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European Tunisian Conference




                    Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation
                                           System.
                    Sectoral Innovation Systems: Lessons from catching-up
                                          economies




Ilyas AZZIOUI                                                    Date : 19 february 2013
CNRST. Morocco

    European Tunisian   Conference                                     Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Research Policy




                                                                       ty
                                                                 er s i
                                                        of   Univ
                                                    e
                                          ica l r ol
                                    co nom                                    2009
                                                                                    
                                                                                         Emergency Pgm
                            c   io-e                                                       & Morocco
                        a so                                                               innovation
                    rds
              T owa                                                                         initiative
                                                        2005
                                                                       Vision 2025 +
                                          2003
                                                                       2006-2010 PLAN
                           2000              
1999                                              Evaluation of the
                                                 Research System
                                                  + FSP launching
   COSEF Charter                     Law 01-00
   Linking University-         Role of the university in
   entreprise : priority       the dvlpt of the country

 European Tunisian     Conference                                           Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
        Circulation              Research to Business

Technology Dissemination Network (RDT) – Réseau de Diffusion de Technologie
   –. It focuses at matching needs in the enterprise sphere with competencies
   based at universities and public research centres. The objective is to
   accompany client compqnies in all stages of implementation of a technology
   strategy.
The Moroccan Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IMIST) –
  Institut Marocain de l’information Scientifique et Technique– leads efforts to
  improve links between industry and academia by providing online access to
  catalogues of research results and databases of competencies available in the
  universities and research organisations and carrying out technology watch
  activities mainly in the field of Agro-food.
Morocco Spin-off/Spin-out and Incubation Network (RMIE) – Réseau Maroc
  Incubation et Essaimage –The RMIE supports a network of mainly “university
  based incubators”. It focuses on providing technical as well as financial support
  (Pre-seed capital to enable the development of the business idea into a credible
  business plan) to new technology based start-ups through a pre-incubation and
  incubation process.
European Tunisian   Conference                            Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Research System




European Tunisian   Conference   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Resources for
            R&D



                                             GDP (2010): € 67 billion
                                           
Inter Coop                                                    GERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 %
(2006): 3 %                                                  GERD/GDP (2006): 0,64 %
                
                                                                        GERD (2010): € 560 M
                                                                        
 Inter Coop (2010):    
 1.5 %
                                                                              Public GERD
          Private GERD                                                     (2010)
          (2006): 12 %
                                                                               68 %
                                               
                                                              
                                    Private GERD                  Public GERD (2006)
                                    (2010): 30 %                   82 %


   European Tunisian   Conference                                   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Societal Challemges
         for R&D




According to the vision 2025, the main societal challenges that should drive
   Moroccan research in the future are:

1. Education and training
2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity,
   health, etc.)
3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion
4. Other challenges: fight against drought’s effects, environment
   degradation, slums and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.)




  European Tunisian   Conference                            Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Priorities for R&D



Thematic S&T Priorities are as follows:

1.    Agriculture in difficult conditions
2.    Improved quality of life
3.    Knowledge, preservation and valorisation of natural resources
4.    Environment and sustainable development
5.    Biotechnology
6.    Risk management
7.    Innovation and competitiveness of enterprises
8.    Cultural and socio-economic development




     European Tunisian   Conference                                   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
HR for R&D


  There are 37246 researchers in the country (headcount, not full-time
 equivalent) out of which 12166 are faculty members who work in universities and
 17686 are PhD student (2010)
  According to the advisory report published by the Hassan II Academy of
 science and technology in 2009:
       Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full time researchers )
       for the next decade to face the research quality requirements, the increasing number
       of students and retirement departures
       Researchers represented a share of 1,89/1000 of the economically active
       population in the age group 25-64 in 2005
       Across disciplines, 37% of the R&D personnel belong to the field of Social and
       Human Sciences, 32% are in Natural and exact sciences, 22% operate in
       Engineering Sciences and 9% in Medical Sciences
        In 2006, 12643 were registered as PhD students (56% in Social and Human
       Sciences) but only 785 theses were defended the same year (69% in Social and
       Human Sciences).

European Tunisian   Conference                                   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
        Production
 In a study using Scopus database and published by the Moroccan Scientific
  and Technical Information Institute (IMIST) in 2010, it was found that:
    the Moroccan scientific production numbered 16120 publications between
      1999 (1200 publications) and 2009 (2117 publications)
    Distribution across scientific disciplines is as follows: 52% in Physical
      Sciences, Health Sciences 24%, Life Sciences 20%, and 4% only for Social
      Sciences.
 ESTIME project (Laville et al., 2007) investigating Thomson database found that
  :
     The two disciplines for which the world share was the highest were
      mathematics (2,78‰) and chemistry (1,21‰).
     The specialisation index for Morocco were, in 2004, mathematics (3.21),
      chemistry (1.39) and astro and geo-sciences (1.13).
     The best world share of citations were in mathematics (0,91 ‰) and
      engineering (0,66‰).
     The average impact index for Morocco was 0.28. The highest impact rates
      were registered in engineering (0.78) followed by chemistry (0.51), while
      medical research had the lowest one (0,12);
European Tunisian   Conference                          Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
 Production (Patents)


 Patents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office (OMPIC)
  received 1007 applications in 2010 against 929 applications in 2009. 151 were
  nationals and 856 were foreigners. 11 Moroccan universities applied for 40
  patents in the same year. There is no evidence with regard to the socio-
  economic impacts of university patents. EPO and US PTO patenting is marginal.




European Tunisian   Conference                         Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Other Policies

 Digital Morocco (Maroc numéric): A budget of € 520 million (5.2 billion DH) was
allocated to support the plan during the period 2009-2013. Launched by the Ministry
of Industry, Trade and new technologies to promote the IT sector in Morocco, ( support
RDI activities, a seed capital fund (Maroc numeric fund), promotion and creation of new
technoparks and incubators in different regions and last but not least the creation of a
Soft Centre for software development (brings together public and private actors and
offers R&D services to Moroccan IT companies).
 GREEN MOROCCO PLAN (2010-2020) (Plan Maroc Vert) is a national strategy
based on a new, ambitious and pragmatic vision for the promotion of the agricultural
sector in Morocco. Green Morocco Plan devised several measures to raise the
agricultural GDP from € 7 to 10 billion (70 to 100 billion DH). Some of these measures
could have a direct or indirect impact on sectoral research in this field such as the
creation of new research centres, agro-poles.
 The Moroccan Solar Power Plan was launched November 2, 2009 in Ouarzazate by
HRH the King Mohammed VI, with an investment cost estimated at 9 billion US dollars. It
is part of the Moroccan energy strategy aiming to increase electricity production and
implement five Concentrated Solar Power plant of a total power output of 2000 MW by
2020.
 European Tunisian   Conference                                 Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Other Policies

 The National Pact for Industrial Emergence: Launched by the Ministry of Industry,
  Trade and new technologies, it focuses on export oriented economic sectors where
  Morocco could obtain a sustainable advantage and a high potential for growth.
     1. off-shoring
     2. textiles and clothing,
     3. automobile
     4. aeronautics,
     5. electronics,
     6. agro-food,
     7. exploitation of marine resources and industrial crafts.
     8. More recently high-tech sectors such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and
        microelectronics were added. Publicauthorities provided direct support of
        € 50 million (500 million DH) over five years to the MASCIR foundation to
        develop applied research in those fields.


European Tunisian    Conference                                   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
          Demand


 To support the National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015) a profiling of
  the human resources needs of each sector for the whole period of the
  programme (2009-2015) has been carried out. The main results are summarised
  in the following table:

      Sectors         Managers      Engineers   Technicians   Operators          Total

    Off shoring         1 000         3000         10500        55000           70000

    Automotive          1500          7000         9000         32500           70000

    Aeronautics         300           1900         3000         9800            15000

    Electronics         200           1400         2700         4700             9000

    textiles and
                        300           2000         7500        24000            32000
      leather

     Agro-food          500           500          8500         14500           24000

       Total            3800          15800       39400        141000           220000




  European Tunisian    Conference                                Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
         Circulation              Cross Border

 International cooperation played an important role in the emergence of research
activities within universities . About 75 % of references recorded by SCI (1998-2002),
were co-authored by Moroccans and authors from a variety of countries. 88.2% of
Moroccan research labs declared to have international collaboration(s) in 2003 (622
were recorded), (66.4 % or 413) were with French, Spain (10.0 %), Belgium (4.7 %),
Germany, Canada, and Italy (4 %) & USA was in 7th place (3.5 %).

 According to the advisory report of Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology
(2009) co-publications of Moroccan researchers in 2008 were: 63,9% with
researchers from France, 13% Spain, 7,2% USA, 6,4% Italy, 5,5% Germany, 5,2%
Canada.

 Out of 749 cooperation conventions by Moroccan universities, 578 are with
European universities, making 70% of the total. French universities have 63% of
cooperation conventions with Europe and 49% of all the conventions signed. Spain
and Italy respectively registered a rate of 13% and 7% at the European level. Belgium
is rated fourth, with 30 conventions registering 5%.

 European Tunisian   Conference                             Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Knowledge
         Circulation              Cross Border

 ASBIMED identified about 31 bilateral programmes between Morocco and EU
member (France 14, Spain 6, Belgium 6, Germany 2, Portugal 2and Italy 1). In
addition to agreements with EU member states Morocco has signed other
agreements with non EU countries, the most active ones are with the following
countries: Tunisia; Egypt;USA.

 In 2011, the CNRST allocated € 290,000 to support collaboration with French
institutions (CNRS, INSERM, INRIA) and € 114,000 to support collaboration with
institutions from other countries CSIC & CIEMAT (Spain), CNRi (Italy), DFG
(Germany), FCT (Portugal), KOSEF (South Korea), ONRT (Hungary). CSIC stopped
cooperation with the CNRST for 2012 most probably because of budget constraints in
Spain.




 European Tunisian   Conference                          Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Une initiative arrimée aux stratégies sectorielles




                     INITIATIVE MAROC INNOVATION



Morocco Innovation
                                             www.mcinet.gov.ma   16
Initiative
Knowledge Circulation




                “Valley of Death”

                  Lac
                s k i k of
                     lls                                The Darwinian Sea
   Basic
  Research
                    Lack of Money
   Invention                              •Research &                       •Innovation: new
                                     Innovation
                                          •Invention
                                                                            Viable
                                                                            •business

                                         &
                                                                           Business
                                    New Business


European Tunisian      Conference                              Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Financement : Etat des lieux



    Soutien du                          Produit RDT                     Programme
   RMIE: Produit                          Soutien à                      InnovAct:
                                                                                                           Fonds Soutien
       RDT,                           l’innovation et                   Soutien de
                                                                                                           Innovation TIC
     Innov Act                       la mise à niveau                      projets
    Soutien TIC                       technologique                       innovant




                                                                                                                50% du
                                        plafonné à                          plafonné à
      230 KDhs /                                                                                              coût limité
                                         36 KDhs                             50 KDhs
        projet                                                                                                  à 2 000
                                            TTC
                                                                                                                 KDhs




                   Construction du      Identification et                                             Lancement du
    Idée                                                    Développement           Validation
                    Business Plan         formulation                                                    produit




Montants insuffisants                             Cibles limitées                                Lisibilité faible
Innovation Policy




European Tunisian   Conference   Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Innovation Policy


Governance and framework:
     1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee;
     2. The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre);
     3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovation
Infrastructure:
     1. Technological infrastructures;
     2. Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities );
     3. Clusters.
Funding & Support:
     1. Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation;
     2. Stimulation of the venture capital system;
     3. Development of the intellectual property market;
     4. Mobilisation of international funds for innovation.
Attracting Talents:
     1. Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club;
     2. Promotion of the innovation culture;
     3. Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer.


European Tunisian   Conference                              Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Innovation Policy

                                          Morocco Innovation Initiative
                                                Achievements

                                                 
   Attracting Talents:                                                Governance & Framework:
                                                                      Creation of CMI + Innovation bill
   Innovation Trophy +                                                (incentives     to     innovative
   Moroccan Club of Innovation                                      startups, Recruit of PhDs)
   portal




  Funding & Support:
                                                                  Technological Infrastructure:
  Intilak (up to € 100,000) for start-                    
  ups & Tatwir(up to € 400,000) for                               Creation of 4 clusters + Launching
  private applied R&D project                                     of 4 Innovation Cities




European Tunisian        Conference                                       Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Financement: Mise en place de Nouveaux instruments




        Construction du   Identification et                                Lancement du
Idée                                          Développement   Validation
         Business Plan      formulation                                       produit
Centre Marocain de l’Innovation


                      Comité de Suivi              Pilotage opérationnel et
                                                   décisionnel


Entrepreneur        Comité d’Evaluation
                                                   Examen et sélection
                      et d’Attribution




                                          CMI: Guichet unique


                           CMI

                                                  ANPM
Entreprise                                          E
Centre Marocain de l’Innovation

                               Guichet
                               unique




Missions
 Missions
               Promouvoir les instruments de financement de la R&D et de
                l’innovation
               Assurer l’interface avec les bénéficiaires
               Assurer le montage et la gestion des dossiers
               Assurer l’interface avec le Comité de Suivi et le Comité
                d’Evaluation et d’Attribution et l’ANPME/CNRST
               Conduire une pré-évaluation des projets suite aux appels à
                projets
               Assurer le suivi des projets soutenus
Les Cités de l’Innovations: Un plan de développement régionale avec les
                               universités




                                              Phase 1 : lancement en 2011
                                              • Marrakech
                                              • Rabat
                                              • Fès
                                              Phase 2 :
                                              • Casablanca
                                              • Oujda
                                              • Agadir
                                              • Settat
                                              • Tétouan
                                              • Beni Mellal
                                              • El Jadida
                                              • Meknès
Structures de valorisation adossée aux grands projets



• Agropôles

• P2I – Plateformes Industrielles Intégrées

• Technopolis

• Technopark
Système d’innovation cible

                       Comité Permanent
                        Comité Permanent
                     Interministériel de la
                      Interministériel de la
                  Recherche scientifique et du
                   Recherche scientifique et du
                 Développement Technologique
                  Développement Technologique

                        Comité National de
                         Comité National de
                           l’Innovation
                            l’Innovation

                        Centre Marocain de
                           l’Innovation

UNIVERSITES
UNIVERSITES                     Assistance         Coaching
              Partenariats      Financement
                                                                  Centres Techniques
                                                                   Centres Techniques
                              Projets R&D
                               Projets R&D
                                                                         Services
                                                                         Diffusion Technologiques
                                                             Entreprises
                                                              Entreprises
                                                                                                    27
                Centres R&D publics et privés
          CNRST, MASCIR, INRA, INRH, CNESTEN, CRTS, REMINEX, CERPHOS….
Relevant issues to
     innovation



Why we need to innovate?
 How can we promote it?
 What linkages are there between research and innovation?
Is it the same story across sectors( software, Auto, Agro-
food, etc.)?
Catching up in
different sectoral
     systems
Catching up in
different sectoral
     systems
Catching up in
   different sectoral
        systems


What can we learn from the story of catch-up in six different sectors in emerging
Countries (Taiwan, Korea, brazil, India, China, and others)?


1.Pharmaceuticals (Science based),
2.Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important),
3. Autos (scale intensive),
4. Software (specialized supplier and service sectors),
5.Agro-food (traditional sectors).
Catching up in
     different sectoral
          systems
                            Common features affecting
                            catch-up in 6 sectors


a) Firms learning: firms are the key actors in catch-up ,

b) Pharmaceuticals (Science based),
c) Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important),
d) Autos (scale intensive),
e) Software (specialized supplier and service sectors),
f) (Agro-food) traditional sectors.
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Common features affecting
                         catch-up in 6 sectors

                             firms are the key actors in catch-up , Learning
   Firms Learning            and Capabilities development of domestic
                             firms is a necessary condition for catch up
                             because they provide the catching up country
  Access to foreign          with the ability of absorbing foreign knowledge
     Knowledge               & technology and adapting and modifying
                             them to generate new knowledge and
Skilled Human Capital        products.


 Active Government
        Policy
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Common features affecting
                         catch-up in 6 sectors

                             the channels to which this access took place
   Firms Learning            have differed (sector & country). from vertical
                             networks with suppliers and users, to local
                             networks, collaborative R&D or production
  Access to foreign          agreements, to participation to the global value
     Knowledge               chain or just outsourcing;

                          When access to foreign knowledge did not
Skilled Human Capital
                           take place, as in telecommunications in India
                           and Brazil, the catch-up process has been
 Active Government         seriously unpaired
        Policy
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Common features affecting
                         catch-up in 6 sectors

                              Important inward mobility form advanced
   Firms Learning            countries of highly skilled    human capital
                             (scientists,      engineers, technopreneurs)
                             Diasporap and foreigners (consultants) were
  Access to foreign          critical to the catch-up)
     Knowledge


Skilled Human Capital


 Active Government
        Policy
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Common features affecting
                         catch-up in 6 sectors

                          In our 6 sectors government policy has indeed
   Firms Learning          stimulated and fostered the learning processes
                           and the capability formation of domestic firms
                           with different intensity and tools.
  Access to foreign
     Knowledge


Skilled Human Capital


Active Government
       Policy
Catching up in
   different sectoral
        systems
                        Diffrences across sectoral systems

                         In automobile and telecom large firms have
                          been major actors in the catch-up process
Industry Structure       in software and agro-food small firms have
                          driven sectoral growth
                         New entrepreneurial firms, SMEs or large size,
Demand and vertical
                          characterize the pharmaceutical and the
      links
                          semiconductor firms
                         local networks important for the catch-up
   Gov Policies           process in semiconductors (Taiwan) , formal
                          and informal interaction, knowledge sharing
                         Advent     of    technological   and   market
  Other elements          discontinuities may favour either totally
                          newcomers       or     established   domestic
                          companies. (Software in India Vs Telecom &
                          Pharmaceuticals where knowledge             is
                          cumulative and strongly science based)
Catching up in
   different sectoral
        systems
                        Diffrences across sectoral systems

                         Multinational companies played different roles :

Industry Structure      1. software, pharmaceuticals and semiconductors:
                           catching up countries had to specialize in some
                           product range in the global value chain and nd
Demand and vertical
                           eventually move uo the learning ladder to more
      links
                           advanced stages of production or research.

   Gov Policies
                        2. Telecom and Autos: the use of license from
                           multinationals or from foreign firms, or joint ventures
                           and alliances have been extensively used by domestic
  Other elements           firms to learn and accumulate capabilities.
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Diffrences across sectoral systems


                          Demand has entered catch-up in two ways:
 Industry Structure      1. Exports: have been the drivers of catch-up, for
                            both small firms and large firms. This is the
Demand and vertical         case      of    semiconductors,       telecom,
     links                  pharmaceuticals, software and auto.
                         2. Domestic Market: has been a major driver of
                            the learning process and the accumulation of
    Gov Policies            capability by domestic firms in Large countries
                            such as China, India and Brazil;

  Other elements
Catching up in
   different sectoral
        systems
                        Diffrences across sectoral systems


                           Government policy has differed in the use
Industry Structure         of tools and measures
                        1. Telecom ( Korea and China) - public policy
                           used R&D support, R&D consortia and public
Demand and vertical        research organizations to help firms to move
      links                into new generations of telecom technologies
                           and products
   Gov Policies         2. In software governments have used different
                           policies and tools, ranging from public
                           procurement, to R&D support for SMEs,
                           favourable companies tax rates and incentives
  Other elements
                           to attract foreign direct investments
Catching up in
   different sectoral
        systems
                        Diffrences across sectoral systems


                         Standards, regulations and norms : for
Industry Structure        relax IP laws were important for the catch-up
                          of Pharmaceutical industry in India and Brazil

Demand and vertical      Finance: VC (Private equity) critical for the
      links               development of Software industry

   Gov Policies


  Other elements
Catching up in
    different sectoral
         systems
                         Diffrences across sectoral systems


                          In some sectors such as Agriculture, health
 Universities & Public     and Telecom Public research proved quite
Research Laboratories      relevant to domestic firms
                          In the other sectors the main role of
                           universities was to provide advanced training
                           for advanced human capital in the scientific,
                           engineering and managerial fields. So they
                           increase the absorptive capacity of the human
                           capital for foreign cutting edge knowledge.
Conclusion
Thanks for your attention !

                   ‫! شكرا لصغائكم‬




Feb 11th, 2013          CAAST Net Plus Kick-off meeting   44

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Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System. Sectoral innovation systems : Lessons from catching-up economies

  • 1. European Tunisian Conference Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System. Sectoral Innovation Systems: Lessons from catching-up economies Ilyas AZZIOUI Date : 19 february 2013 CNRST. Morocco European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 2. Research Policy ty er s i of Univ e ica l r ol co nom 2009  Emergency Pgm c io-e & Morocco a so innovation rds T owa initiative 2005  Vision 2025 + 2003 2006-2010 PLAN 2000  1999 Evaluation of the  Research System + FSP launching COSEF Charter Law 01-00 Linking University- Role of the university in entreprise : priority the dvlpt of the country European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 3. Knowledge Circulation Research to Business Technology Dissemination Network (RDT) – Réseau de Diffusion de Technologie –. It focuses at matching needs in the enterprise sphere with competencies based at universities and public research centres. The objective is to accompany client compqnies in all stages of implementation of a technology strategy. The Moroccan Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IMIST) – Institut Marocain de l’information Scientifique et Technique– leads efforts to improve links between industry and academia by providing online access to catalogues of research results and databases of competencies available in the universities and research organisations and carrying out technology watch activities mainly in the field of Agro-food. Morocco Spin-off/Spin-out and Incubation Network (RMIE) – Réseau Maroc Incubation et Essaimage –The RMIE supports a network of mainly “university based incubators”. It focuses on providing technical as well as financial support (Pre-seed capital to enable the development of the business idea into a credible business plan) to new technology based start-ups through a pre-incubation and incubation process. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 4. Research System European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 5. Resources for R&D GDP (2010): € 67 billion  Inter Coop GERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 % (2006): 3 %  GERD/GDP (2006): 0,64 %  GERD (2010): € 560 M  Inter Coop (2010):  1.5 % Public GERD Private GERD  (2010) (2006): 12 % 68 %   Private GERD Public GERD (2006) (2010): 30 % 82 % European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 6. Societal Challemges for R&D According to the vision 2025, the main societal challenges that should drive Moroccan research in the future are: 1. Education and training 2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity, health, etc.) 3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion 4. Other challenges: fight against drought’s effects, environment degradation, slums and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.) European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 7. Priorities for R&D Thematic S&T Priorities are as follows: 1. Agriculture in difficult conditions 2. Improved quality of life 3. Knowledge, preservation and valorisation of natural resources 4. Environment and sustainable development 5. Biotechnology 6. Risk management 7. Innovation and competitiveness of enterprises 8. Cultural and socio-economic development European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 8. HR for R&D  There are 37246 researchers in the country (headcount, not full-time equivalent) out of which 12166 are faculty members who work in universities and 17686 are PhD student (2010)  According to the advisory report published by the Hassan II Academy of science and technology in 2009: Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full time researchers ) for the next decade to face the research quality requirements, the increasing number of students and retirement departures Researchers represented a share of 1,89/1000 of the economically active population in the age group 25-64 in 2005 Across disciplines, 37% of the R&D personnel belong to the field of Social and Human Sciences, 32% are in Natural and exact sciences, 22% operate in Engineering Sciences and 9% in Medical Sciences  In 2006, 12643 were registered as PhD students (56% in Social and Human Sciences) but only 785 theses were defended the same year (69% in Social and Human Sciences). European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 9. Knowledge Production  In a study using Scopus database and published by the Moroccan Scientific and Technical Information Institute (IMIST) in 2010, it was found that:  the Moroccan scientific production numbered 16120 publications between 1999 (1200 publications) and 2009 (2117 publications)  Distribution across scientific disciplines is as follows: 52% in Physical Sciences, Health Sciences 24%, Life Sciences 20%, and 4% only for Social Sciences.  ESTIME project (Laville et al., 2007) investigating Thomson database found that :  The two disciplines for which the world share was the highest were mathematics (2,78‰) and chemistry (1,21‰).  The specialisation index for Morocco were, in 2004, mathematics (3.21), chemistry (1.39) and astro and geo-sciences (1.13).  The best world share of citations were in mathematics (0,91 ‰) and engineering (0,66‰).  The average impact index for Morocco was 0.28. The highest impact rates were registered in engineering (0.78) followed by chemistry (0.51), while medical research had the lowest one (0,12); European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 10. Knowledge Production (Patents)  Patents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office (OMPIC) received 1007 applications in 2010 against 929 applications in 2009. 151 were nationals and 856 were foreigners. 11 Moroccan universities applied for 40 patents in the same year. There is no evidence with regard to the socio- economic impacts of university patents. EPO and US PTO patenting is marginal. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 11. Other Policies  Digital Morocco (Maroc numéric): A budget of € 520 million (5.2 billion DH) was allocated to support the plan during the period 2009-2013. Launched by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies to promote the IT sector in Morocco, ( support RDI activities, a seed capital fund (Maroc numeric fund), promotion and creation of new technoparks and incubators in different regions and last but not least the creation of a Soft Centre for software development (brings together public and private actors and offers R&D services to Moroccan IT companies).  GREEN MOROCCO PLAN (2010-2020) (Plan Maroc Vert) is a national strategy based on a new, ambitious and pragmatic vision for the promotion of the agricultural sector in Morocco. Green Morocco Plan devised several measures to raise the agricultural GDP from € 7 to 10 billion (70 to 100 billion DH). Some of these measures could have a direct or indirect impact on sectoral research in this field such as the creation of new research centres, agro-poles.  The Moroccan Solar Power Plan was launched November 2, 2009 in Ouarzazate by HRH the King Mohammed VI, with an investment cost estimated at 9 billion US dollars. It is part of the Moroccan energy strategy aiming to increase electricity production and implement five Concentrated Solar Power plant of a total power output of 2000 MW by 2020. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 12. Other Policies  The National Pact for Industrial Emergence: Launched by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies, it focuses on export oriented economic sectors where Morocco could obtain a sustainable advantage and a high potential for growth. 1. off-shoring 2. textiles and clothing, 3. automobile 4. aeronautics, 5. electronics, 6. agro-food, 7. exploitation of marine resources and industrial crafts. 8. More recently high-tech sectors such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and microelectronics were added. Publicauthorities provided direct support of € 50 million (500 million DH) over five years to the MASCIR foundation to develop applied research in those fields. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 13. Knowledge Demand  To support the National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015) a profiling of the human resources needs of each sector for the whole period of the programme (2009-2015) has been carried out. The main results are summarised in the following table: Sectors Managers Engineers Technicians Operators Total Off shoring 1 000 3000 10500 55000 70000 Automotive 1500 7000 9000 32500 70000 Aeronautics 300 1900 3000 9800 15000 Electronics 200 1400 2700 4700 9000 textiles and 300 2000 7500 24000 32000 leather Agro-food 500 500 8500 14500 24000 Total 3800 15800 39400 141000 220000 European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 14. Knowledge Circulation Cross Border  International cooperation played an important role in the emergence of research activities within universities . About 75 % of references recorded by SCI (1998-2002), were co-authored by Moroccans and authors from a variety of countries. 88.2% of Moroccan research labs declared to have international collaboration(s) in 2003 (622 were recorded), (66.4 % or 413) were with French, Spain (10.0 %), Belgium (4.7 %), Germany, Canada, and Italy (4 %) & USA was in 7th place (3.5 %).  According to the advisory report of Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology (2009) co-publications of Moroccan researchers in 2008 were: 63,9% with researchers from France, 13% Spain, 7,2% USA, 6,4% Italy, 5,5% Germany, 5,2% Canada.  Out of 749 cooperation conventions by Moroccan universities, 578 are with European universities, making 70% of the total. French universities have 63% of cooperation conventions with Europe and 49% of all the conventions signed. Spain and Italy respectively registered a rate of 13% and 7% at the European level. Belgium is rated fourth, with 30 conventions registering 5%. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 15. Knowledge Circulation Cross Border  ASBIMED identified about 31 bilateral programmes between Morocco and EU member (France 14, Spain 6, Belgium 6, Germany 2, Portugal 2and Italy 1). In addition to agreements with EU member states Morocco has signed other agreements with non EU countries, the most active ones are with the following countries: Tunisia; Egypt;USA.  In 2011, the CNRST allocated € 290,000 to support collaboration with French institutions (CNRS, INSERM, INRIA) and € 114,000 to support collaboration with institutions from other countries CSIC & CIEMAT (Spain), CNRi (Italy), DFG (Germany), FCT (Portugal), KOSEF (South Korea), ONRT (Hungary). CSIC stopped cooperation with the CNRST for 2012 most probably because of budget constraints in Spain. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 16. Une initiative arrimée aux stratégies sectorielles INITIATIVE MAROC INNOVATION Morocco Innovation www.mcinet.gov.ma 16 Initiative
  • 17. Knowledge Circulation “Valley of Death” Lac s k i k of lls The Darwinian Sea Basic Research Lack of Money Invention •Research & •Innovation: new Innovation •Invention Viable •business & Business New Business European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 18. Financement : Etat des lieux Soutien du Produit RDT Programme RMIE: Produit Soutien à InnovAct: Fonds Soutien RDT, l’innovation et Soutien de Innovation TIC Innov Act la mise à niveau projets Soutien TIC technologique innovant 50% du plafonné à plafonné à 230 KDhs / coût limité 36 KDhs 50 KDhs projet à 2 000 TTC KDhs Construction du Identification et Lancement du Idée Développement Validation Business Plan formulation produit Montants insuffisants Cibles limitées Lisibilité faible
  • 19. Innovation Policy European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 20. Innovation Policy Governance and framework: 1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee; 2. The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre); 3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovation Infrastructure: 1. Technological infrastructures; 2. Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities ); 3. Clusters. Funding & Support: 1. Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation; 2. Stimulation of the venture capital system; 3. Development of the intellectual property market; 4. Mobilisation of international funds for innovation. Attracting Talents: 1. Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club; 2. Promotion of the innovation culture; 3. Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 21. Innovation Policy Morocco Innovation Initiative Achievements  Attracting Talents: Governance & Framework: Creation of CMI + Innovation bill Innovation Trophy + (incentives to innovative Moroccan Club of Innovation   startups, Recruit of PhDs) portal Funding & Support: Technological Infrastructure: Intilak (up to € 100,000) for start-   ups & Tatwir(up to € 400,000) for Creation of 4 clusters + Launching private applied R&D project of 4 Innovation Cities European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • 22. Financement: Mise en place de Nouveaux instruments Construction du Identification et Lancement du Idée Développement Validation Business Plan formulation produit
  • 23. Centre Marocain de l’Innovation Comité de Suivi Pilotage opérationnel et décisionnel Entrepreneur Comité d’Evaluation Examen et sélection et d’Attribution CMI: Guichet unique CMI ANPM Entreprise E
  • 24. Centre Marocain de l’Innovation Guichet unique Missions Missions  Promouvoir les instruments de financement de la R&D et de l’innovation  Assurer l’interface avec les bénéficiaires  Assurer le montage et la gestion des dossiers  Assurer l’interface avec le Comité de Suivi et le Comité d’Evaluation et d’Attribution et l’ANPME/CNRST  Conduire une pré-évaluation des projets suite aux appels à projets  Assurer le suivi des projets soutenus
  • 25. Les Cités de l’Innovations: Un plan de développement régionale avec les universités Phase 1 : lancement en 2011 • Marrakech • Rabat • Fès Phase 2 : • Casablanca • Oujda • Agadir • Settat • Tétouan • Beni Mellal • El Jadida • Meknès
  • 26. Structures de valorisation adossée aux grands projets • Agropôles • P2I – Plateformes Industrielles Intégrées • Technopolis • Technopark
  • 27. Système d’innovation cible Comité Permanent Comité Permanent Interministériel de la Interministériel de la Recherche scientifique et du Recherche scientifique et du Développement Technologique Développement Technologique Comité National de Comité National de l’Innovation l’Innovation Centre Marocain de l’Innovation UNIVERSITES UNIVERSITES Assistance Coaching Partenariats Financement Centres Techniques Centres Techniques Projets R&D Projets R&D Services Diffusion Technologiques Entreprises Entreprises 27 Centres R&D publics et privés CNRST, MASCIR, INRA, INRH, CNESTEN, CRTS, REMINEX, CERPHOS….
  • 28. Relevant issues to innovation Why we need to innovate?  How can we promote it?  What linkages are there between research and innovation? Is it the same story across sectors( software, Auto, Agro- food, etc.)?
  • 29. Catching up in different sectoral systems
  • 30. Catching up in different sectoral systems
  • 31. Catching up in different sectoral systems What can we learn from the story of catch-up in six different sectors in emerging Countries (Taiwan, Korea, brazil, India, China, and others)? 1.Pharmaceuticals (Science based), 2.Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important), 3. Autos (scale intensive), 4. Software (specialized supplier and service sectors), 5.Agro-food (traditional sectors).
  • 32. Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors a) Firms learning: firms are the key actors in catch-up , b) Pharmaceuticals (Science based), c) Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important), d) Autos (scale intensive), e) Software (specialized supplier and service sectors), f) (Agro-food) traditional sectors.
  • 33. Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  firms are the key actors in catch-up , Learning Firms Learning and Capabilities development of domestic firms is a necessary condition for catch up because they provide the catching up country Access to foreign with the ability of absorbing foreign knowledge Knowledge & technology and adapting and modifying them to generate new knowledge and Skilled Human Capital products. Active Government Policy
  • 34. Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  the channels to which this access took place Firms Learning have differed (sector & country). from vertical networks with suppliers and users, to local networks, collaborative R&D or production Access to foreign agreements, to participation to the global value Knowledge chain or just outsourcing;  When access to foreign knowledge did not Skilled Human Capital take place, as in telecommunications in India and Brazil, the catch-up process has been Active Government seriously unpaired Policy
  • 35. Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  Important inward mobility form advanced Firms Learning countries of highly skilled human capital (scientists, engineers, technopreneurs) Diasporap and foreigners (consultants) were Access to foreign critical to the catch-up) Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 36. Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  In our 6 sectors government policy has indeed Firms Learning stimulated and fostered the learning processes and the capability formation of domestic firms with different intensity and tools. Access to foreign Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 37. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  In automobile and telecom large firms have been major actors in the catch-up process Industry Structure  in software and agro-food small firms have driven sectoral growth  New entrepreneurial firms, SMEs or large size, Demand and vertical characterize the pharmaceutical and the links semiconductor firms  local networks important for the catch-up Gov Policies process in semiconductors (Taiwan) , formal and informal interaction, knowledge sharing  Advent of technological and market Other elements discontinuities may favour either totally newcomers or established domestic companies. (Software in India Vs Telecom & Pharmaceuticals where knowledge is cumulative and strongly science based)
  • 38. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Multinational companies played different roles : Industry Structure 1. software, pharmaceuticals and semiconductors: catching up countries had to specialize in some product range in the global value chain and nd Demand and vertical eventually move uo the learning ladder to more links advanced stages of production or research. Gov Policies 2. Telecom and Autos: the use of license from multinationals or from foreign firms, or joint ventures and alliances have been extensively used by domestic Other elements firms to learn and accumulate capabilities.
  • 39. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Demand has entered catch-up in two ways: Industry Structure 1. Exports: have been the drivers of catch-up, for both small firms and large firms. This is the Demand and vertical case of semiconductors, telecom, links pharmaceuticals, software and auto. 2. Domestic Market: has been a major driver of the learning process and the accumulation of Gov Policies capability by domestic firms in Large countries such as China, India and Brazil; Other elements
  • 40. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Government policy has differed in the use Industry Structure of tools and measures 1. Telecom ( Korea and China) - public policy used R&D support, R&D consortia and public Demand and vertical research organizations to help firms to move links into new generations of telecom technologies and products Gov Policies 2. In software governments have used different policies and tools, ranging from public procurement, to R&D support for SMEs, favourable companies tax rates and incentives Other elements to attract foreign direct investments
  • 41. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Standards, regulations and norms : for Industry Structure relax IP laws were important for the catch-up of Pharmaceutical industry in India and Brazil Demand and vertical  Finance: VC (Private equity) critical for the links development of Software industry Gov Policies Other elements
  • 42. Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  In some sectors such as Agriculture, health Universities & Public and Telecom Public research proved quite Research Laboratories relevant to domestic firms  In the other sectors the main role of universities was to provide advanced training for advanced human capital in the scientific, engineering and managerial fields. So they increase the absorptive capacity of the human capital for foreign cutting edge knowledge.
  • 44. Thanks for your attention ! ‫! شكرا لصغائكم‬ Feb 11th, 2013 CAAST Net Plus Kick-off meeting 44

Editor's Notes

  1. Suite au diagnostic des financements actuels : le constat est le suivant : Les financements actuels sont modestes et n’apporte pas un appui nécessaire , ciblé et adapté aux cycles des projets de l’innovation. Se rajoute à cela , un problème relatif à la gouvernance des fonds , ce qui entrave leur utilisation optimale et leur impact .
  2. D’où la nécessité de mettre place de nouveaux instruments de financement à même de combler les gaps existants et offrir des financements qui répondent aux besoins de l’ensemble de la chaine de valeur de l’innovation. Présentation des instruments : Un financement de projets RD technologiques associant les laboratoires et les entreprises, 50% du cout du projet plafonné à2Mdhs. Le Programme INTILAK , plafonné à 1mdhs destiné à soutenir les start up en phase de démarrage. La Prestation Technologique Réseau (PTR) qui a été rehaussée à 100 000 dhs au lieu de 60 000 dhs actuellement pour financer les diagnostics et prestations technologiques des PME ( sera lancé dés 2012) Le Programme TATWIR destiné à soutenir des projets de R&D portés par des entreprises ou des clusters en phase de développement. à hauteur de 50% du projet avec un plafond de 4 Mdhs. IMTIAZ (Existe déjà dans le cadre du PACTE) pour financer la croissance et l’investissement des entreprises. ( 20% du programme d’investissement avec un plafond de 5 Mdhs) - Un Fonds d’amorçage public privé de l’innovation (projet en cours)
  3. Dans un souci d’efficacité et pour une meilleure gouvernance , la gestion des nouveaux instruments de financement de l’innovation sera assurée par le CMI : guichet unique pour les porteurs de projets innovants (start up et entreprises) Les entreprises auront un seul interlocuteur pour le dépôt de leur projets , dans le cadre d’appels à projets. Ils seront également accompagnés dans la préparation de leurs dossiers de financement . Le CMI aura un role aussi de suivi et d4évaluation des projets soutenus . - le comité d’évaluation et d’attibution aura pour mission d’approuver les projets à financer - l’ANPME et le CNRST auront un role de trésorier payeur vis-à-vis des projets soutenus.
  4. Le CMI s’appuiera, pour mener à bien son rôle, sur une équipe dédiée organisée en trois pôles métier : Présentation des pôles Présentation des missions
  5. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  6. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  7. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  8. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  9. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  10. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  11. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  12. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  13. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  14. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  15. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  16. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  17. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  18. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  19. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  20. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  21. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.