Prepared and Presented By:-
               Rohan Gupta
 What  do you mean by Negotiating?
 What do you understand by
  successful negotiating?
 Successful negotiation can‟t o...
 As   defined in the dictionary
     It‟s the art of reaching agreement through an
      effective exchange of informati...
 Developing   successful negotiation requires:
  1.   Learning the process of negotiating
  2.   Understanding yourself
 ...
Fundamental Elements of Negotiating
 Trust
 Process: Can be divided into two parts
  Preparing to negotiate:
        Und...
 Theory of Needs propagated by Abraham
  Maslow and B.F. Skinner
 Model for understanding Emotions and
  Behaviour
Unmet...
Reframing Needs and Emotions During
Negotiations
1. Has this happened to me before
2. What kind of commitment exists in th...
Emotional Barriers to Negotiating
  Hot Button response
  Blame-bag response
  Dance response



 When you realize that...
When you negotiate it‟s important to:

    Express your feelings objectively.

    Attack the problem, not the person.

...
Three possible healthy relationships one have in
a lifetime are:
     Dependence
     Independence and
     Interdependenc...
Negotiating with        the    Four     Gifts     of
Empowerment:
1. Choice
2. Knowledge
3. Practice
4. Involvement


To e...
How You Speak Means More Than What You Say
      93 percent of our communication comes through
       body language.
Body...
“S-O-F-T-E-N” AS A NEGOTIATING TECHNIQUE

   S               SMILE

   O               OPEN

   F               FORWARD LE...
4 WAYS TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY
WHEN NEGOTIATING

BE CLEAN

BE COMPREHENSIVE

BE CALM

BE CARING
AVOID ESCALATING WORDS
YOU                   CAN‟T
ALWAYS OR NEVER       SHOULD HAVE
OUGHT TO HAVE          BUT


COMMUNIC...
 Preparingto Negotiate – Prepare mentally
 and emotionally to know yourself and other
 person better.

 Toget ready – un...
Know Yourself
   Self-reflection or Self-evaluation
    Questions include:
       What do I want out of this negotiation...
Following steps will help one prepare, understand
  self better, and communicate to the other party:
 Prepare list of acc...
AVOID ASSUMPTIONS
 Avoid negative assumptions about others‟
  beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviour.
 Often you think...
FOCUS ON INTERESTS
 Primary Objective – Focus on the interests of
  the people involved, not their position.
 Use the fo...
STEP 1   You are dissatisfied

STEP 2   You want to be satisfied (WIN)

STEP 3   You want the other party to be
         s...
MENTALLY PREPARING FOR SUCCESS BY “SELF-TALK”

    It‟s important to look at why we behave the way we do.
    Analyze the ...
Seven Ways to Negotiate – Active and Passive
“sweaters”
1. Ignore / deny
2. Suppress
3. Leave or withdraw
4. Placate
5. Do...
1.   Define the Problem
2.   Look for what you have in common
3.   Recognize multiple interests
4.   Look toward solutions...
When someone says “No”
      Don‟t take it personally
      Have plans “B” and “C” ready
      Suggest a temporary post...
Stages of Satisfaction are:

     Immediate reward: instant satisfaction

     Delayed reward: delayed satisfaction

  ...
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Negotiation

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Negotiation

  1. 1. Prepared and Presented By:- Rohan Gupta
  2. 2.  What do you mean by Negotiating?  What do you understand by successful negotiating?  Successful negotiation can‟t occur without successful communication.  Developing Relationships through negotiations.  Eight steps to successful negotiating.
  3. 3.  As defined in the dictionary  It‟s the art of reaching agreement through an effective exchange of information.  Practically  It involves give and take about a disagreement.  Disagreement occurs within a Relationship. Negotiation could be redefined as “Negotiation is the resolution of a disagreement, using give-and-take within the context of a particular relationship. It involves sharing ideas and information and seeking a mutually acceptable outcome.”
  4. 4.  Developing successful negotiation requires: 1. Learning the process of negotiating 2. Understanding yourself 3. Building better relationships Facts about Negotiation 1. What can I do to keep my perspective when negotiating is not easy? 2. What can I do to understand that negotiating is a process? 3. What can I do to create mutually satisfactory outcomes? 4. What can I do to learn about the differences in others? 5. What can I do to improve my attitude?
  5. 5. Fundamental Elements of Negotiating  Trust  Process: Can be divided into two parts Preparing to negotiate: Understanding others Understanding self Understanding appropriate behaviour Understanding strategies Negotiation itself: Process of negotiating The Environment of negotiating The data for negotiating Evaluating Outcomes  Communication  People: Emotions, Communications, Perceptions  Bargaining power : Concept of PAK (Power, Authority and Knowledge)  Alternatives  Criteria for evaluation
  6. 6.  Theory of Needs propagated by Abraham Maslow and B.F. Skinner  Model for understanding Emotions and Behaviour Unmet Needs Emotions Behaviour / Action Value Fear / Anger Retaliate Control Dominate Self-esteem Isolate Cooperate
  7. 7. Reframing Needs and Emotions During Negotiations 1. Has this happened to me before 2. What kind of commitment exists in the relationship? 3. What else is bothering me? 4. What do I stand to lose if don‟t get what I want? Who Owns the Problem? 1. The other person owns the problem. 2. I own the problem 3. There is no problem 4. We own the problem
  8. 8. Emotional Barriers to Negotiating  Hot Button response  Blame-bag response  Dance response When you realize that an emotional response is stifling your ability to negotiate well, you need to address the problem directly, like this:  Define the Problem  Share your feelings  Tell what you or prefer  Suggest the outcome that will follow
  9. 9. When you negotiate it‟s important to:  Express your feelings objectively.  Attack the problem, not the person.  Build relationships as you negotiate.  Create a positive environment, not a negative one.  Problem-solve in a positive way.
  10. 10. Three possible healthy relationships one have in a lifetime are: Dependence Independence and Interdependence. All these relationships show in one‟s negotiating style.
  11. 11. Negotiating with the Four Gifts of Empowerment: 1. Choice 2. Knowledge 3. Practice 4. Involvement To experience empowerment you need to follow three steps: 1. Make the decision to empower. 2. Communicate empowerment. 3. Recognize that feelings stem from behaviour.
  12. 12. How You Speak Means More Than What You Say  93 percent of our communication comes through body language. Body language includes: 1. Voice Pitch (how high or low the voice sounds) 2. Intonation (emphasis placed on certain words) 3. Gestures (the way hands, arms and legs move) 4. Eye Contact (looking at someone directly or indirectly) 5. Proximity (how close to someone you stand or sit) 6. Facial Expression (a smile or frown)
  13. 13. “S-O-F-T-E-N” AS A NEGOTIATING TECHNIQUE S SMILE O OPEN F FORWARD LEAN T TOUCH E EYE CONTACT N NOD
  14. 14. 4 WAYS TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY WHEN NEGOTIATING BE CLEAN BE COMPREHENSIVE BE CALM BE CARING
  15. 15. AVOID ESCALATING WORDS YOU CAN‟T ALWAYS OR NEVER SHOULD HAVE OUGHT TO HAVE BUT COMMUNICATE YOUR PREFERENCES FOR MORE EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS Make „I‟ Statements
  16. 16.  Preparingto Negotiate – Prepare mentally and emotionally to know yourself and other person better.  Toget ready – understand the motives of others, avoid assumptions, know the specifics of the subject being negotiated and focus on the interests of each person.  Attitude of winning is important to carry into the negotiation process.
  17. 17. Know Yourself  Self-reflection or Self-evaluation Questions include:  What do I want out of this negotiation?  How am I likely to behave?  What will trigger my hot-button?  Do my requests fit who I am and what I want in life?  Are my expectations realistic for this situation? Evaluate the real reasons you are negotiating.  Assess how you‟ll behave when the negotiation is complete.  How will I behave if I get what I asked for?  How will I behave if I don‟t get what I‟m asking for?  What am I willing to settle for? Determine your bottom line for compromise.
  18. 18. Following steps will help one prepare, understand self better, and communicate to the other party:  Prepare list of acceptable alternatives.  List your interests. Don‟t be confined by rigid positions.  Gather support material that can help explain yourself and your needs to others. Know Others  Analyze the personalities of others  Ask other persons about the other negotiating party.  Two types of questions to gain information about the needs of your counterpart –  open ended – to know more about your counterpart.  closed questions – to get commitment and to test where your counterpart stands.
  19. 19. AVOID ASSUMPTIONS  Avoid negative assumptions about others‟ beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviour.  Often you think you‟re ready to negotiate and fail to do your homework because you assume you have the information needed to negotiate successfully.  Avoid assuming that another person is out to harm you. Generalizations cause trouble by perpetuating false assumptions.
  20. 20. FOCUS ON INTERESTS  Primary Objective – Focus on the interests of the people involved, not their position.  Use the following four steps to understand interests:  Ask for the objections – encourage open dialogue – ask open ended questions  Listen to the objections – avoid impulse to jump in.  Acknowledge the objections  Classify the objections according to main categories.  Smoke Screen Objections  “Knee-jerk” reactions  Emotional objections  Real Objections
  21. 21. STEP 1 You are dissatisfied STEP 2 You want to be satisfied (WIN) STEP 3 You want the other party to be satisfied. STEP 4 You choose winning feelings about yourself and others. STEP 5 You choose winning assumptions about yourself and others STEP 6 You choose winning behaviours STEP 7 You have winning outcomes
  22. 22. MENTALLY PREPARING FOR SUCCESS BY “SELF-TALK” It‟s important to look at why we behave the way we do. Analyze the following to understand yourself better:  Programming – application of your experiences  Beliefs – Images about yourself, higher order, others, life.  Attitudes and feelings – The bridge between beliefs and behaviour  Behaviour – The manifestation of programming, beliefs, attitudes and feelings. Use “Self-Talk” to reprogram behaviour by:  Affirmation  Visualization  Goal-setting  Forgiving and forgetting
  23. 23. Seven Ways to Negotiate – Active and Passive “sweaters” 1. Ignore / deny 2. Suppress 3. Leave or withdraw 4. Placate 5. Dominate 6. Compromise 7. Collaborate Which sweater you would wear would depend on P-A-K – Power Authority Knowledge
  24. 24. 1. Define the Problem 2. Look for what you have in common 3. Recognize multiple interests 4. Look toward solutions rather than the problem 5. Focus on benefits for both parties 6. Determine a time to evaluate and make decisions 7. Reinforce commitment after you‟ve agreed.
  25. 25. When someone says “No”  Don‟t take it personally  Have plans “B” and “C” ready  Suggest a temporary postponement Dissolve tension by using the three magic phrases:  “I respect….”  “I appreciate….”  “I agree….” Step-by-step process for handling difficult people: 1. Listen 2. Repeat to clarify 3. Disengage to clarify 4. Use interruptions to switch subjects 5. Discuss option 6. Ask for solutions 7. Keep records
  26. 26. Stages of Satisfaction are:  Immediate reward: instant satisfaction  Delayed reward: delayed satisfaction  Different reward: adjusted satisfaction  Rejected reward: acceptance satisfaction

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