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Getting The Waters Tested
Types of Water Testing
Citizen Science
And Remote MonitoringBaseline Testing – Just the Facts
Step 1-Third-Party Sampler
and Certified Testing
Screening Tests
or Self-Monitoring Step 2- Screening
Step 3
Follow-up
Certified Testing
Step 3
Follow-up
Certified
Testing
Document
 © 2013 by B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this document may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without prior written
permission of B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
 For permission – Contact Mr. Brian Oram, PG
 bfenviro@ptd.net
 570- 335-1947
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Presented by:
Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),
Soil Scientist, Licensed Well DrillerSoil Scientist, Licensed Well Driller
B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
http://www.bfenvironmental.com
Water Research Center
http://www.water-research.net
Prepared For
Private Well Owners, Licensed Professionals,
and
Watershed Groups in Pennsylvania
B.F. Environmental
Consultants Inc.
 Professional Consulting Services in the areas of
water quality, soils, stormwater, geology, aquifer
analysis, and land-development.
 Baseline – Chain-of-Custody
 Expert Testimony
 Water Treatment Process/ Product Development
 http://www.bfenvironmental.com
Water-Research Center
Education and Outreach Program funded byEducation and Outreach Program funded by
B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
Outreach ProgramsOutreach Programs
 Environmental and Professional Education and Training for CitizensEnvironmental and Professional Education and Training for Citizens
and Local Municipalitiesand Local Municipalities
 Water Quality Help Guides – Information LibraryWater Quality Help Guides – Information Library
 Community and Business Outreach ProgramsCommunity and Business Outreach Programs
 Low Cost – Informational Water Testing Program with NationalLow Cost – Informational Water Testing Program with National
LaboratoryLaboratory
 Citizen Monitoring ProgramsCitizen Monitoring Programs
Website:Website: http://www.water-research.net
Current Programs
 Free Assistance in Reviewing Baseline Data
for Private Well Owners
 Free Website with Information on Water
Quality Problems with Case Studies
 Educational Materials and Educational
Presentations
 Training Program for Baseline Samplers
 Go to http://www.water-research.net
Our Latest Educational Resource
Description of the following:
a. Citizen Database
b. Baseline Testing
c. Drinking Water Standards
d. Specific Water Quality Standards
e. Treatment Options
f. How to Shock Disinfect a Well
g. How to Properly Construct a Well
h. General Guidelines on Baseline Testing
Parameters.
And More. cost$ 5.00
Other Resources at http://www.water-research.net
Target Audience
 Stakeholders
 Private Well Owners
 Community Advocates and Scientists
 Health Related Professionals
 Municipal and Local Officials
 Water Supplies and State Regulators
Recent Site Tour- Towanda, PA
I took both photos – First Time on the Drilling Platform
and first time watching the EPA Sample.
EPA Sampling In Dimock
Definitions Related To the Process
 Certified – a laboratory that has been certified by the state or through a
National Certification Process (NELAC). The laboratory should be
“Independent” from the Oil and Gas Company, i.e., it can not be a
sister company or a subsidiary.
 Chain-of-Custody – this is the process that should be used to ensure
the data that is generated is valid and can be used in a legal
proceeding.
 Third-party Sampler – either an employee of the certified laboratory or
other professional with no vested interest in the results. This can not
be a friend, relative, or an employee of a gas company, but it could be
a paid consultant.
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Definitions Related To Technology
 Conventional Oil and Gas Development – this is when the zone of
production is from an area where the gas has accumulated over time.
 Unconventional Oil and Gas Development – this is typically a source
rock with very low permeability where the gas or oil has been
produced and is trapped in the pore spaces of the rock. In many cases,
a small amount of the gas or oil has been produced in this zone and
migrated upward to accumulate in a shallower area. These shallower
areas are typically the areas for conventional gas development. Other
Terms – tight oil, tight gas, shale gas, and coal-bed methane.
 Closed Loop Drilling – a more environmental sound process that does
not use lined pits to manage well cuttings and drilling muds.
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Definitions Related to the Well
 Lower Explosion Limit – the lowest concentration of a gas in the
atmosphere that could cause ignition. This should be measured under
the wellcap or at the well vent before pumping the well and while the
well is pumping after collecting the baseline water sample.
 Static Water Level – the depth to water during non-pumping
conditions in a water well.
This should be measured, before the well is pumped.
 Dynamic Water Level-the depth to water in the well when the well is
pumping for some period of time. This should be measured after the
well has been pumped and baseline water sample collected.
 Drawdown – the Difference between the static water level and
dynamic water level.
 Specific Capacity for the Well - Pumping Rate of the Well Divided by
the Amount of Drawdown.
Lower Explosion Limit
 The explosive limit of a gas or a vapor is
the limiting concentration (in air) that is
needed for the gas to ignite and explode.
The lowest concentration (percentage) of a
gas or a vapor in air is capable of producing
a flash of fire in the presence of an ignition
source (arc, flame, heat).
Definitions Related to Water Quality
 Conductivity – the ability of the water to carry a charge. The greater the
conductivity the more substances are dissolved in the water. (Measure in the
field and checked in the laboratory)
 BTEX – Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene – Components of coal
tar, petroleum products, inks, paints, insecticides, solvents, and other fuels.
 MTBE- Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether - was an additive in gasoline.
 ORP- Oxidation Reduction Potential measured in millivolts and the value can
be positive or negative. The more positive, the chemical reactions in the water
or oxidizing. The more negative, the chemical reactions are more reducing.
This should be measured in the field during the sampling process.
 Positive Oxidizing Conditions – may be associated with discolored water
 Negative Oxidizing Conditions – may be associated with odors and higher
methane concentrations.
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Other Concepts
 Citizen Science – private citizens that conduct self-monitoring and
screening for themselves or others. This data is not certified, but if
individuals are trained and equipment calibrated and maintained this
may be a cost effective screening tool after baseline testing or for
watershed monitoring.
 Informational Water Testing – some commercial laboratories and
universities may offer low cost screening tests that are accurate, but
not certified. This may be an affordable screening option for a
homeowner– After baseline testing has been conducted.
 One Example – http://www.check-water.com
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Step 1- Baseline Testing for Private
Drinking Water Source
For the Private Citizen – Baseline Water Testing Starts
with a “Third Party” Sampler – Certified Water Testing .
Baseline Sampling Does Not Start with any of the following:
a. Home Screening Test
b. Water Sample Collected by the Homeowner, Friend, or an
Interested Party, even if the sample is taken to a certified laboratory.
Baseline Sampling includes:
a. Third Party Sampler – unbiased with no vested interest in the results
that has been properly trained and approved by the certified laboratory.
b. If hired by the homeowner, this could be a paid consultant or professional or
an employee of the certified laboratory.
c. If hired by a Oil or Gas Company, it can be a paid consultant or professional
or an employee of the certified laboratory – NOT an employee of the Oil/Gas
Company.
Step 2: After Certified Testing with a Third Party
Sampler- “Using Citizen Science”
In-home Screening Tests or Informational Water Testing
Can be used to Track Water Quality and Potential Change
Work with Local Groundwater Guardian, Sourcewater
Protection, or Watershed Group
This can be supplemented by including a journal of the
Water appearance and other aesthetic quality.
If your field screening suggests a problem – Call Local Regulatory
Agency and Conduct Follow-up Certified Testing- This Process Does
Not Start at Step 2.
Baseline Testing for
Surfacewater Sources
For the Private Citizen – Baseline Water Testing Starts
with a “Third Party ”–Water Sampler – This is Step 1.
Step 2: After Certified Testing with a “ Third Party Sampler”
Conduct Field Screening Testing or Informational Water
Testing to Track Change. – Citizen Science in Action
Work with Local Watershed Group
This can be supplemented may including a journal of the
Water appearance and other aesthetic quality.
If your field screening suggests a problem – Call Local Regulatory
Agency and Conduct Certified Testing- This Process Does
Not Start at Step 2.
Types of Water Sampling
and Testing and Level of Legal Protection !
 Step 1- Level 1- Certified Third-Party Baseline (Highest)
 Step 2 - Level 2- Informational Water Testing (Low)
 Step 2- Level 3- Self-Monitoring (Very Low)
 Step 2- Level 4- Citizen Science – Community Watershed
Monitoring Efforts (Very Low)
 Step 3 - Community Watershed Monitoring – Third Party
Baseline Testing with Continuous and/or Community
Monitoring (High)
Private
Source or
Spring
Watershed
To Protect the Community – A Private Source and Watershed Monitoring
Program Should be Implemented –We Live in Communities
Lets Work as a Community !
Baseline Testing- It is Not Just About
Collecting a Water Sample (published ONG
Marketplace – 3/2013)
Link to Article at
http://www.bfenvironmental.com
What is Certified Baseline Testing?
 Certified Baseline Testing is a process to establish
the current condition of a system prior to some
proposed change or action.
 This is the Greatest Level of Protection !
 Persons or Agents Directly Involved with this
Process
 Licensed Professional and Third-Party Sampler
 Private Well or Water Source Owner –
“Witness the Process Only”
 Certified Testing Laboratory
Certified Baseline Testing Agents
Their Responsibilities
 Homeowner – May be the Client or Just Witness Sampling Process – Homeowners Can
NOT Collect Samples
 Professional or other agent should provide a list of recommended parameters, plus
should review the data and prepare final summary report for the Water System Owner.
 Sampler- Should be a Trained and Approved Third-Party Sampler or Licensed
Professional (Approved by the Certified Laboratory)
 Sampler Must Follow Collection and Sampling Process Specified by the
Certified Laboratory.
 Document Conditions in the Field and Prepare a Chain-of-Custody Sheet
 Responsible for the Safe and Secure Storage of Sample Containers and Delivery of
Samples to the Certified Laboratory following Chain-of Custody Processes
 Certified Laboratory – “Must be Certified for All Parameters” to be Tested, State or
National Certification (NELAC)
 Selects and Prepares Sample Containers and Collection Procedures
 Conducts ALL or Facilitates Testing by a “Certified Laboratory”
 Maintains Quality Control of Data and Protects Accuracy of the Data
 Certified Laboratory generates a Laboratory Report
 Stores the Data in a Secure Manner (Typically Up to 5 years)
Need Help Finding Assistance – Contact Us
How Baseline Testing Can Get Done
 Private Well Owners – Well Owner Hires a Third-Party
Sampler or Professional to Complete this Process.
(Sampler MUST be an Individual or Company with Zero
Vested Interest in the Results).
 Gas Company or Other Company Pays Using a Third-
Party Contractor for All Activities (Employees or Direct
Agents of the Gas/Oil Company Can NOT Participate in
this Process).
 Company should give the Well Owner a copy of the
report.
 You may need to ask or make this a requirement in any
agreements.
Regulatory Framework- Is Baseline
Testing Required or Is it Optional?
 There are Two Answers
 In some States, it is required by the
State- Required.
 In some leases, it is required by the lease-
Required.
 In some States, there is zero regulatory
oversight (Optional).
Regulatory Framework- Is Baseline
Testing Required or Is it Optional?
 The State may required an Individual or Company attempting to
permit an activity to conduct baseline testing and/or the landowner/
royalty owner lease may required this testing as part of a lease.
 Typically the state will specific a minimum radius around a
structure.
 The State may recommend or required a specific list of parameters
and time line for initial and follow-up testing.
 The State may assume the Permittee, i.e., Natural Gas Company,
Responsible for Impact within a specific radius or time line unless
data shows the problem is present pre-drilling.
 Assumed liability may be lost if the private well owner, property
owner, or water system owners does not permit the Permittee to
collect water samples.
For the Private Well Owner – This is Free Testing Data !
If Someone Asks to Sample – the Answer is YES !
Is Baseline Testing Required or Is it
Optional?
 The State may recommend an Individual or Company attempting to permit an
activity to conduct baseline testing, but the royalty or landowner lease may
required this testing.
 Typically the state regulations will assume the Permittee, i.e., Natural Gas
Company, liable for a given radius around the activity and a time line –
Unless the Permittee Prove Otherwise – The burden is on the Permittee.
 Assumed liability may be lost if the private well owner, property owner,
or water system owners does not permit the Permittee to collect water
samples.
 Industry Group or Company may recommend a minimum listing of
parameters to be evaluated.
For the Private Well Owner – This is Free Testing Data !
If an Oil and Gas Company Asks to Sample– the Answer is YES !
Are Private Well Owners Required
to Conduct Baseline Testing ?
 To our knowledge, there is no requirement by a state or
agency for the private owner to conduct baseline testing.
 Then why it is recommended?
 You May Not be within the area the Permittee tests.
 You may be concerned about an adjoining lease.
 You May Not believe “Their” results.
 You May Want to Test for More Parameters.
 You want to have sufficient evidence if a problems
does occur.
 The Company or “They” may not do any sampling and
then there is no data.
Pennsylvania Current Model
 Baseline Testing is a Recommended Practice and Not a Required Practice.
 Oil and Gas Companies are Assumed Responsible if a problem occurs within 1 year
of completing or modifying a well within a radial distance of 2500 feet- there are
no provisions related to other infrastructure like pipelines, compression stations,
storage ponds, or treatment areas.
 For Water Withdrawal Wells and other wells for Gas/Oil Operations – all surface
owners or water purveyor within 3000 feet must be contacted.
 Flow and Quality Tested- Predrilling Testing Required- if YOU request
 The Oil and Gas Company is assumed responsible for events occurring within
2500 feet of the wellhead and 1 year.
 You can lose this protection if you do not permit the Oil and Gas Company
to conduct predrilling baseline testing.
 To our knowledge, there is no requirement for post-drilling testing unless it is
part of a compliant.
 If you are outside 2500 foot radius, you may need to contact the oil/gas
company or conduct this testing on your own.
If the Oil and Gas Company – Will Not Conduct Testing for YOU and they are
Drilling within about 0.5 to 1 mile of you and driving on the roads near Your Home
Get Some Level of Baseline Testing Done NOW.
PA Oil and Gas Law
 Certified mail notification during permit phase if water supply is within 3,000
feet of gas well.
 At least 200 feet from a private well, 100 feet stream, wetland, or waterbody,
and 1000 feet a public water supply.
 Baseline Testing is Recommended Not Required, but they are presumed liable.
Liability Provision – Within 2500 feet of a wellhead and within 1 year of
completion or modification. Post-Drilling Testing is Not Required or
Recommended.
 PADEP may require Gas Companies to Respond to Complaints
 Reportable Releases Brine - > 10,000 mg/L or 1 % contamination
(5 gallons)
 Reportable Releases Brine - < 10,000 mg/L or < 1% (15 gallons).
 Law Requires an Immediate Investigation when Methane Levels are > 7 mg/L.
Any time the level of methane is at or greater than 7 mg/L - Contact- PADEP and the Local
Natural Gas Company in Your Area – Under Oil and Gas Law- Section 78.89 – “When an
operator or owner is notified of or otherwise made aware of a POTENTIAL natural gas
migration incident, the operator shall immediately conduct an investigation of the incident”.
If A Private Well Owner is Hiring a
Professional – Some Suggestions
 For a Private Citizen - The Key Components of Baseline Testing
include:
 Implementing a process that is accurate, precise, and that generates
data that can be used in potential future litigation;
 Accurately documenting the pre-existing conditions of the system;
 Selecting parameters that will document existing conditions, cover
potential changes, and address individual system owners concern;
 Follows a chain-of-custody process to ensure the accuracy,
reliability, and integrity of the data; and
 Utilizes a third party unbiased sampler that is experienced to
ensure the protocols for collecting, preserving, and submitting the
samples to the certified laboratory are followed.
 Maintain 2 copies of the final report in a Secure Area.
Do Not End Up Here !
Do Not Put the Burden of Proof on Yourself !
Water Issues
1. Lake House that is not regularly
used and in most cases the
homeowners did not drink the water.
2. No baseline testing other than
some historic testing for coliform
bacteria and nitrate.
3. The water appeared to change and
get a salty taste and there was some
gas bubbles.
4. Well - no drilling log- located in a
river valley near a lake - over 400
feet deep.
5. Methane Determined to be 15
mg/L with elevated Chloride,
Hardness, and Barium
If Baseline Testing Was Done
We Would Have Proof of the Impact
Now - This will have to be settled in Court
Burden of Proof May be on the Well Owner !
Which Is the Before Sample?
Baseline Testing Should Include ALL Likely Impacts
Your Well
Suggested Baseline Parameters –
Pennsylvania
 Conventional Gas and Oil Wells - pH, iron, total
dissolved solids, chloride, surfactants, methane,
and coliform, plus other parameters determined by
the operator.
 Our Only Comment – this is completely
inadequate and will not address some of the most
likely potential impacts.
 We would strongly recommend testing for
additional parameters.
Source- http://www.spilmanlaw.com/
Parameters Recommended by the
PADEP (2010)
 Alkalinity, Chloride, Conductivity, Hardness, Oil and Grease, pH*,
Sulfate, Total Dissolved Solids*, Total Suspended Solids, Residue-
Filterable, Residue– No Filterable, Barium, Calcium, Iron*, Magnesium,
Manganese*, Potassium, Sodium*, Strontium, Methane*, Ethane*,
Total Coliform and E. coli.
 * “As a minimum, a homeowner wishing to have their private well
tested should analyze for these parameters” (PADEP, 2010)
 http://www.bfenvironmental.com/pdfs/PADEPbaselinemarcellus.pdf
Note – Original Document Not Longer Available on
PADEP Website (see link provided)
Marcellus Shale Coalition
Their Recommendation to Gas Companies
 The parameters they recommended:
Alkalinity, Total Chromium, Oil & Grease,
Total Arsenic, Barium, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, Iron, Manganese,
Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium
pH, Specific Conductance, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids,
Chloride, Sulfate, Hardness, Surfactants (MBAS/foaming agents), Benzene,
Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX),
Dissolved Methane, Ethane, Propane,
E. Coli. Total Coliform, Nitrate as N , Turbidity
My Comments
1. Missing bromide, aluminum, full range of VOCs, MTBE, ORP
2. Missing surrogate organics like glycols, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.
3. Missing Radionuclides at least alpha, beta, and Uranium.
May be advisable to adjust to the specific nature of local geology,
saline water chemistry, surrounding land-use activities,
and chemical additives.
Suggested Baseline- For Citizens
 Permit the Oil and Gas Company to Collect a Predrill or Prealteration Sample.
DO NOT Lose the Assumption of Responsibility Provision.
 Testing Package # 1 Recommendations – Document Lower Explosion Limit (LEL)
and Static and Dynamic Water Level
Total Coliform with e. coli confirmation, chloride, sodium, bromide, barium, pH,
total dissolved solids, MBAS, conductivity, iron, manganese, ORP, arsenic,
Turbidity, and methane/ethane/propane.
 Testing Package # 2 Recommendations -Package # 1- plus Aluminum, T. Hardness,
Magnesium, Selenium, Strontium, Calcium, Zinc, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Total
Suspended Solids, Sulfate, Oil & Grease, and 21-VOCs/MTBE
 Testing Package # 3 Recommendations
Package #1 and # 2 - plus Potassium, Sulfide, Ammonia, Acidity, Nickel, Gross,
Alpha/Beta Activity, Lithium, Lead, and Uranium.
It may be advisable to add Glycols, Radon in water, and other organic
and inorganic parameters. Depending on surrounding
land-use, use of geothermal wells, personal history, local geology,
and past history for the area.
Remember - Methane Gas Level –
Change over Time- Time with
Highest Levels
 barometric pressure is low and soils are saturated;
 when snow cover is just beginning to melt;
 the ground is frozen or ice covered; or
 under long-term pumping conditions for the well
when the well is experiencing the lowest dynamic
water level and greatest drawdown.
http://www.water-research.net/methanegas.htm
1 ft1 ft
250 ft
50 ft
200 ft
Specific Capacity =
Gpm/ft of drawdown
gpm = 5 gpm
Static Water Level – 50 feet
Dynamic Level – 200 feet
Sc = (5 gpm/ (150 ft))=
Sc = 0.03 gpm/ft drawdown
Estimating Specific Capacity
Methane Levels and Pumping
Less head pressure
more methane will
be released.
Methane
Static
Water
Level
Pump
Off
Dynamic
Water
Level
Pump On
5 gpm
Air Vent
Measure
LEL
Need Help with Baseline Testing
 We Work With Multiple Certified Laboratories
 Conduct or Facilitate Baseline Sampling
 Provide Assistance in Reviewing Data
 Provide Assistance with Private Well Owner Education
and Outreach
 Our Online Survey – Need Help – Just Ask
http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/privatewell
Need Help – Call 570-335-1947
email – bfenviro@ptd.net
Visit – http://www.bfenvironmental.com
Getting The Waters Tested
Types of Water Testing
Citizen Science
And Remote MonitoringBaseline Testing – Just the Facts
Step 1-Third-Party Sampler
and Certified Testing
Screening Tests
or Self-Monitoring Step 2- Screening
Step 3
Follow-up
Certified Testing
Step 3
Follow-up
Certified
Testing
Step 2- Level 2: Informational Water
Testing – Test at Least Annually.
 Does Not Meet Definition of Certified Baseline Data and
DOES Not Replace Certified Baseline Sampling.
 Conduct After Certified Baseline Testing is Done.
 Data would not hold up in Court as Proof of a change, but
may be a cost effective screening tool.
 You can collect Sample.
 You submit the Sample to a Certified Laboratory
 The laboratory provides you the uncertified data.
 Significantly Cheaper than Follow-up Baseline Testing
and You can Screen for More Parameters
Our Portal – http://www.check-water.com
Step 2- Level 3. Self-Screening
 Provides Certified Baseline Data – NO.
 Use After Baseline Testing is Completed.
 Helps to Track and Provide Supplementary
Information – Yes
 Recommend This Monitoring along with
maintaining a log of water conditions and drilling
related activity.
 Self-Screening Tools – your eyes, ears, nose,
mouth, and maybe some affordable sensors.
Note- We Recommend Home Screening Tests for pH, conductivity,
and Oxidation Reduction Potential – We DO not Recommend Measuring
Just a Total Dissolved Solids Value – Measure Conductivity !
Write Down the Results – Make Sure Your Are Trained to Use the Meter !
For Citizen Science
 Make sure to go through a short training program
on the use of the equipment, calibration, reporting
results, storing the data, and field safety.
 Make sure to follow safety protocols and work in
teams.
 Do NOT Trespass that is why there are Zoom
Lenses on Cameras.
 Do NOT Invade Private Space or Take Photos of
Any Children.
Your Tools- Use a Log Book, Video,
and Photos (date stamp)
 Eyes – look for signs of discoloration, sediment, chemical sheens, or
gas.
 Nose – changes in odors
 Mouth – metallic taste, salty taste, bitter taste
 Ears – water hammer – Related to Gas
 Sensors – Conductivity, ORP, and pH pens
 Camera with Zoom Lens
 Video Documentation
 Write Down When You Calibrate the meter.
Need Help – Just Ask !
We Conduct Community Workshops !
Case Studies
 We Do Cases Studies and We are Looking
for Additional Cases Studies to Review.
What ? Where? How?
Problem Caused by Manganese, Slime Bacteria, and Iron Bacteria
Common Problems Associated with
Natural Gas Development and Private
Wells
 Dirty and Discolored Water – associated with the
initial drilling of the well. Water has metallic taste.
 Increased Levels of iron, manganese, and
aluminum and some other metals.
 Increased Levels of Dissolved Gases – Primarily
Methane, but also ethane, propane, and radon.
Please Note – These Photos May Also Represent Baseline Conditions
Working as a Community
 Getting the Community Educated
 Encouraging Well Owners to Get their water tested as best
as they can afford and sharing this data (data only) with
the Citizen Database.
 Working with Local Water Authorities- Watershed Groups
Using Source Water Protection As a Guide
 Developing a Program to Fix Private Wells – where
baseline pre-drilling testing has identified a Problem –
Remember we all live upstream.
 Permitting the gas company to conduct baseline testing
and share this data (data only) as part of Community
Meetings or Education Sessions – Citizens Database in PA.
 This should include wells, springs, surface ponds, and
major waterways in the area.
Tracking Change
 Frac Focus – Chemical Registry - http://fracfocus.org (Natural Gas
Horizontal Well Control Act – requires Submission of chemical data
to Office of Oil and Gas with the WR-35 Reports on specific forms or
a Frac Focus Format)
 The Citizens Database for PA – http://www.water-research.net
 Get Educated – Free Information on Water Quality and Oil / Natural
Gas Development–
 http://www.private-well-owner.org
 Check Out Frac Tracker – YOUR Story Matters
 http://www.fractracker.org/projects/usmap/
Certificate of Completion
Training Event
Getting The Waters Tested; The Black Shale Factor
Pennsylvania Approach
2 – hour PDHs or 0.2 CEUS
Presented by
Mr. Brian Oram, PG
B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc
15 Hillcrest Drive
Dallas, PA 18612
More Online Training @
http://www.bfenvironmental.com
Licensed Professionals - Official Certificate with Name and Date
is Available for $ 15.00- just email bfenviro@ptd.net
DO Not Forget the Citizens
Database in Pennsylvania
 Quote about the Program – “this program has been
a ROCK to us... thank you, as always, thank you
thank you!” (Dimock, PA)
 Free Evaluation of the Certified Testing Results by
a Professional
 Working as a Community to Track Change
 Insights into Existing Problems to Properly
Document Baseline Conditions
 Great Free Program
 http://www.water-research.net
Our Latest Educational Resource
Description of the following:
a. Citizen Database
b. Baseline Testing
c. Drinking Water Standards
d. Specific Water Quality Standards
e. Treatment Options
f. How to Shock Disinfect a Well
g. How to Properly Construct a Well
h. General Guidelines on Baseline Testing
Parameters.
And More. cost$ 5.00
Other Resources at http://www.water-research.net
Document
 © 2013 by B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this document may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without prior written
permission of B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
 For permission – Contact Mr. Brian Oram, PG
 bfenviro@ptd.net
 570- 335-1947
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
Presented by:
Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),
Soil Scientist, Licensed Well DrillerSoil Scientist, Licensed Well Driller
B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
http://www.bfenvironmental.com
And
Water Research Center
http://www.water-research.net
http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com

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Well Water Marcellus Shale Unconventional Gas Development - Baseline Water Testing an…

  • 1. Getting The Waters Tested Types of Water Testing Citizen Science And Remote MonitoringBaseline Testing – Just the Facts Step 1-Third-Party Sampler and Certified Testing Screening Tests or Self-Monitoring Step 2- Screening Step 3 Follow-up Certified Testing Step 3 Follow-up Certified Testing
  • 2. Document  © 2013 by B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.  For permission – Contact Mr. Brian Oram, PG  bfenviro@ptd.net  570- 335-1947 http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 3. Presented by: Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG), Soil Scientist, Licensed Well DrillerSoil Scientist, Licensed Well Driller B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc. http://www.bfenvironmental.com Water Research Center http://www.water-research.net Prepared For Private Well Owners, Licensed Professionals, and Watershed Groups in Pennsylvania
  • 4. B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.  Professional Consulting Services in the areas of water quality, soils, stormwater, geology, aquifer analysis, and land-development.  Baseline – Chain-of-Custody  Expert Testimony  Water Treatment Process/ Product Development  http://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 5. Water-Research Center Education and Outreach Program funded byEducation and Outreach Program funded by B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc. Outreach ProgramsOutreach Programs  Environmental and Professional Education and Training for CitizensEnvironmental and Professional Education and Training for Citizens and Local Municipalitiesand Local Municipalities  Water Quality Help Guides – Information LibraryWater Quality Help Guides – Information Library  Community and Business Outreach ProgramsCommunity and Business Outreach Programs  Low Cost – Informational Water Testing Program with NationalLow Cost – Informational Water Testing Program with National LaboratoryLaboratory  Citizen Monitoring ProgramsCitizen Monitoring Programs Website:Website: http://www.water-research.net
  • 6. Current Programs  Free Assistance in Reviewing Baseline Data for Private Well Owners  Free Website with Information on Water Quality Problems with Case Studies  Educational Materials and Educational Presentations  Training Program for Baseline Samplers  Go to http://www.water-research.net
  • 7. Our Latest Educational Resource Description of the following: a. Citizen Database b. Baseline Testing c. Drinking Water Standards d. Specific Water Quality Standards e. Treatment Options f. How to Shock Disinfect a Well g. How to Properly Construct a Well h. General Guidelines on Baseline Testing Parameters. And More. cost$ 5.00 Other Resources at http://www.water-research.net
  • 8. Target Audience  Stakeholders  Private Well Owners  Community Advocates and Scientists  Health Related Professionals  Municipal and Local Officials  Water Supplies and State Regulators
  • 9. Recent Site Tour- Towanda, PA I took both photos – First Time on the Drilling Platform and first time watching the EPA Sample. EPA Sampling In Dimock
  • 10. Definitions Related To the Process  Certified – a laboratory that has been certified by the state or through a National Certification Process (NELAC). The laboratory should be “Independent” from the Oil and Gas Company, i.e., it can not be a sister company or a subsidiary.  Chain-of-Custody – this is the process that should be used to ensure the data that is generated is valid and can be used in a legal proceeding.  Third-party Sampler – either an employee of the certified laboratory or other professional with no vested interest in the results. This can not be a friend, relative, or an employee of a gas company, but it could be a paid consultant. http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 11. Definitions Related To Technology  Conventional Oil and Gas Development – this is when the zone of production is from an area where the gas has accumulated over time.  Unconventional Oil and Gas Development – this is typically a source rock with very low permeability where the gas or oil has been produced and is trapped in the pore spaces of the rock. In many cases, a small amount of the gas or oil has been produced in this zone and migrated upward to accumulate in a shallower area. These shallower areas are typically the areas for conventional gas development. Other Terms – tight oil, tight gas, shale gas, and coal-bed methane.  Closed Loop Drilling – a more environmental sound process that does not use lined pits to manage well cuttings and drilling muds. http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 12. Definitions Related to the Well  Lower Explosion Limit – the lowest concentration of a gas in the atmosphere that could cause ignition. This should be measured under the wellcap or at the well vent before pumping the well and while the well is pumping after collecting the baseline water sample.  Static Water Level – the depth to water during non-pumping conditions in a water well. This should be measured, before the well is pumped.  Dynamic Water Level-the depth to water in the well when the well is pumping for some period of time. This should be measured after the well has been pumped and baseline water sample collected.  Drawdown – the Difference between the static water level and dynamic water level.  Specific Capacity for the Well - Pumping Rate of the Well Divided by the Amount of Drawdown.
  • 13. Lower Explosion Limit  The explosive limit of a gas or a vapor is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. The lowest concentration (percentage) of a gas or a vapor in air is capable of producing a flash of fire in the presence of an ignition source (arc, flame, heat).
  • 14. Definitions Related to Water Quality  Conductivity – the ability of the water to carry a charge. The greater the conductivity the more substances are dissolved in the water. (Measure in the field and checked in the laboratory)  BTEX – Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene – Components of coal tar, petroleum products, inks, paints, insecticides, solvents, and other fuels.  MTBE- Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether - was an additive in gasoline.  ORP- Oxidation Reduction Potential measured in millivolts and the value can be positive or negative. The more positive, the chemical reactions in the water or oxidizing. The more negative, the chemical reactions are more reducing. This should be measured in the field during the sampling process.  Positive Oxidizing Conditions – may be associated with discolored water  Negative Oxidizing Conditions – may be associated with odors and higher methane concentrations. http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 15. Other Concepts  Citizen Science – private citizens that conduct self-monitoring and screening for themselves or others. This data is not certified, but if individuals are trained and equipment calibrated and maintained this may be a cost effective screening tool after baseline testing or for watershed monitoring.  Informational Water Testing – some commercial laboratories and universities may offer low cost screening tests that are accurate, but not certified. This may be an affordable screening option for a homeowner– After baseline testing has been conducted.  One Example – http://www.check-water.com http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 16. Step 1- Baseline Testing for Private Drinking Water Source For the Private Citizen – Baseline Water Testing Starts with a “Third Party” Sampler – Certified Water Testing . Baseline Sampling Does Not Start with any of the following: a. Home Screening Test b. Water Sample Collected by the Homeowner, Friend, or an Interested Party, even if the sample is taken to a certified laboratory. Baseline Sampling includes: a. Third Party Sampler – unbiased with no vested interest in the results that has been properly trained and approved by the certified laboratory. b. If hired by the homeowner, this could be a paid consultant or professional or an employee of the certified laboratory. c. If hired by a Oil or Gas Company, it can be a paid consultant or professional or an employee of the certified laboratory – NOT an employee of the Oil/Gas Company.
  • 17. Step 2: After Certified Testing with a Third Party Sampler- “Using Citizen Science” In-home Screening Tests or Informational Water Testing Can be used to Track Water Quality and Potential Change Work with Local Groundwater Guardian, Sourcewater Protection, or Watershed Group This can be supplemented by including a journal of the Water appearance and other aesthetic quality. If your field screening suggests a problem – Call Local Regulatory Agency and Conduct Follow-up Certified Testing- This Process Does Not Start at Step 2.
  • 18. Baseline Testing for Surfacewater Sources For the Private Citizen – Baseline Water Testing Starts with a “Third Party ”–Water Sampler – This is Step 1. Step 2: After Certified Testing with a “ Third Party Sampler” Conduct Field Screening Testing or Informational Water Testing to Track Change. – Citizen Science in Action Work with Local Watershed Group This can be supplemented may including a journal of the Water appearance and other aesthetic quality. If your field screening suggests a problem – Call Local Regulatory Agency and Conduct Certified Testing- This Process Does Not Start at Step 2.
  • 19. Types of Water Sampling and Testing and Level of Legal Protection !  Step 1- Level 1- Certified Third-Party Baseline (Highest)  Step 2 - Level 2- Informational Water Testing (Low)  Step 2- Level 3- Self-Monitoring (Very Low)  Step 2- Level 4- Citizen Science – Community Watershed Monitoring Efforts (Very Low)  Step 3 - Community Watershed Monitoring – Third Party Baseline Testing with Continuous and/or Community Monitoring (High) Private Source or Spring Watershed To Protect the Community – A Private Source and Watershed Monitoring Program Should be Implemented –We Live in Communities Lets Work as a Community !
  • 20. Baseline Testing- It is Not Just About Collecting a Water Sample (published ONG Marketplace – 3/2013) Link to Article at http://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 21. What is Certified Baseline Testing?  Certified Baseline Testing is a process to establish the current condition of a system prior to some proposed change or action.  This is the Greatest Level of Protection !  Persons or Agents Directly Involved with this Process  Licensed Professional and Third-Party Sampler  Private Well or Water Source Owner – “Witness the Process Only”  Certified Testing Laboratory
  • 22. Certified Baseline Testing Agents Their Responsibilities  Homeowner – May be the Client or Just Witness Sampling Process – Homeowners Can NOT Collect Samples  Professional or other agent should provide a list of recommended parameters, plus should review the data and prepare final summary report for the Water System Owner.  Sampler- Should be a Trained and Approved Third-Party Sampler or Licensed Professional (Approved by the Certified Laboratory)  Sampler Must Follow Collection and Sampling Process Specified by the Certified Laboratory.  Document Conditions in the Field and Prepare a Chain-of-Custody Sheet  Responsible for the Safe and Secure Storage of Sample Containers and Delivery of Samples to the Certified Laboratory following Chain-of Custody Processes  Certified Laboratory – “Must be Certified for All Parameters” to be Tested, State or National Certification (NELAC)  Selects and Prepares Sample Containers and Collection Procedures  Conducts ALL or Facilitates Testing by a “Certified Laboratory”  Maintains Quality Control of Data and Protects Accuracy of the Data  Certified Laboratory generates a Laboratory Report  Stores the Data in a Secure Manner (Typically Up to 5 years) Need Help Finding Assistance – Contact Us
  • 23. How Baseline Testing Can Get Done  Private Well Owners – Well Owner Hires a Third-Party Sampler or Professional to Complete this Process. (Sampler MUST be an Individual or Company with Zero Vested Interest in the Results).  Gas Company or Other Company Pays Using a Third- Party Contractor for All Activities (Employees or Direct Agents of the Gas/Oil Company Can NOT Participate in this Process).  Company should give the Well Owner a copy of the report.  You may need to ask or make this a requirement in any agreements.
  • 24. Regulatory Framework- Is Baseline Testing Required or Is it Optional?  There are Two Answers  In some States, it is required by the State- Required.  In some leases, it is required by the lease- Required.  In some States, there is zero regulatory oversight (Optional).
  • 25. Regulatory Framework- Is Baseline Testing Required or Is it Optional?  The State may required an Individual or Company attempting to permit an activity to conduct baseline testing and/or the landowner/ royalty owner lease may required this testing as part of a lease.  Typically the state will specific a minimum radius around a structure.  The State may recommend or required a specific list of parameters and time line for initial and follow-up testing.  The State may assume the Permittee, i.e., Natural Gas Company, Responsible for Impact within a specific radius or time line unless data shows the problem is present pre-drilling.  Assumed liability may be lost if the private well owner, property owner, or water system owners does not permit the Permittee to collect water samples. For the Private Well Owner – This is Free Testing Data ! If Someone Asks to Sample – the Answer is YES !
  • 26. Is Baseline Testing Required or Is it Optional?  The State may recommend an Individual or Company attempting to permit an activity to conduct baseline testing, but the royalty or landowner lease may required this testing.  Typically the state regulations will assume the Permittee, i.e., Natural Gas Company, liable for a given radius around the activity and a time line – Unless the Permittee Prove Otherwise – The burden is on the Permittee.  Assumed liability may be lost if the private well owner, property owner, or water system owners does not permit the Permittee to collect water samples.  Industry Group or Company may recommend a minimum listing of parameters to be evaluated. For the Private Well Owner – This is Free Testing Data ! If an Oil and Gas Company Asks to Sample– the Answer is YES !
  • 27. Are Private Well Owners Required to Conduct Baseline Testing ?  To our knowledge, there is no requirement by a state or agency for the private owner to conduct baseline testing.  Then why it is recommended?  You May Not be within the area the Permittee tests.  You may be concerned about an adjoining lease.  You May Not believe “Their” results.  You May Want to Test for More Parameters.  You want to have sufficient evidence if a problems does occur.  The Company or “They” may not do any sampling and then there is no data.
  • 28. Pennsylvania Current Model  Baseline Testing is a Recommended Practice and Not a Required Practice.  Oil and Gas Companies are Assumed Responsible if a problem occurs within 1 year of completing or modifying a well within a radial distance of 2500 feet- there are no provisions related to other infrastructure like pipelines, compression stations, storage ponds, or treatment areas.  For Water Withdrawal Wells and other wells for Gas/Oil Operations – all surface owners or water purveyor within 3000 feet must be contacted.  Flow and Quality Tested- Predrilling Testing Required- if YOU request  The Oil and Gas Company is assumed responsible for events occurring within 2500 feet of the wellhead and 1 year.  You can lose this protection if you do not permit the Oil and Gas Company to conduct predrilling baseline testing.  To our knowledge, there is no requirement for post-drilling testing unless it is part of a compliant.  If you are outside 2500 foot radius, you may need to contact the oil/gas company or conduct this testing on your own. If the Oil and Gas Company – Will Not Conduct Testing for YOU and they are Drilling within about 0.5 to 1 mile of you and driving on the roads near Your Home Get Some Level of Baseline Testing Done NOW.
  • 29. PA Oil and Gas Law  Certified mail notification during permit phase if water supply is within 3,000 feet of gas well.  At least 200 feet from a private well, 100 feet stream, wetland, or waterbody, and 1000 feet a public water supply.  Baseline Testing is Recommended Not Required, but they are presumed liable. Liability Provision – Within 2500 feet of a wellhead and within 1 year of completion or modification. Post-Drilling Testing is Not Required or Recommended.  PADEP may require Gas Companies to Respond to Complaints  Reportable Releases Brine - > 10,000 mg/L or 1 % contamination (5 gallons)  Reportable Releases Brine - < 10,000 mg/L or < 1% (15 gallons).  Law Requires an Immediate Investigation when Methane Levels are > 7 mg/L. Any time the level of methane is at or greater than 7 mg/L - Contact- PADEP and the Local Natural Gas Company in Your Area – Under Oil and Gas Law- Section 78.89 – “When an operator or owner is notified of or otherwise made aware of a POTENTIAL natural gas migration incident, the operator shall immediately conduct an investigation of the incident”.
  • 30. If A Private Well Owner is Hiring a Professional – Some Suggestions  For a Private Citizen - The Key Components of Baseline Testing include:  Implementing a process that is accurate, precise, and that generates data that can be used in potential future litigation;  Accurately documenting the pre-existing conditions of the system;  Selecting parameters that will document existing conditions, cover potential changes, and address individual system owners concern;  Follows a chain-of-custody process to ensure the accuracy, reliability, and integrity of the data; and  Utilizes a third party unbiased sampler that is experienced to ensure the protocols for collecting, preserving, and submitting the samples to the certified laboratory are followed.  Maintain 2 copies of the final report in a Secure Area.
  • 31. Do Not End Up Here ! Do Not Put the Burden of Proof on Yourself ! Water Issues 1. Lake House that is not regularly used and in most cases the homeowners did not drink the water. 2. No baseline testing other than some historic testing for coliform bacteria and nitrate. 3. The water appeared to change and get a salty taste and there was some gas bubbles. 4. Well - no drilling log- located in a river valley near a lake - over 400 feet deep. 5. Methane Determined to be 15 mg/L with elevated Chloride, Hardness, and Barium If Baseline Testing Was Done We Would Have Proof of the Impact Now - This will have to be settled in Court Burden of Proof May be on the Well Owner ! Which Is the Before Sample?
  • 32. Baseline Testing Should Include ALL Likely Impacts Your Well
  • 33. Suggested Baseline Parameters – Pennsylvania  Conventional Gas and Oil Wells - pH, iron, total dissolved solids, chloride, surfactants, methane, and coliform, plus other parameters determined by the operator.  Our Only Comment – this is completely inadequate and will not address some of the most likely potential impacts.  We would strongly recommend testing for additional parameters. Source- http://www.spilmanlaw.com/
  • 34. Parameters Recommended by the PADEP (2010)  Alkalinity, Chloride, Conductivity, Hardness, Oil and Grease, pH*, Sulfate, Total Dissolved Solids*, Total Suspended Solids, Residue- Filterable, Residue– No Filterable, Barium, Calcium, Iron*, Magnesium, Manganese*, Potassium, Sodium*, Strontium, Methane*, Ethane*, Total Coliform and E. coli.  * “As a minimum, a homeowner wishing to have their private well tested should analyze for these parameters” (PADEP, 2010)  http://www.bfenvironmental.com/pdfs/PADEPbaselinemarcellus.pdf Note – Original Document Not Longer Available on PADEP Website (see link provided)
  • 35. Marcellus Shale Coalition Their Recommendation to Gas Companies  The parameters they recommended: Alkalinity, Total Chromium, Oil & Grease, Total Arsenic, Barium, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, Iron, Manganese, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium pH, Specific Conductance, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Chloride, Sulfate, Hardness, Surfactants (MBAS/foaming agents), Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX), Dissolved Methane, Ethane, Propane, E. Coli. Total Coliform, Nitrate as N , Turbidity My Comments 1. Missing bromide, aluminum, full range of VOCs, MTBE, ORP 2. Missing surrogate organics like glycols, alcohols, aldehydes, etc. 3. Missing Radionuclides at least alpha, beta, and Uranium. May be advisable to adjust to the specific nature of local geology, saline water chemistry, surrounding land-use activities, and chemical additives.
  • 36. Suggested Baseline- For Citizens  Permit the Oil and Gas Company to Collect a Predrill or Prealteration Sample. DO NOT Lose the Assumption of Responsibility Provision.  Testing Package # 1 Recommendations – Document Lower Explosion Limit (LEL) and Static and Dynamic Water Level Total Coliform with e. coli confirmation, chloride, sodium, bromide, barium, pH, total dissolved solids, MBAS, conductivity, iron, manganese, ORP, arsenic, Turbidity, and methane/ethane/propane.  Testing Package # 2 Recommendations -Package # 1- plus Aluminum, T. Hardness, Magnesium, Selenium, Strontium, Calcium, Zinc, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Total Suspended Solids, Sulfate, Oil & Grease, and 21-VOCs/MTBE  Testing Package # 3 Recommendations Package #1 and # 2 - plus Potassium, Sulfide, Ammonia, Acidity, Nickel, Gross, Alpha/Beta Activity, Lithium, Lead, and Uranium. It may be advisable to add Glycols, Radon in water, and other organic and inorganic parameters. Depending on surrounding land-use, use of geothermal wells, personal history, local geology, and past history for the area.
  • 37. Remember - Methane Gas Level – Change over Time- Time with Highest Levels  barometric pressure is low and soils are saturated;  when snow cover is just beginning to melt;  the ground is frozen or ice covered; or  under long-term pumping conditions for the well when the well is experiencing the lowest dynamic water level and greatest drawdown. http://www.water-research.net/methanegas.htm
  • 38. 1 ft1 ft 250 ft 50 ft 200 ft Specific Capacity = Gpm/ft of drawdown gpm = 5 gpm Static Water Level – 50 feet Dynamic Level – 200 feet Sc = (5 gpm/ (150 ft))= Sc = 0.03 gpm/ft drawdown Estimating Specific Capacity Methane Levels and Pumping Less head pressure more methane will be released. Methane Static Water Level Pump Off Dynamic Water Level Pump On 5 gpm Air Vent Measure LEL
  • 39. Need Help with Baseline Testing  We Work With Multiple Certified Laboratories  Conduct or Facilitate Baseline Sampling  Provide Assistance in Reviewing Data  Provide Assistance with Private Well Owner Education and Outreach  Our Online Survey – Need Help – Just Ask http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/privatewell Need Help – Call 570-335-1947 email – bfenviro@ptd.net Visit – http://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 40. Getting The Waters Tested Types of Water Testing Citizen Science And Remote MonitoringBaseline Testing – Just the Facts Step 1-Third-Party Sampler and Certified Testing Screening Tests or Self-Monitoring Step 2- Screening Step 3 Follow-up Certified Testing Step 3 Follow-up Certified Testing
  • 41. Step 2- Level 2: Informational Water Testing – Test at Least Annually.  Does Not Meet Definition of Certified Baseline Data and DOES Not Replace Certified Baseline Sampling.  Conduct After Certified Baseline Testing is Done.  Data would not hold up in Court as Proof of a change, but may be a cost effective screening tool.  You can collect Sample.  You submit the Sample to a Certified Laboratory  The laboratory provides you the uncertified data.  Significantly Cheaper than Follow-up Baseline Testing and You can Screen for More Parameters Our Portal – http://www.check-water.com
  • 42. Step 2- Level 3. Self-Screening  Provides Certified Baseline Data – NO.  Use After Baseline Testing is Completed.  Helps to Track and Provide Supplementary Information – Yes  Recommend This Monitoring along with maintaining a log of water conditions and drilling related activity.  Self-Screening Tools – your eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and maybe some affordable sensors. Note- We Recommend Home Screening Tests for pH, conductivity, and Oxidation Reduction Potential – We DO not Recommend Measuring Just a Total Dissolved Solids Value – Measure Conductivity ! Write Down the Results – Make Sure Your Are Trained to Use the Meter !
  • 43. For Citizen Science  Make sure to go through a short training program on the use of the equipment, calibration, reporting results, storing the data, and field safety.  Make sure to follow safety protocols and work in teams.  Do NOT Trespass that is why there are Zoom Lenses on Cameras.  Do NOT Invade Private Space or Take Photos of Any Children.
  • 44. Your Tools- Use a Log Book, Video, and Photos (date stamp)  Eyes – look for signs of discoloration, sediment, chemical sheens, or gas.  Nose – changes in odors  Mouth – metallic taste, salty taste, bitter taste  Ears – water hammer – Related to Gas  Sensors – Conductivity, ORP, and pH pens  Camera with Zoom Lens  Video Documentation  Write Down When You Calibrate the meter. Need Help – Just Ask ! We Conduct Community Workshops !
  • 45. Case Studies  We Do Cases Studies and We are Looking for Additional Cases Studies to Review. What ? Where? How? Problem Caused by Manganese, Slime Bacteria, and Iron Bacteria
  • 46. Common Problems Associated with Natural Gas Development and Private Wells  Dirty and Discolored Water – associated with the initial drilling of the well. Water has metallic taste.  Increased Levels of iron, manganese, and aluminum and some other metals.  Increased Levels of Dissolved Gases – Primarily Methane, but also ethane, propane, and radon. Please Note – These Photos May Also Represent Baseline Conditions
  • 47. Working as a Community  Getting the Community Educated  Encouraging Well Owners to Get their water tested as best as they can afford and sharing this data (data only) with the Citizen Database.  Working with Local Water Authorities- Watershed Groups Using Source Water Protection As a Guide  Developing a Program to Fix Private Wells – where baseline pre-drilling testing has identified a Problem – Remember we all live upstream.  Permitting the gas company to conduct baseline testing and share this data (data only) as part of Community Meetings or Education Sessions – Citizens Database in PA.  This should include wells, springs, surface ponds, and major waterways in the area.
  • 48. Tracking Change  Frac Focus – Chemical Registry - http://fracfocus.org (Natural Gas Horizontal Well Control Act – requires Submission of chemical data to Office of Oil and Gas with the WR-35 Reports on specific forms or a Frac Focus Format)  The Citizens Database for PA – http://www.water-research.net  Get Educated – Free Information on Water Quality and Oil / Natural Gas Development–  http://www.private-well-owner.org  Check Out Frac Tracker – YOUR Story Matters  http://www.fractracker.org/projects/usmap/
  • 49. Certificate of Completion Training Event Getting The Waters Tested; The Black Shale Factor Pennsylvania Approach 2 – hour PDHs or 0.2 CEUS Presented by Mr. Brian Oram, PG B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc 15 Hillcrest Drive Dallas, PA 18612 More Online Training @ http://www.bfenvironmental.com Licensed Professionals - Official Certificate with Name and Date is Available for $ 15.00- just email bfenviro@ptd.net
  • 50. DO Not Forget the Citizens Database in Pennsylvania  Quote about the Program – “this program has been a ROCK to us... thank you, as always, thank you thank you!” (Dimock, PA)  Free Evaluation of the Certified Testing Results by a Professional  Working as a Community to Track Change  Insights into Existing Problems to Properly Document Baseline Conditions  Great Free Program  http://www.water-research.net
  • 51. Our Latest Educational Resource Description of the following: a. Citizen Database b. Baseline Testing c. Drinking Water Standards d. Specific Water Quality Standards e. Treatment Options f. How to Shock Disinfect a Well g. How to Properly Construct a Well h. General Guidelines on Baseline Testing Parameters. And More. cost$ 5.00 Other Resources at http://www.water-research.net
  • 52. Document  © 2013 by B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.  For permission – Contact Mr. Brian Oram, PG  bfenviro@ptd.net  570- 335-1947 http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com
  • 53. Presented by: Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG),Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG), Soil Scientist, Licensed Well DrillerSoil Scientist, Licensed Well Driller B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc. http://www.bfenvironmental.com And Water Research Center http://www.water-research.net http://www.water-research.nethttp://www.bfenvironmental.com

Editor's Notes

  1. This slide is a good opportunity to describe the work that the speaker’s company does concerning the location and construction of residential water wells. The speaker should describe his/her experience with these subjects.
  2. This slide is a good opportunity to describe the work that the speaker’s company does concerning the location and construction of residential water wells. The speaker should describe his/her experience with these subjects.
  3. This slide is a good opportunity to describe the work that the speaker’s company does concerning the location and construction of residential water wells. The speaker should describe his/her experience with these subjects.
  4. Water-soluble products that are placed on the land surface and in streams or surface impoundments Land Disposal Stockpiles and mine tailings Disposal of sewage and sludge Salt spreading Animal feedlots Fertilizers and pesticides Accidental spills Particulate matter from airborne sources Substances that are deposited in the ground above the water table Septic systems, cesspools, and privies. Surface impoundments and lagoons Landfills Waste disposal in excavations Leakage from underground storage tanks Leakage from underground pipelines Artificial recharge Sumps and dry wells Grave yards Disposal, storage, or extraction of materials below the water table Waste disposal in wet excavations Drainage wells and canals Abandoned and exploration wells Water supply wells Waste disposal wells Mines