetic Ink Character recognition (MICR)  Microphone
  83. 83. Keyboard ( h;=re mqjrej )
  84. 84. The most common keyboards are: 1. 101-key Enhanced keyboard 2. 104-key Windows keyboard 3. 82-key Apple standard keyboard 4. 108-key Apple Extended keyboard Main keyboard layout are QWERTY layout and DVORAK layout. Keyboard keys can be classified into six groups. 1. Alphabet keys 2. Number keys 3. Function keys 4. Numeric key pad 5. Arrow keys 6. Special keys Shift key Enter key Backspace key Caps lock keys Control key Delete key
  85. 85. Mouse (uQislh) Ball Mouse Optical Mouse A ball underneath rolls as the mouse moves across the mouse pad. Mice first broke onto the public stage with the introduction of the Apple Macintosh in 1984 .
  86. 86. Trackball Mouse Touch sensitive pad Track ball is a movable ball, that is rotated with the fingers or palm of the hand. Advantage of track ball is that, it does not need as much desk space as a mouse. Use in note books and laptops.
  87. 87. Joystick It consists vertical handle like a gear shift lever mounted on a bas e with one or two buttons. It uses in games and engineering controlling. Touch Screen Touch screen is a video display screen that receives input from the touch of a finger or stylus.
  88. 88. Digital Camera Web Camera • video conferencing • Chatting • Capture small video Clips Using to input pictures and images. Digital camera Normal camera No Need film roll Need film roll No developing cost Have Developing cost Can erase the pictures Cannot erase the pictures Can crop the image Cannot crop Can Zoom in and out Cannot Zoom in and out
  89. 89. Digitizer Recognize drawings by hand. Using architectures and Designers. Light pen The user can bring the pen to the desired point on the screen. When pen touches the screen, it sends the information available at the location to the computer.
  90. 90. Scanners Image scanner Uses to input images, drawings and pictures Finger printer Scanners Uses to input human’s finger marks
  91. 91. Bar code reader Uses to input data about items such as unit price, code number, expire date , manufacture date and weight. optical Character recognition (OCR) Uses to input Characters
  92. 92. Optical Mark recognition (OMR) Uses to correct MCQ papers
  93. 93. Magnetic Ink Character recognition (MICR) Uses to read cheques Microphone Use to input sound
  94. 94. Output Unit These devices allow the computer to output information for the benefit of the users. 1. Hard copy - Output can be printed on paper or other permanent media. 2. Softcopy - Output can be displayed on a screen or output by other non-permanent means. ex. :- Floppy Disk, CD Output devices Monitors / Visual display unit Printers Plotters Speakers Projectors
  95. 95. Monitors / Visual display Unit Screen Size - 14” 15” 17” CRT cathode-ray tube LCD liquid crystal display DigitalAnalog
  96. 96. CRT Monitors LCD monitors Need high voltage No need high voltage Very heavy Less heavy Need more space No need more space Less mega pixel High mega pixel More heat generation Less heat generation Different between CRT and LCD screens Plasma Screens These are used for very large screens and in some modern laptops. They are flat screens with good colour, but are quite expensive.
  97. 97. Abimantha Niit Printers Dot-matrix Inkjet / Bubble Jet Laser
  98. 98. Measurement of printing • Dots-per-inch (dpi) Different between dot matrix and inkjet printers Dot-matrix Printer Ink-Jet Printer Impact printer Non- impact printer Very noisy Less noisy Use ribbon cartridge Uses ink cartridge Can take multiple printouts at once Can’t take multiple printouts at once Can’t get quality printouts Can get quality printouts Need supervision No need supervision Less speed More speed than dot-matrix Less cost for maintenance High cost for maintenance
  99. 99. Different between dot matrix and Laser printers Dot matrix printers Laser printers
  100. 100. Plotters Plotters are designed to produce high-quality graphics in variety of colours. Plotters are specially useful for creating maps and architectural drawings. It uses to get printouts about charts and graphics. Speakers Use to output alerts, music and voice. Projectors Projectors are used in presentation. We can make large Visual display area by using projectors.
  101. 101. Storage devices ( wdphk tAll ) Can be divided into two categories. 1. Secondary storage devices 2. Primary storage device ( Internal storage / RAM ) 1. Secondary storage ( oaù;shsl .nvdj ) can be divided into three categories. 1. Magnetic Media 2. Optical Media 3. Electronic Media ( Flash drives)
  102. 102. Secondary Storage Backing Storage ( ndysr .nvdj ) Magnetic Optical Flash Memory Hard Disk Floppy Disk Zip Disk Magnetic Tape WORM CD RW CD DVD Flash Drive Pen Drive Data Traveler Memory Chip ( in Digital Cameras & Mobile Phones)
  103. 103. End Show Magnetic Media Magnetic tape Advantages  Magnetic tapes is the cheapest storage medium.  It can handle large amount of Data. Disadvantage  Magnetic tape is the slowest for retrieval data.  Data can be read on sequentially. ( One after another.)
  104. 104. End Show Magnetic Disk / Floppy Disk ( kuH ;eá ) 51/2 Floppy disk 31/2 Floppy disk (1.44 MB) Floppy Disk insert into a floppy Drive and it copies or reads data into a floppy disk. The big advantage of floppy disk is that they are portable.
  105. 105. End Show Zip Disk / Jazz Disk These disks can store more capacity than Floppy Disk. Zip disk can store 100MB to 750 MB and Jazz Disk can store 1GB to 2GB. Hard Disk ( oDv ;eá ) This is a main storage media for a computer to store data. (non-removable storage media ) Data access is very fast, measured in milliseconds.
  106. 106. End Show Optical media CD 650/900MB Compact disk ( ix.; / ixhqla; ;eá ) Types of CDs (650MB/900MB Diameter 12cm Thickness 1.2mm • CD- ROM = Compact Disc Read Only Memory • WORM = Write Once read Many Disk • CD-RW= Compact Disc Rewritable (Many time)
  107. 107. End Show DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) ixLHdxl nyqúO ;eá Types of DVDs Single Side Single layer = 4.5GB Double Side Single layer = 9.4GB Single Side Double layer = 8.54GB Double Side Double layer = 17GB Digital Versatile Disk Industry standard and recognized by the DVD Forum: DVD-R = DVD Recordable DVD-RW = DVD Rewritable DVD-RAM = DVD Random Access Memory
  108. 108. Differences between the CD and DVD CD DVD
  109. 109. Flash Memory Flash drive / Thumb drive / Pen Drive There are no disks inside the storage unit. It's a memory module with a larger storage capacity than a floppy disk. This kind of unit is mainly used for transporting data from one PC to another. It's small and light and fits into your pocket.
  110. 110. Memory Chip 2. Primary storage device ( Internal storage) Use in digital camera and hand phones as a storage. Primary storage can be divided into three types. 1. Random Access Memory 2. Read Only Memory 3. Cache memory
  111. 111. 1. Random Access Memory iiïNdù msõiqï u;lh RAM or the main memory is the computer’s short-term memory that temporarily holds data and instructions, which will be needed shortly by the CPU. Data and instructions can be stored and retrieved from anywhere in the RAM. RAM is volatile ( kIH u;lh ), which means that it loses its data when the computer is turned off. RAM is supplied in modules, small circuit boards which can be plugged into the motherboard in special sockets. DDR-RAM RAMBUS DIMM-RAM
  112. 112. 2. Read only memory mGk ud;% u;lh Computers almost always contain a small amount of read-only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. ROM is Non-volatile ( kIH fkdjk u;lh ), which means that it doesn’t loses its data when the computer is turned off. These programs will be supplied by the manufacturers permanently kept inside the ROM. ROM consists software called BIOS. (Basic Input Output System)
  113. 113. 3. Cache memory ( jdrl u;lh) Special memory is built in between RAM and CPU called Cache memory. Cache memory is attached into the CPU or the Main board. Cache memory is more faster than RAM. The performance of the CPU is increase while the CPU uses the Cache memory. Cache memory can be two types. 1. Primary Cache memory / Level 1 [ L1] m%d:ñl jdrl u;lh Primary Cache memory is attached into the CPU and it contains small amount of memory storage. It is the speediest memory. 2. Secondary Cache memory / Level 2 [ L2] oaù;shsl jdrl u;lh Secondary Cache memory is built in Mother board and it is also near the CPU. It contains large amount of memory storage. It is slower than Primary Cache memory . CPU Cache memory RAM
  114. 114. Connecting peripherals mrs.Kl Wmdx. iïnkaO lsrSu
  115. 115. Ports (flfjks)
  116. 116. 1. PS2 port – Keyboard and mouse 2. USB port - (Universal serial bus) Keyboard, mouse, Printer, Scanner, digital Camera etc… õYaj fYa%Ks.; nia flfjks
  117. 117. 3. Serial port – (male) (Communication port / com port) There are two versions • 9 pin • 25 pin Modems, serial mouse etc… fYa%Ks.; flfjks
  118. 118. 4. Parallel port - (25pin Female) (Printer port / LPT) Printers / Scanners iudka;r flfjks
  119. 119. 5. Video Graphic Array (VGA) mrs.Kl ;sr flfjks 1. Colour (15pin Female) 2. Monochrome (9 pin Female) Monitors / projectors
  120. 120. 6. Sound and Game YÄo Wmdx. flfjks Speakers, Microphones, external sound devices, joy sticks/ game pads
  121. 121. 7. Network Ports (cd,lrK flfjks ) Connect computers in the network RJ45 BNC
  122. 122. 8. Modem Connect to the Internet RJ11 RJ11
  123. 123. Wireless Link - Infrared / Bluetooth Bluetooth Infrared 1. Bluetooth has got much higher transfer rate than Infrared. 2. Bluetooth doesn't require line of sight as in the case of infrared where the infrared ports of both the devices need to face each other in a line of sight. 3. In the case of Bluetooth, the devices can be placed anywhere within the range of the device, which ranges from 10 to 100 meters.
  124. 124. TV/FM card
  125. 125. Communication and Computer Networks o;a; ikaksfõokh iy mrs.Kl cd, Introduction to communication Communication is the sharing of information of messages between two or more entities. Importance of communication 1. Discuss some subject matter 2. Inform my abilities to another person 3. Get an appointment 4. Have a chat with my friend 5. Transfer a file 6. Send E – Mails 7. SMS
  126. 126. Components of data communication system o;a; ikaksfõok moaO;shl uQ,sl fldgia We can identify three basic elements of any communication. 1. Sender / Source o;a; m%Njh fyda o;a; ksmojk ia:dkh 2. Data communication medium o;a; iïfma%IK udOH 3. Receiver / Sink o;a; ,nd .kakd Sender Receiver Medium
  127. 127. Data communication medium o;a; iïfma%IK udOH Can be categorized in two ways. 1. Guided media kshuq udOH 2. Radiated media jhr rys; udOH 1. Guided media kshuq udOH Twisted pair iudjD; / weTreKq lïì hq., A basic twisted-pair cable consists of two strands of copper wire twisted together. This twisting reduces the sensitivity of the cable to electro magnetic interference.
  128. 128. Shielded twisted pair wdjrKh lrk iudjD; / weTreKq lïì hq., Shielded twisted-pair cabling consists of one or more twisted pairs of cables enclosed in a foil wrap and woven copper shielding. The shield further reduces the tendency of the cable to radiate EMI and thus reduces the cable’s sensitivity to outside interference.
  129. 129. Unshielded twisted pair Unshielded twisted-pair cable doesn’t incorporate a braided shield into its structure. RJ 45 Connector
  130. 130. Coaxial Cable iudlaIl fhd;a Coaxial cables were the first cable types used in LANs. Gets its name because two conductors share a common axis; the cable is most frequently referred to as coax.
  131. 131. Fiber Optics m%ldY ;ka;= The centre conductor of a fiber-optic cable is a fiber that consists of highly refined glass or plastic designed to transmit light signals with little loss. A glass core supports a longer cabling distance, but a plastic core is typically easier to work with. The fiber is coated with a cladding that reflects signals back into the fiber to reduce signal loss. A plastic sheath protects the fiber.
  132. 132. 2. Radiated Media úlsrK udOH 1. Radio Transmission .=jka ú≥,s ;rx. 2. Infra Red wfOdarla; lsrK Law frequency light waves uses in wireless mouse, printers and keyboard. 3. Micro Waves laIqø ;rx. High frequency short waves. Micro waves can transfer data in long distance. 4. Communication Satellites ikaksfõok pkaøsld Can transfer data in long distance.
  133. 133. Data Transmission Types o;a; iïfm%aIK wdldr 1. Serial Data Transmission ( fY%aKs.; o;a; iïfm%aIKh) Uses one wire for data transmission and data flows one behind another. Data transfers in bits through Networks. 2. Parallel data Transmission ( iudka;r o;a; iïfm%aIKh) Uses more wires ( most time uses 8 wires) for data transmission and transfers more bits at a time. Data transmission Speed ( o;a; iïfm%aIK fõ.h) Measures by bits per seconds ( bps ) kilo bits per second ( kbps ) megabits per seconds ( Mbps ) gigabits per second ( Gbps )
  134. 134. Data transmission modes (o;a; iïfm%aIK úê ) 1. Simplex ( talm: ) Data flows only one direction. ex:- Television, radio, Magazines, Newspapers 2. Half-duplex ( wrAO oaùm:) Data flows both directions but at a time data flows only one directions. That means both direction data can’t be crossed. ex:- Walkie -Talkie , Fax 3. Duplex ( oaùm:) Data flows both direction at any time. Both direction data can be crossed. ex:- Telephone, Internet, Mobile Phones
  135. 135. Computer Networks mrs.Kl cd, A computer network is an interconnection of various computer system located at different places. In a computer network two or more computers are linked together with a medium and data communication devices for the purpose of communicating data and sharing resources.
  136. 136. Network Topology cd, ia:, úoHdj The term “Topology”, in communication networks, refer to physically how machines of network are linked together. 1. Star topology ;re wdldrfha cd, .; lsrSu In star topology computers are directly connected to a central computer (server) or central node (Switch or Hub). The central node controls all the activities of the network. Advantage of star network Easy to add and disconnect computers from the network. Easy to find out the problems in network. Breakdown of one computer does not effect any other. Disadvantage of star network Need more wires to connect the computers in entire network. Failure of the central node disables the entire network operations.
  137. 137. 2. Ring Topology uq≥ wdldrfha cd, .; lsrSu Advantage of Ring network Any signal transmitted on the network passes through all the Network computers. No need more wires to connect the computers in entire network. Disadvantage of Ring network Breakdown of any one computer on the ring can disable entire system. Data is transmitted in one direction only. ( Clockwise or anti-clockwise)
  138. 138. 3. Bus topology nihl wdldrfha cd, .; lsrSu Advantage of Bus Network Easy to built and no need more wires. Data is transmitted in both ways. Disadvantage of Bus Network Entire network based on Main wire. Any break in the bus is difficult to identify.
  139. 139. 4. Tree topology .il wdldrfha cd, .; lsrSu Tree topology combines characteristic of bus and star topology. Advantage of Tree topology Easy to controls the branches separately. Supports different hardware platforms. Disadvantage of Tree topology The main bus fails it effects the entire network. Difficult to build and control the network. Star network Main Bus Wire
  140. 140. Main type of computer Network m%Odk mrs.Kl cd, jr®. 1. LAN ( Local Area Network ) ia:dkSh m%foaY cd, 2. MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network ) mqrjr m%foaY cd, 3. WAN ( Wide Area Network) mqΩ,a m%foaY cd,
  141. 141. Local Area Network (LAN) - LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - MAN is basically a bigger version of a LAN and normally uses similar technology. It might cover a group of near by corporate offices or a city and might be either private or public. Wide Area Network (WAN) - Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines, satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Types of Network
  142. 142. Wide Area Network (WAN)
  143. 143. End Show An example for a WAN (Wide Area Network) Telecommunication Satellite
  144. 144. Connectivity Devices Network Hubs / Network Switch cd,lrK kdNsh/ The hub's major function is to replicate data it receives from one device attached to it to all others.
  145. 145. Repeaters Any electrical signal reaching the repeater from one segment, will be amplified and retransmitted to the other segment. Using repeaters slows the signal's propagation, and thus the amount of repeaters should be limited.
  146. 146. Bridges Bridges are used to increase the number of addressable nodes on a network or to link two geographically distant but similar networks. Routers A major feature of a router is that it chooses the best route between networks that may have multiple paths between them. IP addressing and subnet masking are used to route packets
  147. 147. Modems A modem is a device that converts digital data originating from a computer to analog signals used by voice communication networks, such as the telephone system. A modem may also convert analogue data originating from a (say, a telephone line) to digital data for use by a computer. Digital Signal Analog Signal Modulation Demodulation Modem Computer Digital Device Analog Device Digital SignalsAnalog Signals Telephone
  148. 148. End Show Digita Signal Analog Signal
  149. 149. Internal Modem External Modem
  150. 150. End Show • Server - Computer that provide shared resources to networks Printer Microcomputer Printer Client Server Microcomputer Minicomputer • Client - Computer that access shared networks resources provided by server
  151. 151. Gateways Gateways interface two dissimilar networks. Gateways translate one network protocol into another, thus overcoming both hardware and software incompatibilities.
  152. 152. Advantages of Computer Networks  Sharing of expensive resources (e.g. A Laser printer, HDD, Internet)  Sharing of databases and other software  Communication among different computer systems  Transfer of multimedia files  Entertainment – (Eg. Play multiple-player computer games from different locations)  Faster transfer of data  Back-up your files on multiple computers
  153. 153. Disadvantages of Computer Networks  Initial cost  Security of information (viruses, hackers, ..)  System failures