History of Computer Hindi Notes

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History of Computer Hindi Notes

  1. 1. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com History of computer dEi;wVj “kCn ‘ Latin language’ dk compute 'kCn ls cuk gSA bldk vFkZ x.kuk djuk gSA dEi;wVj dk dk;Z user }kjk fn;s x;s funsZ’kkadks dks accept djrk gSA mldk process djrk gSA ckn esa result dks nsrk gSA mls dEI;wVj dgrs gSaA dEI;wVj ,d electronic data processing machine gSaA dEi;wVj dh 'kq:vkr yxHkx 3000 bZlk iwoZ esa (AABACU-3000BC) ehlksiksVkfe;k ds yksxksa us dhA ;g ,d methamatical device FkkA bldk mi;ksx tksM+us] ?kVkus] xq.kk rFkk Hkkx djus ds fy, cukbZ xbZ FkhA Bleize Pascal:- lu~ 1642 esa fo”o dk igyk ;kfU=d dsydqysVj cuk;kA blls pascaline uke fn;k x;kA Josej Jacuard:- lu~ 1804 esa loom uked ,d e’khu cukbZ FkhA blls punched ds card oxZ use fd;k x;k FkkA bl machine }kjk instruction dks use esa ysdj operation esa ysrs FksA Charles Babbage:- bldks ’father of computer’ dgrs A bUgksaus difference engine ,oa analytical engine cukbZA Difference engine esa automatic mechanical calculater dk;Z djrs FksA Analytical engine esa instruction igys Hkh punched tk card ldrs FksA bl e”khu store dh speed 60 instruction ij minute excite ldrk FkkA Keyboard machine dk use 1880 esa “kq: gqvk FkkA IBM(International Business machine) us 1937 mark-1 uke dh ,d e”khu cukbZ FkhA1940 esa ,d vo/kku.kk vkbZ FkhA ftlls john von new man
  2. 2. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com ds uke ls tkuh tkrh FkhA ftlus crkbZ;k Fkk fd Data & instruction dks computer esa store djds j[kk tk ldrk gSA 1943 ds vUnj lcls igys electronic ENIAC (electronic numerical Integrated and calculator) bldks university of Pennsylvania ds J.prespea Eckert and john mauchly cuk;k FkkA ;g 50 QqV yEck rFkk 30 QqV pkSM+k FkkA bldk out 30 Vu FkkA vkSj blesa 18000 oSD;qe V~;wckssa dk mi;ksx gqvk Fkk rFkk 150000 okV fctyh dh vko”;drk gksrh FkhA bldks value dks add esa 200 macro second yxrs FksA dEI;wVj ,d system unit ds :I esa dk;Z djrk gSA blds vyx vyx unit gksrh gSA Characteristics of computer High speed:- dEI;wVj fdlh Hkh e’khu dh vis+{kk fast speed ls work djrk gSA tSls%&nks uEcj dks add djus esa micro second ls Hkh de le; yxrk gSaA Accuracy:- tc Hkh fdlh O;fDr dks ,d gh izdkj dk work ckj&ckj djuk iM+rk gS rks mls Fkdku gksus yxrh gSa vkSj ml dk;Z esa xyfr;ksa gksuh dh lEHkkouk cM tkrh gSA dEI;qVj ds lkFk fdlh dk;Z dks ckj&ckjdjus ds ckn dHkh Hkh ,slk ugh gksrk gSA process fdlh result dks vyx&vyx ns vkSj xyr djrk gS rks mldk dkj.k dEI;wVj result display ugha usergS tks xyr data and program use fy;k gSA Varsaliti:- dEI;wVj fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa fofHkUu izdkj ls mi;ksxh gSA tSls%&Bills create djuk] xf.krh; gy djuk] fp= cukuk etc. Diligent:- euq’; dh rjg dEI;wVj Fkdrk ugha gS rFkk tgka fdlh ,d gh rjg ds dk;Z ds fy, dk;Z djuk gksA ogka dEI;qVj ,d vPNk vf”k”kVsUV gks ldrk gSaA
  3. 3. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Storage capacity:- dEI;wVj viuh memory esa dbZ izdkj dk data and information store djrk gS rFkk vko’;drk ij data and information dks miyC/kk djk ldrk gSA CPU (Central Processing Unit) ALU:- ALU dk iqjk uke Arithmetic Logic Unit gksrk gSA ;g ;qfuV Arithmetic and logic operations djrh gSA ftlls ,d ,slk electronic ifjiFk gksrk gS tks vadxf.krh; x.kuk,a djus esa l{ke gksrk gSA ;g lHkh x.kukvksa dks vadxf.krh; fdz;k esa ckaV ysrk gSaA ALU dUVªksy ;wfuV ls information ysrk gS memory ls data izkIr djrk gS vkSj memory esa gh lwpuk yksVk nsrk gS ALU dh dk;Z djus dh xfr rst gksrh gSA blesa dbZ register vkSj Accumulators gksrs gSA CU(Control unit):- ;g Hkkx dh vkUrfjd fdz;kvksa dk lapkyu djrk gSA ;g input, output fdz;kvksa dks fu;af=r djrk gSA lkFk gh memory dks ALU ds e/; data ds vknku&iznku dks funsZ’ku djrk gSA ;g program dks fdz;kfUor djus ds fy, funsZ’kksa dks memory ls izkIr djrk gSA funZs’kksa dks fo|qr ladsrksa esa ifjorhZr djds ;g mfPpr devices rd igqapkrk gSA MMU:- MMU dk iqjk uke Main Memory Unit gksrk gSA ;g data and information processing ds le; rd store djrk gS vkSj data and information dks ALU and CU dks iznku djrk gSA Type of computer Based on size:- Microcomputer:- rduhdh {ks= esa lu~ 1970 ,d dzkUrhdkjh vkfo’dkj gqvk FkkA ;g vkfo’dkj Microcomputer {ks= dk FkkA ftlds mi;ksx ls lLrh dEI;wVj iz.kkyh cukuk “kq: gqvkA ;g dEI;wVj ,d AS ij vFkok ,d fczQdsl ckWDLk esa j[kk tk ldrk gSA ;g NksVs dEI;wVj Microcomputer dgykrs gSA Microcomputer lLrs ,oa vkdkj esa NksVs gksrs gSA blfy, bls office, Home vkfn LFkku ij easily ls mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSA
  4. 4. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Minicomputer:- ;g dEI;wVj e/;e vkdkj ds dEI;wVj gksrs gSA micro computer ds lkis{k vf/kd dk;Z fdz;k djrk gSA ;g O;fDr :I ls ugh [kjhns tk ldrs gSA bUgsa NksVh ;k e/;e vkdkj okyh company dke esa ysrs gSA bl ij ,d ls vf/kd O;fDr dk;Z djrs gSa vkSj ,d ls vf/kd CPUgksrs gS bufd eSeksjh vksj xfr micro ls vf/kd vkSj main frame ls de gksrh gSA Main frame computer:- ;g dEI;wVj vkdkj ls cgqr cM+s gksrs gSA lkFkgh budh storage {kerk Hkh vf/kd gksrh gSAblesa data ij process djus dh {kerk gksrh gS blfy, budk mi;ksx cSad rFkk ljgkjh foHkkx ,d dsfUnaz; dEI;wVj ds :I esa dk;Z djrs gSA ;g 24 ?k.Vs dk;Z dj ldrs gS bu ij lSadM+ksa O;fDr dk;Z dj ldrs gSA bldks ,d network ;kmicrocomputerls ijLij tksM+k tk ldrk gSa bldk mi;ksx purchase detail, sales detail, sent bills, sent notes, salary paid, tax paid etc. Exp.:- IBM-4381, ICL-39, CDC CYBEA SEIRES ETC. Super computer:- ;g dEI;wVj dh lHkh Jsf.k;ksa esa lcls cM+s vkdkj o lcls vf/kd data ij process rFkk lcls vf/kd xfr okys gksrs gSA buesa vusd CPU lekUrj dze esa gksrs gS bl izfdz;k dks lekUrj izfdz;k dgk tkrk gS bldk mi;ksx fuEufyf[kr dk;Z esa gksrk gSA cM+h oSKkfud vkSj “kq} iz;ksx”kyk esa “kks) rFkk [kkst djukA Exp:- uk”kk vkSj bZ”kjksA Capacities of computer dk;Z {kerk] mi;ksfxrk] mRiknd ds dkj.k vkt dEI;wVj ekuo thou dk vax cu x;k gSaA vkt dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx fuEufyf[kr fQyVj esa dj ldrs gSa%&] Education:- dEI;wVj dk vkfo’dkj xf.kr ds leL;k dks gy djus ds fy, gqvk Fkk rFkk bldks mi;ksx xf.kr] bdksukfel] bLVsVhd tSlh tVhy leL;k dks le>us ds fy, gqvk FkkA Business and commerce:- dEI;wVj dk use business esa fd;k tkrk gSSA Hkkjr esa vfHk dEI;wVjkbZt LVsM ,oa business vfHk pkyw fLFkrh esa gh gSA e-
  5. 5. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com commerce dEI;wVj dh ,slh “kk[kk gS ftlds }kjk dksbZ Hkh nks business and organization viuk business world whiled gSA Health:- blds lEcfU/kr dk;ksZ esa dEI;wVj dk vf/kd ls vf/kd mi;ksx fd;k tk jgk gSA c.i.scan, ultra sound, x-ray, sonagraphy etc.dk;ksZ esa use esa yh tkus okyh machine computer ls control gksrh gSA Administration:- Office esa deZpkfj;ksa ls lEcfU/kr lwpukvksa dks dEI;wVj esa stored djds j[krs gS vkSj vko”;drk iM+us ij ml lqpukvksa dk mi;ksx esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA tSls%&police department vijkf/k;ksa ds record store dj ds j[krk gSA DTP word and Printing word:- Newspaper, books, invitations card etc. bu lHkh izdkj ds dk;Z djus ds fy, computer dk use fd;k tk jgk gSA bls bu dk;ksZ dks speed vPNh gks xbZ gSA DTP ds fy, dqN fo”ks’k izdkj ds program and software dh vko”;drk gksrh gSA tSls%&photo editing ds fy, Adobe Photoshop etc. Massage transmition:- fdlh Hkh ns”k dh vk/kqfudrk mldh lapkj ls yxkbZ tkrh gSA bZ&esy lapkj dk ,d ,slk ek/;e gS ftls computer and internet lqfo/kk use djrs gq, lwpuk,a ,d computer ls other computer rd Hksth tk ldrh gS information Hkstus dk work de le; rFkk de cost ij fd;k tk ldrk gSA Astronomy:- blds {ks= esa computer dsk iz;ksx vf/kd ls vf/kd fad;k tk jgk gS S blesa lkjk dk;Z calculation gksrk gSA dEI;wVj dk main work calculation djuk gh gS blds fy, dbZ izdkj ds software miyC/k gSA ftu dk use dksbZ Hkh person dj ldrk gSA ftu dks T;ksrh’k dk Kku u gks rks dbZ software tSls dqaMyh *u{k=* esa miyC/k gSA Music:- fiNys dbZ o’kksZ esa cuh films and albums ns[krs gS rks ge ik;saxs fd laxhrdkjksa us computer dh help ls cuk;k gSA computer dh help ls fdlh Hkh ;a= dh /ofu create dh tk ldrh gS rFkk muds lg;ksx ls u;s&u;s music
  6. 6. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com ;k sounds cuk;s tk ldrs gS rFkk music dh quality dks vPNk fd;k tk ldrk gSA Entertainment:- dEI;wVj dk use video, games, music etc. dks ns[kus o cukus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tk jgk gSA mouices esa dEI;wVj dk iz;ksx special enfant djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA fofHkUu izdkj dh cartoons and animate computer ij gh cu tkrh gSA Generation of computer First generation(1945 to 1955):- bl ih<h ds dEI;wVjequipment;k midj.k ds :Ik esa vacuum tubes dk use fd;k tkrk FkkA vacuum tubes electronic signals dks amplify djrh Fkh rFkk mls fu;af=r dj on/off dh rjg mi;ksx esa ysrh Fkh ijUrq vacuum tubes ds lkFk cM+h leL;k Fkh fd og vf/kd heat generate djrh Fkh RkFkk mls BaMk j[kus ds fy, AC area dh vko”;drk FkhA bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj machine language dk use djrs FksA ftls binary language dgk tkrk gS tks 0 o 1 esa gksrh gSA fos’skrk,a%&  bldh size dkQh cM+h FkhA  bldh processing speed de FkhA  budk main vacuum tubes FkkA  AC dh vko”;drk FkhA  budk operation djus ds fy, binary language dh vPNh tkudkjh okys dh vko”;drk gksrh Fkh rFkk bldks dksbZ Hkh ugh pyk ldrk Fkk Second generation(1955 to 1965):- bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj esa vacuum tabus ds LFkkuij transistor dk mi;ksx fd;k tkus yxkA Transistor, vacuum tabus ls size esa NksVs rFkk blesa power consummation vf/kd FksA buds dkj.k dEI;wVj dh fiNyh ih<h dh vis{kk fast gks xbZ gSA
  7. 7. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com fo’ks"krk,a%&  budh size NksVh Fkh budh processing speed fast FkhA  main equipment transistor bldh de dher dh FkhA  buesa power consumption de FkkA ijUrq AC dh vko”;drk FkhA  blesa assembly language dk mi;ksx FkkA Third generation(1965 to 1975):- bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj esa main equipment IC(Integrated circuit) dk mi;ksx fd;k x;k gSA IC cgqr NksVh silicon chip gksrh gSA ftl ij gtkjksa circuits print gksrs gSAchip ds iz;ksx ls dEI;wVj dk vkdkj cgqr NksVk rFkk dher o ykxr esa dkQh de gks x;kA bl le; esa DEC(Digital Equipment Corporation) cktkj esa launch fd;kA fo’ks"krk,a%&  Storage capacity esa o`f)A  Network dh lqfo/kkA  Time sharing technic iz;ksxA  High language dk use basic fortran  Size esa NksVs FksA  de dher ds FksA  AC dh vko”;drk ughA  vf/kd capable programs tSls%&operating system dk use. Fourth Generation(1975 to vc rd):- bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj esa LSI(Large Scale Integrated Circuits)ls cuh microchip dk iz;ksx fda;k tkus yxk ftls microprocessor dgrs gSA bls ;qDr dEI;wVj Hkh micro computer ls dgk tkus yxsA micro computer dk O;fDrxr mi;ksx cM x;k gSA bu micro computer dks personal computer ;k PC dgrs gSA fo”ks’krk,a%&  vf/kd fo”ouh;A
  8. 8. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com  NksVk vkdkjA  LSI rduhd dk mi;ksxA  Processing speed fast.  de dherA  more storage capacity tSlas%&fox pro, oracal, sql. Fifth Generation:- bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj esa main equipment VLSI(Very Large Scale Integrated circuits) bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj dh lkspus dh {kerk decision ysus dh {kerk vkfn dk fodkl fd;k tk jgk gSA bl ih<h ds dEI;wVj fodkl ds {ks= esa gSA ;g machine lekUrj gksxhA tks ,d le; esa dbZ dk;Z dj ldsxhA blds fy, artificial intelligence dk concept dks mi;ksx esa fy;k tk jgk gS blesa use language prolog, lisp gSA] fo’ks"krk,a%&  budh size cM+hA  dher vf/kdA  Data storage capacity rFkk processing speed fast gksxhA Memory Memory:- dIE;wVj esa data storage media dks memory dgrs gSA I. Primary memory:- bldks main memory or internal memory or temporarily memory Hkh dgrs gSA dEI;wVj ds vUnj bl dk dk;Z only working time gksrk gSA ;fn power cut/off gks tkrh gS rks memory useless gks tkrh gSA Two types of primary memory:- I. RAM:- bldk iqjk uke random access memory gksrk gSAbldk use working ds time tc rd power supply jgrh gS rc rd work
  9. 9. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com djrh gS rFkk off ij work cUn dj nsrh gSA mlds vUnj storage information xk;c gks tkrh gSA bls volatile memory ds uke ls tkuk tksrk gSA Primary memory RAM ds fdlh Hkh location dks ,d leku time esa read fda;k tk ldrk gSA blh dkj.k ls bls Random access memory dgk tkrk gS A RAM nks izdkj dh gksrh gS& S-RAM (Static RAM) :- Fixed word length memory. D-RAM (Dynamic Ram) :- Variable word length memory. II. ROM:- bldk iqjk uke read only memory gksrk gSA blesa data store djus ds ckn ckj&ckj Ik<k tk ldrk gS ftles nwckjk data or information i<hugh tk ldrh gSA data write izfdz;k dks ROM esa burning fd;k tkrk gS ;g non-volatile memory dgykrh gSA ROM dEI;wVj ds vUnj low level dk;Z djus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSA Exp:- BIOS, Books etc. 2. Secondary memory:- dEI;wVj system esa information dks LFkkbZZ djus ds fy, bldk use djrs gSA bl esa data store djus ds ckn future esa use ys ldrs gSA Power dk cut/off or on ugh i³rk gSaA i. Hard Disk drive:- ;g IBM company }kjk cuk;k x;k storage devise gSA bldks Winchester disk dgk tkrk gSA ;g magnet plate ls cuh gksrh gSA ftlesa ,d central soft ij ?kqek;k tkrk gSA plate ds pkjksa vksj dk {ks= airless ds vUnj j[kk tkrk gSA bu plate dks ,d liquid ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS ftlls plate dks dksbZ loss ugh gksrk gSA plate dks traces esa rFkk traces dks sector esa ckaVk x;k gSA sector esa 512 bit data store fd;k tkrk gSaA ii. CD(compact disk):-;g virtual memory gksrh gS rFkk bldks CD ROM ds }kjk system ds lkFk tksM+k tkrk gS blesa audio, vedio, music, text, photo, movie dh files, presentation vkfn type store dh tk ldrh gS ;g without CD-ROM useless gSA CD ds
  10. 10. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com vUnj maximum data 700MB store dj ldrs gS rFkk fofHkUu company }kjk cuk;k tk jgh gSA tSls%&Sony, I-service etc. iii. DVD(Digital Video Disk):-;g virtual memory gksrh gSA rFkk bldks DVD writer ds }kjk dEI;wVj ls tksM+k tkrk gSA DVD esa maximum data 4.7GB dj ldrs gSA iv. Blue Ray:-;g CD/DVD dh rjg gh gksrh gSSA ysfdu CD/DVD singal leyar gksrh gS ijUrq ;g Double layer esa gksrh gSA Disk ds nksuks side writable site gksrh gSA bldks DVD writer esa ugh pyk;k tk ldrk gS blds fy, blue ray writer use esa fy;k tkrk gS bl esa ,d ys;j ij 25GB data store djus dh capacity gksrh gS total size 50GB data rd gksrh gSaA v. Pen Drive:- Secondary memory esa pen drive flax memory gksrk gS bl esa hard disk dh rjg data write and read fd;k tk ldrk gS bldh maximum size 64GB gksrh gSA Input & Output Device Input Device:-ftlds ek/;e ls dEI;wVj dks funsZ’khr fd;k tkrk gS ml devise dks input devise dgrs 1. Key-board:-;g eq[; o easy input devise gS tks data rFkk program ,d keyboard ds ek/;e ls computer esa input fd;s tkrs gS blds }kjk user dqN comment computer dks nsrk gSA mldk izHkko screen ij iM+rk gSA Keyboard keys dks lkr Hkkaxks esa ckaVk tk ldrk gS&] i. Alphabet keys (A to Z) ii. Numerical keys (0 to 9) iii. Functional keys (F1 to F12) iv. Arrow keys
  11. 11. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com v. Symbols keys vi. Special keys vii. Control keys 2. Mouse:-;g ,d pointing input devise gSA bldks j[kus ds fy, mouse pad dk use fd;k tkrk gSA bldks gkFk ls dke djrs gS Space ij ?kqekus ij ball ?kqerh gS rFkk mouse esa yxs NksVs&NksVs jksyj dks lfefyr djrh gS ;g signals dks digital value esa ;qDr djrh gS fd mouse fdl fn”kk esa xfr djrk gSA ;g 1963 esa cuk FkkA ;g GUI(Graphical User Interface) based ij gksrk gSA bl esa rhu button gksrs gS&Right, left, scroll button. 3. Track ball:- ;g Hkh ogh dk;Z djrh gS tks mouse djrk gS vUrj ;g gS fd mouse dks gkFk ls rFkk track boll dks vaxqyh ;k vaxqBs ls ?kqekdj use djrs gSA tSls&laptop. 4. Joystick:-;g games [ksyus ds dke vkus okyk input device gSA blds ek/;e ls screen ij present vkdjrh dks blds gsaMy ls pyk;k tk ldrk gS ;g mouse dh rjg dk;ZZ djrk gSA mouse dks fdlh ,d fn”kk esa move djds NksM+ nsus ij ijUrq joystick esa ,d ckj move djus ij object mlh rjg move djrk jgsxk tc rd mls igys okyh LFkrh rd ugh yk;k tk, rc rd mlh fn”kk esa move djrk gSSaA 5. Scaner:- ;g ,d input device gS ftlds }kjk text fl)s dEI;wVj esa Hkstk tkrk gSA blds fy, ftl text dks scan djuk gS mls scanner dh flute surface ij j[kk tkrk gS scanner ij yxs laser, light source ds }kjk fp= dks binary code esa change djd dEI;wVj esa Hkstk tkrk gS rFkk monitor screen ij ns[k ldrs gS vkSj vko”;drk vuqlkj fPk= esa changing fda;k tk ldrk gSA Exp:- fMtkbZuj use ysrs gSATwo type of scanner-1. Hand scanner. 2. Desktop scanner.
  12. 12. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 6. Digital Camera:-;g ,slk ,d input Devise gSS tks fdlh Hkh seen dks djus eas dke vkrk gS seen dks store djus ds le; camera dh screen ij ns[k ldrs gS ;g NksVs vkdkj ds input device gksrs gSA 7. MICR(Magnetic Ink Character Reader) :-bl midj.k }kjk input fd;k tkus ij ,d paper ij fy[kk tkrk gSA v{kjks dks fy[kus ds fy, ,d special front gksrk gS bl front ds izR;sd v{kj ,d line ij cuk gksrk gSA blesa ,d magnetic ink dk use fd;k tkrk gSA ftles vk;ju vkaDlkbM magnetic inkFkZ feyk gksrk gSA Exp:- Bank ds check dks o paper dks read djus ds fy, MICR ds reading hit ds uhps ls xqtkjk tkrk gSA ;g check o DD dks “kq) ls i<rk gS rFkk budh input xfr fast gksrh gS rFkk blesa front Macke djus ds fy, og magnetic ink esa gksus pkfg,A 8. OCR(Optical Character Reader):-bls character dks scan djds fl/ks gh dEI;wVj esa input djus ds fy, dke fy;k tkrk gSA blds }kjk graphical dks scan ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldks izR;sd character dks optical source }kjk izdkf”kr fd;k tkrk gS vkSj bls OCR ds fups j[kh gqbZ photo sensitive plate ij izkIr fd;k tkrk gSA OCR }kjk data dks binary code esa change dj computer esa input fd;k tkrk gS blds }kjk input data processing c< tkrh gS rFkk xyfr;ks dh lEHkkouk ugh jgrh gSA 9. OMR(Optical Mark Reader):-;g ,d ,slh input device gS tks fdlh paper ij pen or pencil ds fpUg dh mifLFkrh dks tkurk gS ftlesa fpUg ij izdk”k <kyk tkrk gSA ifjofrZr izdk”k dks tkapk tkrk gS tgka fpUg gksrk ogk izdk”k dh rhozrk de gksrh gSA exp.:- izfr;ksxhrk dh books dks tkap esa gksrk gSA 10. Light Pen:-;g dEI;wVj dh screen ij dksbZ image cukus ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSA bldh Vhi ls dksbZ vkdrhZ cukbZ tkrh gSA Vp screen ls tranfar ls processor esa tkrh gS vkSj ml LFkku ij design fn[kus yxrh gSA Light pen dks menu esa fn;s x;s option dks select djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA bls image dks save dj ldrs gSA
  13. 13. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 11. Touch Screen:-;g Hkh ,d input device gSSSA touch terminal ,d sensitive screen gh j[krs gSA vaxqyh Nq dj gh screen ls select fd;k tk ldrk gS ;g cgqr lkjs fcUnqvksa dk lekos”k gksrk gS rFkk izR;sd fcUnq ,d vyx input izo`fr dks Lohdkj djrk gSA bldk use djus ds fy, vuqHkoh operator dh vko”;drk ugh gS rFkk muds fy, gS tks pyk;k ugh tkurs gSaA 12. BCR(Bar Code Reader) :-blds }kjk printed leqg dks ,d data }kjk read fd;k tk ldrk gSA universal product code lcls T;knk mi;ksx esa vkus okyk BCR Code gSA lHkh detail packeting ij gksrk gS ;g ,d scanner gS tks UPC esa ,d lsfu esa ,d [kM+h line gksrh gSA bldh pksM+kbZ vyx&vyx gksrh gSA bldks 10 fMftV esa i<k tkrk gS bu esa ls igys ikap fueZkrk distributer dk irk pyrk gS vkSj ckdh ikap ls product dh tkudkjh pyrh gSA 13. Web camera:-bldk mi;ksx fo”ks’k dj dEI;wVj ds lkFk gksrk gS user bldk iz;ksx online chating ds le; djrs gS og fdlh object ij Qksdl djds fp= nsrk gSA nqljh vksj online person (;fn mlds ikl web camera gS rks) ns[k ldrs gS rFkk mls ckrfpr dj ldrs gSA Output Devices:-ftl midj.k dh lg;ksx ls CPU ls vkus okyh lwpukvksa dks izkIr djrs gSA mls Output Device dgrs gSA Two type of Output device. 1. Soft copy :-;fn ifj.kke ls izkIr lwpukvksa dks fdlh program ds ek/;e ls screen ij ;k vkokt ls izkIr rFkk mls ckj&ckj ifjorZu djds mls soft copy dgrs gS rFkk bl result dks flopy disk o hard disk esa store fd;k tkrk gSaA 2. Hard copy:-tc result dks printer rFkk plotter }kjk paper ij print fd;k tkrk gSa rks og hard copy result dks nss[kus ds fy, fofHkUu output device gksrh gS& 1.) Monitor. 2.) Printer. 3.) Plotter. 4.) Sound card and spreakers.
  14. 14. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 1. Printer:-;g ,d output device gS rFkk bldh lg;ksx ls lwpukvksa dks print from esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g ,d hard copy device gSaA Two type of printer- i. Impact. ii. Non-Impact. i. Impact printer:- ;g VkbZi writer dh fl)kUr ij cuk gSA tks ribber rFkk paper ij izgkj djds print djrk gSA ;g striating theory ij dk;Z dkjrk gSA Type of Impact printer- a. Line printer. b. Chain printer. c. Drum printer. d. Dot matrix printer(DMP) e. Dali wheel printer. ii. Non- Impact printer:- ;g rabbi ij izgkj ugh djrs gS rFkk buesa jklk;fud ink jack rFkk izdkf”kkr fo/kh }kjk print djrk gS Types of Non-impact printer– a. Laser printer. b. Color printer. 2. Monitor:- Output Devices esa lcls vf/kd dke esa vkus okyk monitor Output gSA ;g main output device gSA user monitor }kjk gh computer lekIr djrk gSA lekUrj izdkf”kr color ds vk/kkj ij monitor dks rhu types esa gSaA a. Monochrome:- ;g nks “kCn mono (,dy ;k flaxy) rFkk chrome ls feydj cuk gSA bl izdkj ds monitor output dks back and whiter esa show djrs gSA b. Gray scale:- ;g fo”ks’k izdkj ds monitor gksrs gS tks gray said esa output show djrs gS bl izdkj ds vf/kdrj laptop esa use fd;s tkrs gSA
  15. 15. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com c. Color monitor:- RGB(Red Green Blue) fodj.k ds output dks show djrk gSA RBG ds fl)kUr ds izdkj ,sls monitor dqN resolution ij xzkfQDl dks show djrs gSA computer dh memory dh {kerk ds vk/kkj ij ,sls 15 ls 16 yk[k rd output esa show djus dh {kerk j[krs gSaA Types of Monitor:- CRI(Cathode Ray Tubes):-vf/kdrj dEI;wVj esa bl izdkj ds monitor dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g GU ds leku dk;Z djrk gS bl izdkj ds monitor esa cathode rais tubes dke esa ysrs gSA CUI monitor esa phosphor cathode screen gksrh gSA tc electron bl screen ij fxjrs gS rks screen ij jks”kuh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA bldh picture polity vPNh gksrh gSaA LCD(Liquid Crystal Display/Diode):-;g ,d Digital Display system dkap dh nks iVrh ds ek/e esa ftlds ikjn”khZ nzo inkFkZ gksrs gS A LCD dh ckgjh ij tin oxide dh }kjk coared gksrh gSA LCD monitor vf/kdrj laptop computer esa dke fy;s tkrs gSA bl rjg dh screen laptop ds vfrfjDr calculater, video games and digital camera etc. esa dke fy;k tkrh gSA Advantages:- blesa de fctyh yxrh gSA vkdkj NksVk gksrk gSSA Disadvantages:-vf/kd dher resolution vf/kd vPNk ugh gksrk gSA TFI(Thin Film Transistor):- LCD ds ckn monitor izdkj esa dqN ifjorZu fd;k x;k gSA liquid crystal dh txg thin film transistor rduhd dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA blesa display ds fy, per fiscal ds fy, transistor responsible gSaA LED(Light Emanon Diode):- TEI ds ckn monitor rduhd dks vksj fodflr fd;k x;kA bl izdkj ds monitor esa light ermine
  16. 16. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com diode dk mi;ksx fd;k x;A LCD monitor dks Display ckfd ds eqdkcys vPNk gSA LED dks fdlh angel ls ns[kk tk ldrk gS blesa power saving and less expensive gksrk gSAa Plasma:- monitor dh lcls vf/kd display quality blesa feyrh gS rFkk bldk resolution lcls vPNk gksrk gSA blesa picture dh per fivsal ds fy, vyx emino diode work gksrs gS ;g high expensive gksrs gSA 3. Plotter:- bldk use cM+s vkdkj ds uD”ks] pkVZ] f=foe; js[kkfp= xzkQ] fMtkbZu vkfn fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Two Types of plotter:- a. Drum pen plotter. b. Flat led plotter. 4. Speakers:-;ag dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks /ofu esa change djrs gSA speaker dks use multimedia application esa gksrk gSA WINDOWS Paint Not pad WordPad Calculator Windows Explorer System Tools Desktop Customization
  17. 17. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Desktop:- monitor screen ij information display djus okys iVy dks desktop dgrs gSA Wallpaper:- (Picture on desktop) vyx&vyx picture dks Ldzhu ij set djuk Wallpaper setting dgykrk gSaA Icon:- (Graphical representation of application) fdlh Hkh izksxzke dk desktop ij graphical shortcut create fda;k tkrk gS rks ml application dks icon dgykrk gSA ml icon ij right arrow dk fu’kku gksrk gSA Folder:- Windows esa directory ds graphical representation dks folder dgrs gS ftlesa files dks store fd;k tkrk gSaA Two Types of folder:- a. Normal Folder:- oks LFkku tgka ij files dks j[kk tkrk gSa rFkk normally bls user }kjk create fd;k tkrk gSA normal folder dgykrk gSaA b. System Folder:- Operating System h files ftl folder esa store gksrh gS System folder dgykrh gSA tks oprating system load djrs le; automatically create gks tkrh gSaA Exp.:MyComputer, My Document, Recycle bin etc. Start button:- (To begin program) Window esa fdlh Hkh application ;k program dks start djus ds fy, start button dk use Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA bldks main invoke button Hkh dgk tk ldrk gSaA Start Menu:- Mouse ls start button ij click djus ds ckn program dh tks list fn[kkbZ nsrh gS mls start menu dgrs gSaA
  18. 18. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Quick Launch:- Commonly use gksus okyh application dks ,d box esa pin dj fn;k tkrk gSA quick lounck dgykrk gS tks fd desktop left bottom corner esa fLFkr start button ds ikl gksrk gSaA Task bar:- (Presentation of running program):- Computer esa pyus okys program dh list ftl ij show gksrh gS mls taskbar dgrs gSa tks fd desktop esa lcls uhps blue strip gksrh gSaA System Tray:- Right bottom corner in desktop display of date and time, important icon of access. Taskbar Customization Taskbar and start menu properties:- 1. Taskbar:- Lock the taskbar:- Desktop ij taskbar dks lock djus djus ds fy, bl dk use djrs gSS ;fn bl option dks unselect djrs gS tks taskbar esa changes fd, tk ldrs gSA exp. Taskbar dh height or width dks c<kuk ;k de djukA Auto-hide taskbar:- Desktop ls taskbar automatically hide gks dks fixed j[kus ds fy, auto-hide taskbar dks unselect j[krs gSaA Keep the taskbar on top of the other window:- bl option dks select djus ls taskbar window ij display j[krs gSaA Group similar taskbar buttons:- Window esa similarly open gksus okyh files, folder, application etc ,d ls T;knk gksus ij particulars files, folder, application etc. group esa display gksaxsA ;fn bl option dks unselect djrs gS tks lHkh files, folder, application individually display gksaxsA
  19. 19. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Show Quick launch:-bl option dk use desktop ij quick louche tag dks display djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn bl option dks unselect fd;k tkrk gSA rks quick loach disappeared. Notification Area:- Show the clock- hides inactive icons Notification area esa system dh clock dks display djokus ds fy, taskbar and start menu properties dk use djrs gSA notification are or system tray esa bu active icon hidden djus ds fy, taskbar and menu properties dk use djrs gSaA 2. Start menu:- Start or standerd menu:- menu dks select djus ds fy, vkidks program list dks normal access djus dk way izkIr gksxkA bl menu esa tks list display gksxh mlesa favorite programs gksxsA exp. Internet exeplorar, windows media player etc. Classic start menu:- program list esa display style windown esa iqjkus version dh rjg gh gSaA Task manager:- computer esa pyus okys running program dks statuc fyl diolog box esa fn[krk gS mlds task manater dgk tkrk gSaA u;s task ysus rFkk running task dks end djus ds fy, system dh processing speed dks chek djus dh memory dh using dks ns[kus es vkfn esa task manager dks use fd;k tkrk gSaA Shortcut:- ctrl+Alt+del Ctrl+Alt+esc Display Display open djus dk rjhdk 1. Right click on desktop 2. Pop-up menu a. Arrange Icon By.
  20. 20. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com b. Refresh c. Paste d. Paste shortcut e. Groove folder synchronization f. Graphical Option g. Properties a. Arrange Icon By:- i. Name:- Icon o folder dks name ds according arrange djsxkA ii. Size:- File o folder dh size ds accordingarrangedjsxkA iii. Type:- File o folder type according arrange djsxk A iv. Modified:-User icon o folder dks nudity dj ldrk gSaA v. Show in groups:- Open application dks group display djuk gSA vi. Auto arrange:- scon o folder automatically arrange dks tkrs gSaA vii. Auto to grid:- Icon, folder left aligh esa gksaxs viii. Show desktop icons:- desktop ls icon o folder dks hide djus o okil display djus ds fy, show desktop icons dk use djrs gSaA ix. Lock Web items on desktop:- desktop ij web ls related item dks display djus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gS x. Run desktop cleanup wizard:- Desktop ij cuus okyh temporary file dks remove djus ds fy, desktop cleanup wizard dk use djrs gSaA b. Refresh:- Computer memory dks recall djus ds fy, refresh command dk use djrs gS bldk shortcut key ‘F5’ gksrk gSaA c. Paste:-dgha ls copy fd, gq, object dks desktop ij ykus ds fy, paste command dk use djrs gSaA
  21. 21. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com d. Paste Shortcut:- fdlh Hkh application dk shortcut cukus ds fy, paste shortcut command dk use djrs gSaA e. Groove Folder Synchronization:-;g ms-worddh application dh utility gS ftldk use folder synchronization ds fy, djrs gSaA f. Save as scheme:- Desktop esa new color scheme tksM+us fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA g. Graphical Option:- Desktop ds graphic resolution ds ckjs esa information provide djokrk gSaA h. Display Modes:- Display mode esa screen dk color high color ;k fQj true color requirement according choose djsaA i. New:- Folder cukus shortcut create djus ] fdlh application dk shortcut icon cukus ;k direct open djus rFkk Folder dks compress djus ds fy, new command dk use gksrk gSaA j. Theme- Theme dk eryc background ij sound dks set djuk icon setting, other elements setting lkjh setting ,d click ij gks tk,aA Desktop:-
  22. 22. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com A. Background:- Desktop ij fn[kus okyh screen dks cnyus ds fy, background esa fn;s x, picture dks choose djsaA B. Browser:- Computer memory ls dksbZ ubZ Picture yxkuh gks rks browser ls browse dj ysA C. Position:- Desktop ij picture dks rhu position esa ns[k ldrs gSaA i. Tile:- Desktop ij scenario file eryc VqdM+ksa dh rjg gksxkA ii. Center:- Desktop ij picture desktop ds center esa display gksxhA iii. Stretch:- Desktop ij picture full flash fn[kkbZ nsrh gSaA D.color:- Desktop dk color change djus ds fy, color command dk use djrs gSaA E. Customize Desktop:- Desktop icons:- Desktop ij icon display djus ds fy, customize icon dk use djrs gS F. Screen Saver:- tc vki working condition esa uk gks ml le; vki moniter dh screen ij movable text ;k picture display djuk pkgrs gS] screen sever dgykrk gSaA G.Monitor power:- To adjust monitor powar settings and save evergy use monitor power command. H.Appearance:- Window o button dk colour ;k styles cnyus ds fy, window dk color scheme change djus ds fy, window dk font size cnyus ds fy, appearance tag dk use djrs gSaA I. Setting:- System, monitor ;k VGA adaptor dk resolution cnyus ds fy, setting tag dk use djrs gSA Start menu 1. Turn off:- i. Stand by:- vkidk monitor low power supply ijquicly cUn gk tk,xkA
  23. 23. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com ii. Turn off/shut down:- Turn off dk eryc computer dks ;k computer esa pyus okys oprating System dks Safaly cUn djus ds fy, turn off dk use djrs gSA iii. Restart:- Running oprating system dks shut down djds nksckjk start dj nsxkA iv. Hybbernate:- Window esa pyus okys current application dks ogh ij resume djds windows dks shut down dj nsxkA hybbernate option dks use djus ds fy, turn off button esa stand by command dks select djsa rFkk shift key dks hold djds j[ksA vkids lkeus hybbernate option appear gksxkA 2. Log off window:- Pc ij ftl user ds ek/;e ls window run gks jgk gS mlls ckgj fudyuk log off window dgykrk gSaA Swich user:- Running user dks without log off nqljs user ls log in gkus ds fy, switch user dk iz;ksx djrs gSA bldk shortcut key window+L gksrk gSA Log off:- Running windows ls ckgj fudyus ds fy, log off command dk use gksrk gSaA 3. Run:- Run windows dh ,d utility gSaA ftldk mi;ksx fdlh application dh .exe file ds ek/;e ls fdlh application ls open djokukA 4. Help and Support:- Windows ls related fdlh Hkh rjg dh Help dks ysus ds fy, help and support dk use djrs gSaA 5. Search:- Computer dh directory ls file o folder <qa<us ds fy, search command dk use djrs gSaA 6. Setting:- Computer ds vUnj pyus okys lkjs opration dks set djus ds fy, setting dk use djrs gSA Exp. Computer ij new hard ware tksM+uk] fdlh application dks add of remove djuk] internet connection dks check djuk] printer of faves dks enable or
  24. 24. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com disable djuk] mail kds configure djuk] sound dks enable or disable etc. 7. Documents:- Computer esa store fd;s tkus okys data dks by default document folder esa store fd;k tkrk gSaA 8. Programs:- computer ds vUnj install fad;s tkus okys lHkh program, program list ds vUnj Show gksaxsA 9. Update windows:- Installed operating system dks update djus ds fy, windows update command dk use djrs gSA windows update dk eryc windows ds site latest ritical security updates, device, devices raFkk vU; feature update fad;s tkrs gSaA 10. Windows catalog:- System ls related fdlh rjg dk product update djus ds fy, windows catalog command dk use djrs gSaA 11. Set program access and Defauts:- Windows ds vUnj fdlh default program dks choose djuk ;k activate djukA Exp. Web browser, sendingemail rFkk specific program dks start menu ls desktop ls other location ls access djukA Pragram 1. Accessories:- blds vUnj mi;ksx gksus okyh application windows application dgykrh gS tks oprating system instoll djras le; by default instoll gks tkrh gSaA a. Accessibility wizard:- bldk use system meet configure djus ds fy, gksrk gSaA b. Magnifier:- bl command dk use selected text vkaSj screen ds mij other components dks cM+k ns[kus ds fy, magnifier dk use djrs gSA c. Narrator:- bldk use read on screen text, dealog boxes, menus and button. Aloud if speakers or a sound output device is installed.
  25. 25. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com d. On-screen keyboard:- bl dks screen ij display djus ds fy, bldk use djrs gS bldk control mouse }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA Shortcut:- Run type OSK e. Utility manager:- Windows esa accessibility tool dks configure djus ds fy, use ysrs gSaA 2. Communications:- a. Hyper terminal:- ;fn vki nks system net work based connect djrs gS rks blds vUnj IP dks check djus ds fy, telnet, board system , on tile serveces, host user vkfn dks withoutmodem connect fd;k tkrk gSA b. Network connection:- ,d nwljs computer dks tksM+us fQj Network dks establish djus ds fy, bl dk use fd;k tkrk gS A Shortcut:- Run type ncpa.cpl c. Network setup wizard:- vkidksa vius ?kj ;k office esa network dks setup djus ds fy, bldk use djuk gksrk gSaA d. New Connection wizard:- New connection dk use internet dks connect djus ds rFkk network dks select djus ds fy,A Exp. Private, home, public. e. Wireless network setup wizard:- vkidks network esa wire less network dks add djus ds fy, bldk use djrs gSsSA type of wireless:- gagi, flevible, directable. 3. Entertainment:- a. Sound Records:- Computer esa sound dks record djus ds fy, sound records dk use djuk iM+rk gSsSA b. Volume Control:- Wizard/ system sound dk volume control djus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA 4. System Tools:-
  26. 26. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com a. Backup:- vki ds dEI;wVj ds vUnj accidental case esa ;fn data dks loss gks tkrk gS rks mldk igys ls gh backup djds j[kuk pkfg,A b. Character Map:- vki ds document esa fdlh special character dks add djus ds fy, character map dk use djrs gSA c. Disk Cleanup:- vki ds Hard disk esa store gksus okyh temporiraly file dks disk ls clean djus ds fy, disk cleanup dk use djrs gSA d. Disk Defragmenter:- vki ds hard disk esa data storage space dks ;k data dh value dks de djus ds fy, disk defragmenter dk use djrs gSaA e. File and Setting transfer wizard :- bldk use djds files dks ,d computer ls other computer esa migrat dj ldrs gSsA f. Internet Explorer:- Internet dks pykus ds fy, browser application internat explorer dks open djrs gSA g. Scheduled tasks:- Computer esa scheduled dks use djds computer tasks dks complete dj ldrs gSaA] h. Security Center:- bl command dk use djds vkids pc dks secured fd;k tk ldrk gSsSA i. System Information:- dEI;wVj dh current information dks display djus ds fy, bl tool dk use djrs gSA j. System Restore:- ;fn vki vius computer dks special point ls restore djus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA Address book:- vki dks computer ds vUnj contacts list dks cukuk gks ;k businesses ds fy, person dk directory services dks use djuh gS
  27. 27. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Calculator: - fdlh Hkh rjg dh arithmetic calculation djus ds fy, gl dk iz;ksx djrs gSA shortcut-Run type CALC. Romote Desktop Connection:- vki ,d ls nwljs dEI;wVj ds lkFk dusDV gS rks mlds vUnj py jgs program, software, application dks ;fn vki access djuk pkgs rks bl option dk use djsaA Program Compatibility Wizard:- bldk use vkidks old program dks configure djus ds fy, use ysrs gS tks window-xp esa run gksaxsA Synchronize:- fdlh Hkh malerial dks mldh network copy update djus ds fy, offtime edit fd;k tkrk gSA Exp:- document, calendras, e-mail masseges. Tour Windows-xp:- ;fn vki windows tools dks open djrs gS rks ;g vkidks guides djrk gS fd dksu ls program dks fdl izdkj handle djrs gSA Window Explorar:- vki vius computer ij files and folders dks display dj sldrs gSA MS-DOS Ms-dos dk iwjk uke micro soft disk oprating system gSaA  First oprating system developed by Microsoft corporation second name command prompt.  Command’s knowledge for user which than use this oprating system.  It is a CUI(Command User Interface) based oprating system.  It is single use and single tasking oprating system.  Two types of DOS command in MS-DOS.
  28. 28. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com a. Internal command b. External command  Extersion list:- Notepad :- .txt Word pad :- .rtf Pdrash/paint :- .bmp MS-excle(2003) :- .xls (2007) :- .xlsx Ms-word(2003) :- .doc (2007) :- .docx Ms-powerpaint(2003) :- .ppt (2007) :- .pptx HTML/web design :- .htm/.html Image :- .jpg Ms-outlook :- .eml Satup fule :- .exe Music file :- .mp3 Wawefile :- .wbm Ms-Access(2007) :- .accdb Ms-publisher :- .pub Windows movie mader :- .mswmm Compact disk audio :- .cda Drive file :- .d Video :- .mp4 Wave sound :- .wav Adove photoshop :- .psd Image and Animation :- .gil Large Image :- .jpeg Portable document format :- .pdf
  29. 29. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Commands:- 1. Command – date Syntax - c:>date enter User - to show the current system date and also change it. 2. Command - time Syntax - c:>time enter User - to show the current system time and also change it. 3. Command - copy con enter Syntax - c:>copy con new file name enter User - to create a new file For file save - ctrl+Z or f6 4. Command - type Syntax - c:>type existing file name enter User - to show the particular file contents 5. Command - Del Syntax - c:>del existing file name enter User - to delete a particular file 6. Command - md Syntax - c:>md new directory name than enter User - to create a new directory 7. Command - cd Syntax - c:>cd evisting directory name than enter User - to enter in particular directory 8. Command - tree Syntax - c:>tree existing directory name than enter
  30. 30. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com User - to show the list of directory and subdirectory in tree structure. 9. Command - cd.. Syntax - c:>cd.. Than enter User -to goes back one by one stap 10. Command - cd Syntax - c:>cd User - to goes back with one step 11. Command - rd Syntax - c:>rd existing directory name than enter User - to delete or remove the particular directory 12. Command - del** Syntax - c:>del** than enter User - to delete the old files in a time 13. Command - copy Syntax - c:>copy existing file name copy location than enter User - the copy a file from one location to another location Exp. - c:>copy new folderasd d:abc than enter 14. Command - dir Syntax - c:>dir than enter User - to show the list of all directory and files 15. Command - dir/p Syntax - c:>dir/p than enter User - to show the list of all directory and files page by page 16. Command - dir/w Syntax - c:>dir/w than enter
  31. 31. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com User - to show the list of all directory and files in width 17. Command - dir/on Syntax - c:>dir/on than enter User - to show the list of all directory and files in assending order(a to z) 18. Command - tree Syntax - c:>dir/o-n than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in disending order(Z to A) 19. Command - dir/os Syntax - c:>dir/os than enter User - to show the list of all directories and files in size (low to hight) 20. Command - dir/o-s Syntax - c:>dir/o-s than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in size (hith to low) 21. Command - dir/od Syntax - c:>dir/od than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in date according (old date to new d) 22. Command -dir/o-d Syntax - c:>dir/o-d than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in according (new date to old date) 23. Command - dir/oe Syntax - c:>dir/oe than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in exertion assending order (a to z)
  32. 32. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 24. Command - dir/o-e Syntax - c:>dir/o-e than enter User - to show the list all directories and files in exertion disending order (z to a) 25. Command - dir/ad Syntax - c:>dir/ad than enter User - to show the list of all directories 26. Command - dir/a-d Syntax - c:>dir/a-d than enter User - to show the list of all files 27. Command - dir/b Syntax - c:>dir/b than enter User - to show the bro format and file and directories with exertion 28. Command - dir/s Syntax - c:>dir/s than enter User - to show the all directory and subdirectories 29. Command - dir/a Syntax - c:>dir/a than enter User - to show the all hidden and read only list. This attribure of files and to show the behavieos of files 30. Command - dir/ar Syntax - c:>dir/o-n than enter User - to show the only read only files list 31. Command - dir/ah Syntax - c:>dir/ah than enter User - to show the only hidden files list 32. Command - dir/l
  33. 33. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Syntax - c:>dir/l than enter User - this show to lower case or simall latter of file and directories list 33. Command - ren Syntax - c:>ren existing file/directory name new file/directory name than enter User - to rename a file or directory 34. Command - move Syntax - c:>move existing file name move location than enter User - to move a file from one location to another location Exp. - c:>move virenv d:virendra than enter 35. Command - ver Syntax - c:>ver than enter User - check the current version of opration system 36. Command - chkdsk Syntax - c:>chkdsk than enter User - examines the machines hard disk and to show the store datas information in hard disk Edit command:- Cursor movement command:- a. Home - move to the start of the current line. b. End - move to the end of the current line. c. Ctrl+up - scrol up one line. d. Ctrl+down - scroll down one screen. e. Page up - scroll up one screen. f. Page down - scroll down one screen.
  34. 34. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com g. Ctrl+page up - scroll left one screen. h. Ctrl+page down- scroll right one screen. i. Ctrl+home - scroll to the start of the document. j. Ctrl+end - scroll to the end of the document. k. Ctrl+left arrow- move left one word. l. Ctrl+righy arrow-move right one word. m. Enter - started new paragraph n. Del/delete - delete the character right side of sursor is on o. Back space - delete the character to the left side of the sunsor. p. Tab - move the sursor to next and over q. Insert - Switch betveen insert and over right modes. r. Ctrl+y - auto inseted text is double and deleted text repeated s. Ctrl+v - Paste buffer contant into life t. Ctll+p - allow spaice character to be insertd Command for working with selected reason:- u. Shift:- use the shift key in the conception with the cursor movement function select reason. v. Ctrl+c - copy the current selection to buffer w.Ctrl+x - delete current selection and copy it to buffer x. Delete - delete the current selection MS-paint/ pbursh:- ;g ,d drawing processing software gksrk gS ftldk use drawing draw djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA window ds bl application dks drawing processing software Hkh dgrs gSaA windows esa lcls mij blue line dks title bar of title line
  35. 35. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com dgrs gS tc rd user title ugh nsrk gSA rc rd untitle name ds right side esa three button gksrs gSaA Minimiza: -bl dk use application dks minimiza djus ds fy, djrs gSA Minimiza or restore: -bl dk use application dks restore djus rFkk minimiza djus ds fy, djrs gSaA Close: -bldk use application dks exit djus ds fy, djrs gSaA Menu bar:- application windows dks operate djus ds fy, vyx vyx command dks vyx vyx categary esa distribute dj fn;k x;k gS ftls ge menu or menu bar dgrs gSaA Window ds left esa fLFkr box dks tools box dgrs gS blesa 16 tools gksrs gS tks bl izdkj gS- A. Free-form select:- drowing sheet ij randomly fdlh object dks select djus ds fy, usefull gSA B. Select :- drowing sheet ij particular object dks select djus ds fy, usefull gSA C. Eraser/color eraser :- bldk use paint esa drawing or fdlh object dks eraser djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA D.Fill with color:- bldk use esa document or drawing color fill djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA E. Pick color:- bldk use drawing dk object color pick ro select djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA F. Magnifier:- bldk use drawing sheet ij object or drawing dks cMh size esa ns[kus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA G.Pancil :- bldk use mspaint esa free hand drawing drawed okyk tool gksrk gSA
  36. 36. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com H.Brush:- document or drawing sheet esa brush tSlh drawing draw djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA I. Air brush:- bldk use document or drawing es color spare djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA J. Text:- bldk use drawing ij text add djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA K. Line :- bldk use line drew djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA L. Curve:- bldk use dreawing sheet ij pki [kspus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA M. Rectangle:- bldk use rectangle draw ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA N.Elipse:- bldk use xksyk drew djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA O.Polygon:- bldk use cgwHkwtk,a djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA P. Rounded Rectangle:- bldk use xksyk dkj rectangle draw djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSaA Menu Bar:- File, edit, view, Image, color, help
  37. 37. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 1. File menu:- a. New:- blesa new document ysus ds fy, bldk use djrs gSS A shortcut- ctrl+n b. Open:- paint esa document esa existing file dks open djus ds fy, open dk use djrs gSaaA shortcut- ctrl+o c. Save:- Persent file dks save djus ds fy, bldk mi;ksx djrs gSA shortcut- ctrl+s d. Save as:- igys ls save dh xbZ file dks nwckjk new name and other location esa save djus ds fy, A e. From scanner or camera:- ;g command tc vki peripheral device scanner ds PC ls or camera ;fn attace gS rks work djrh gSaA f. Print preview:- paper dks printont dks ns[kus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA g. Page setup:- Paper dks set djus ds fy, bldk use djrs gSaA tSls :- Paper margin, number of page etc. h. Print:- Document dk print out ysus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSA tc bl command dk use djrs gS rks vki dks oks priner set djuk iM+rk gS ftl ij vki printer out fudkyuk pkgrs gSA shortcut :- ctrl+P i. Send :- vki image dks internet ds ek/;e ls fdlh nwljs dks Hkstus pkgrs gS rks bl command dk use djsA j. Set As Background(tiled):- paint esa draw drawing dks desktop ij wallpaper ds :I esa tiled esa display djus ds fy, bl dk use djrs gSA k. Set As Background(Centered):- paint dh drawing dks desktop ds centor esa display djus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSA
  38. 38. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com l. Exit:- Windows application ls ckgj fudyus ds fy, exit dk use djrs gSaA shortcut:-alt+f4 2. Edit menu:- a. Undo:- drawing sheet ij user }kjk fd;s x;s last work dks three step rd back djus ds fy, use full gSA shortcut:- ctrl+z b. Repeat:- user }kjk remove fd;s x;as work dks three step rd back djus ds fy, usefull gS A shortcut:- ctrl+y c. Cut:- selected object dks particular position ls gVkus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSA shortcut:- ctrl+x d. Copy:- selected object dks ,d ls T;knk location ij ysus ds fy, copy djrs gSAshortcut:- ctrl+c e. Paste:- document esa last esa cut and copy fd;s x;s object dks ysus ds fy, paste command dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA shortcut:- ctrl+v f. Clear selection:- document esa or drawing sheet ij selected text, drawing etc. dks document ls remove djus ds fy, iz;ksx djrs gSA g. Select all :- paint esa complete paper dks select djus ds fy, iz;ksx djrs gSA short cut :- ctrl+a h. Copy to:- bl command dk use particular one object dks save djus ds fy, use djrs gSaA i. Paste from:- particular save fd;s x;s object document esa ysus ds fy, use djrs gSA] 3. View menu:- a. Tool Box:- ;fn vki Paint file esa bldks hide djuk pkgrs gS rks bl dks unselect ;k bl ij click djsaA ctrl+i b. Color Box:- bldks hide or show djus ds fy, bldk use djrs gSA ctrl+L
  39. 39. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com c. Satatus Bar:- document esa mouse pointer dh fLFkrh or tools dh dro dks show djrh gSaA d. Text Toolbar:- bl dk use text esa change djus rFkk bl bar dks show or hide djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA e. View Bitmap:- bldk use drawing sheet dks full screen ij show djrk gSaA ctrl+f f. Zoom:- bldk use file dks cM+k show djds ns[k ldrs gSaA blesa fuEu point include gS&normal size(ctrl+page up), large size(ctrl+pgdn), custom, show grid(ctrl+g), show thumbnail. 4. Image menu:- a. Flip/Rotate:- fdlh Hkh object dks vyx vyx engal ls rotate djus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSaA blds vUnj object dks 90,180,270o gSaA ctrl+r b. Stretch/skew:- object dh sep dks stretch or skew djus ds fy, usefd;k tkrk gSA c. Attributes:- paint paper size dks increase or decrease djus ds fy, use gksrk gSA d. Clear Image:- paper esa drow drawing dks clear djus ds fy, use gksrk gSA e. Drow opaque:- vyx vyx object dks ,d nwljs ij overight djus ij mldks transparent fn[krk gSaA 5. Colors:- a. Edit color:- color dks edit djus ds fy,use gksrk gSA blesa color dks light or dark fd;k tk ldrk gSaA 6. Help:- a. On topics/ help topics:- paint ls lEcfU/kr fdlh Hkh topic dks tkuus fy, use gksrk gSA
  40. 40. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com b. About Paint:- paint application ds ckjs esa tkuus ds fy, use gksrk gSA Notpad:-;g ,d text editing software gS tks basically normal editing miyC/k djokrk gSaA notpad esa word dks format ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA notepad esa html (hyper text markup language)ls lEcfU/kr izksxzke gksrk gS rFkk blesa wab diging, java rFkk dbZ rjg dh screen create djus esa Hkh notpad codding ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSaA
  41. 41. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Menu Bar:- 1. File:- a. New:- notpad esa new document open or clean ysus ds fy, use gksrk gSaA shortcut-ctrl+n b. Open:- notpad esa exiting file dks open djus ds fy, use gksrk gSaAshortcut-ctrl+o c. Save:- present file dks save djus ds fy, use gksrk gSaA ctrl+s d. Save as:- igys ls save file dks new name and other location esa saved fd;k tk ldrk gSaA e. Page setup:- paper dks set djus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSaA f. Print :- document ds paper dk print out ysus ds fy, use gksrk gSaaA ctrl+p g. Exit:- notpad window application ls ckgj ;k close djus ds fy, use gksrk gSaA 2. Edit menu:= a. Undo:- documant ij user }kjk fd;s x;s last work dks three step rd back or forward djus ds fy, use full gSA shortcut:- ctrl+z b. Cut:- selected object or text dks particular position ls gVkus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSA shortcut:- ctrl+x c. Copy:- selected object or text dks ,d ls T;knk location ij ysus ds fy, copy djrs gSA shortcut:- ctrl+c
  42. 42. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com d. Paste:- document esa last esa cut and copy fd;s x;s object dks ysus ds fy, paste command dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA shortcut:- ctrl+v e. Delete:- document esa ls fdlh word or text dks find djus ds fy, use gksrk gSaA ctrl+f f. Fine next:- document esa find word dks dze la[;k ds vuqlkj mu word dks ns[kk ;k show fd;k tk ldrk gSA f3 g. Replace:- document esa fdlh word or text ds LFkku ij other word fy[k ldrs gSA ctrl+h h. Go to:- notepad esa cM+s fy[ks x;s matter or file esa fdlh Hkh line esa vkus ds fy, go to command dk use fd;k tkrk gSaA ctrl+g i. Select all :-notpad esa complete matter or not dks select djus ds fy, iz;ksx djrs gSA short cut :- ctrl+a j. Time and Date:- document esa current time and date write djus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSA f5 3. Format:- a. Word wrap:- bldk use line dks window ds according change djrk gS vFkkZr~ enter press ls next line ij tk ldrk gSaA rFkk blds }kjk status bas and go to option show dj ldrs gSaA b. Font:- bldk use word esa changing fd;k tk ldrk gSaA blesa font, font size, style, scrinptgksrs gSA font esa vyx vyx rjhds dh Hkk’kk gksrh gSA scrinpt esa language ds dqN rjhds rFkk style esa regular, italicize, bold etc. rFkk size esa word dh size esa changing dj ldrs gSaA 4. View:- a. bldk use notpad esa status bar dks show and hide fd;k tk ldrk gS A 5. Help:-
  43. 43. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com a. Help topic:-blds use ls notpad ds topic dh tkudkjh ys ldrs gSaA b. About notepad:- bldk use notpad application ds ckjs tkudkjh nsrk gSaA Word Pad:-Wordpad ,d text editing software gksrk gSaA ftlesa lekUrj document format fd;k tkrk gSaA Standard toolbar:- file menu esa use gksus okys main command dks graphic object lkFk ,d ds vUnj arrange fd;k tkrk gSaA bUgsa standard toolbar dgk tkrk gSaaA Formatting toolbar:- blds vUnj document formatting ls related command blfy, miyC/k gksrs gS blfy, bls formatting toolbar dgk tkrk gSaA Menu bar:- file, edit, view, insert, format, help.
  44. 44. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com 1. File Menu:- a. New b. Open c. Seve d. Save as e. Print f. Paint preview g. Page backup h. Send i. Exit 2. Edit menu:- a. Undo b. Cut c. Copy d. Paste e. Paste special f. Clear g. Select all h. Find i. Find next
  45. 45. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com j. Replace k. Links l. Object properties m. Object Paste Special:- Document esa copy fd;s x;s text dks special format esa paste dus ds fy, use fd;k tkrk gSaA ext. text dks dark djokuk] text dks bordea esa insert djokuk etc. Links:- bl dk use fdlh nks “kCn ;k v{k dks tksM+us dk dke djrk gSA tSls & ml “kCn dks select djds links command dks ju djus ij ;g irk pyrk gS fd og “kCn dgka ls vk;k gSaA Object properties:- Insert menu }kjk insert fd, x, object dh properties ns[kus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA Object :- object ds }kjk insert dh xbZ picture or fotmat dks open djus rFkk reddit djus ds fy, bl command dk use djrs gSaA 3. View:- a. Toolbar b. Formatting bar c. Ruler d. Status bar e. Option Option :- bl command dk use application eesa toolbar show or hide djus rFkk rular measurement unit change djus ds fy, bldk use gksrk gSA 4. Insert:- Date and Time
  46. 46. SIRAJ SIR rock_siraj@ymail.com Object:- bl command dk use wordpad fdlh document esa fdlh Hkh application dh file dks include djus ds fdy, fd;k tkrk gSA 5. Format :- a. Font b. Bullet style c. Paragraph d. Tabs Bullet style:- document esa bl command dk use djds multiple list dks create dj ldrs gS lnSo ;g ;kn jgs fd ms-wordpad esa bullat style only dotted jgsxkA Paragraph:- document esa continue way esa fy[ks x, text dks tc rd mlds vUnj enter key press uk djs paragaraph dgykrk gS bl command ls paragraph align dks change fdlk tk ldrk gSA exp- left, center, right, etc 6. Help:- a. Help topic b. About wordpad ]

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