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Morocco RDI and entrepreneurial environment ilyas azzioui escwa amman 12 13 november 2012

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ESCWA Workshop on “Innovation and Commercialization for Economic Development” 12-13 November, 2012 in Amman-Jordan.
The presentation gives an overview on the R&D and innovation in environment in Morocco and presents the results of a study on how PhD students perceive entrepreneurship as a personal career alternative.

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Morocco RDI and entrepreneurial environment ilyas azzioui escwa amman 12 13 november 2012

  1. 1. Morocco RDI & Entrepreneurial Environment ESCWA Regional Workshop on “Innovation and Commercialization for Economic Development “Prepared by : Ilyas AZZIOUI Amman: 12-13 November 2012
  2. 2. Challenges RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas System
  3. 3. Challenges RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas System
  4. 4. Challenges RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas Viable Business System
  5. 5. Challenges RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas Viable BusinessResearchers with ideas System
  6. 6. RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas Viable BusinessResearchers Technopreneur with ideas System
  7. 7. The Approach RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideas Viable BusinessResearchers Entrepreneur with ideas System
  8. 8. Problématique RDI Syst Technology TransferPool of ideasResearchers with ideas System
  9. 9. Analyse duSystème RDI Policy & governance  Funding People RDI output
  10. 10. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation The Strategy and Vision 2025 developed in 2006 continues to serve as thereference for the implementation of policies and measures related to R&D.According to this vision the main societal challenges that should driveMoroccan research in the future are: 1. Education and training 2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity, health, etc.) 3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion 4. Other challenges: fight against the effects of drought, environmental degradation, slums and diseases.
  11. 11. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation Research priorities are :1.improving quality of life,2. knowledge, preservation and enhancement of natural resources,3. socioeconomic and cultural development,4.information science and technology,5.agriculture in difficult conditions,6.business competitiveness and innovation,7.risk management8.biotechnologies.
  12. 12. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015): Launched bythe Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies, it focuses on exportoriented economic sectors where Morocco could obtain a sustainableadvantage and a high potential for growth :1.off-shoring (client relationship management, banking and insurance,management of payments, help desks and infrastructure management),2. textiles and clothing,3.automobile and aeronautics,4.electronics,5.agro-food, exploitation of marine resources;6.Industrial crafts.7.More recently added sectors include nanotechnology, biotechnology andmicroelectronics.
  13. 13. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation The National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015): Sectors Managers Engineers Technicians Operators Total Off shoring 000 1 3000 10500 55000 70000 Automotive 1500 7000 9000 32500 70000 Aeronautics 300 1900 3000 9800 15000 Electronics 200 1400 2700 4700 9000 textiles and 300 2000 7500 24000 32000 leather Agro-food 500 500 8500 14500 24000 Total 3800 15800 39400 141000 220000
  14. 14. Analyse du Système RDI Policy, governance  and organisation Two main policies were driving the RDI System lately  The Emergency programme (2009-2012) : led By the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, the main focus was education but Project n°14 called “Promotion of Scientific Research” was expected to absorb 72 million Euros (720 million DH) of a total budget of 4.7 billion Euros (47 billion DH)  Morocco innovation initiative (2009-2014): led by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies
  15. 15. Analyse du Système RDI Morocco Innovation Initiative• Governance and framework:1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee;2.The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre);3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovation•Infrastructure:1.Technological infrastructures;2.Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities insome universities);3.Clusters.• Funding & Support:Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation;Stimulation of the venture capital system;Development of the intellectual property market;Mobilisation of international funds for innovation.• Attracting Talents:Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club;Promotion of the innovation culture;Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer.
  16. 16. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative• Governance and framework:legal framework: A draft law (bill) was elaborated but has yet to go through theadoption process. The provisions of this bill focus on the following points: •Providing incentives to young innovative enterprise (JEI); •Providing a legal framework for spin-outs; •Incentive scheme to encourage the recruitment of researchers (or PhD students) Governance: the creation of the Moroccan Centre of Innovation (CMI) and the definition of its missions. The CMI plays a key role in managing new funding schemes such as Intilak (up to 100,000 Euros) to support innovative start-ups and Tatwir (up to 400,000 Euros) to support applied R&D project within the private sector.
  17. 17. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative• Infrastructure:1.Innovation cities (Cités de l’Innovation): Four universities were selected atthis stage to host “innovations cities”. These structures will play a key role inincubation and technology transfer activities.2.Clusters: Four clusters were legally formed in the fields of IT ((MarocNumeric Cluster), microelectronics (Morocco Microelectronics Cluster),Electronics and Mécatronics (Cluster Electrique, Mécanique et Mécatroniquedu Maroc) and Sea products valorisation (Cluster Oceanopole Tan Tan). Fundsto support the launching and functioning of these clusters were also devisedand the managers of the clusters were recruited• Funding & Support:1.call for proposals of Intilak (up to € 100,000) to support start-ups andTatwir(up to € 400,000) to support applied R&D project within the private sectorwere launched by the Ministry of Industry.2.Maroc Numeric fund: Early stage VC for IT sector.•
  18. 18. Analyse du Système RDI Achievements Morocco Innovation Initiative • Attracting Talents:several concrete actions to promote innovation and entrepreneurship culture were identified and even implemented such as :1. the “Innovation Trophy”, a prize to award innovative enterprises,2. the launching of the Moroccan Club of Innovation Portal and3. the implementation of a new entrepreneurship training module in partnership with four higher education institutes..
  19. 19. Analyse du Système RDI FundingGERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 %Share of private sector R&D (2010) : 30%Share of public sector R&D (2010): 68%HEIs are the main players in research, they counted more than 80% of R&Dpersonnel (headcounts) and absorbed more than 45% of GERD in 2010.New funding schemes for Innovation (Intilak & Tatwir).
  20. 20. Analyse du Système RDI PeopleResearchers represented a share of 1.83/103 (FTE) of the economically activepopulation in the 25-64 age group in 2008.The public and private research system in Morocco counted 37,246 R&Dpersonnel in 2010 including 12,166 of academics in colleges and universitiesand 17,686 PhD students.Because of the meagre career prospects for researchers in Morocco, themajority of PhD students drop out from the research system when they find Publicadministration jobs. In 2009, 15,097 PhD Students were registered but only 676PhD diplomas were delivered.Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full timeresearchers ) over this decade to face the research quality requirements (deemedinsufficient currently), the increasing number of students and retirementdepartures.
  21. 21. Analyse duSystème RDI People
  22. 22. Analyse du Système RDI RDI outputPatents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office received 1022applications in 2011 against 1007 applications in 2010. 167 were filed by nationalsand the rest by foreigners. In 2011, Moroccan universities applied for 37 patentsand research institutions for 8 patents,Publications: Moroccan scientific production numbered 2377 publications in 2010(Scopus)
  23. 23. Problématique Technology TransferResearchers with ideas System
  24. 24. Context & background In this study we are interested in How Moroccan PhD Students perceive entrepreneurship by starting an innovative Start-up/Spin-off as a personal career alternative . 190 PhD Students answered properly and returned the Questionnaire among 1000 Targeted. Respondants: 56% Women 44% Man
  25. 25. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions IntentExogenous factorsExogenous factors Perceived Perceived-Gender, entrepreneurial or Gender, entrepreneurial or desirability desirabilityworking experience,working experience, Social Normsentrepreneurial parents,entrepreneurial parents, Entrepreneurialtraining intraining in intententrepreneurship,entrepreneurship,Nurturing environment etc.Nurturing environment etc. Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour. (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
  26. 26. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Is it attractive ?Exogenous factorsExogenous factors Perceived Perceived-Gender, entrepreneurial or Gender, entrepreneurial or desirability desirabilityworking experience,working experience, Social Normsentrepreneurial parents,entrepreneurial parents, Entrepreneurialtraining intraining in intententrepreneurship,entrepreneurship,Nurturing environment etc.Nurturing environment etc. Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility Is it feasible ? Becoming an entrepreneur is intentional, planned behaviour. (Shapero – Sokol 1982, Krueger et al 2000)
  27. 27. Key findings External factorsIndependent VariablesIndependent Variables 41% pretend to have scientific skills or research results that eitherhave an economical potential or are patentable60% have never participated in any kind of training inentrepreneurship or management 33% have at least one of their parents self-employed 65% have at least one of their siblings/close friends self-employed 33% have a kind of work experience in enterprise 10% have an entrepreneurial experience
  28. 28. Key findingsIndependent VariablesIndependent Variables  Only These Independents Variables have Statistically Significant effect on entrepreneurial intention: 1- Gender: Man are more entrepreneurial than Women ⇒ gives a clear indication to put a continuous effort on encouraging female entrepreneurship 2- Starting Business Experience has positive effect on entrepreneurial intention 3- Work Experience In an enterprise has positive effect on entrepreneurial intention
  29. 29. Key findings The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirabilityExogenous factorsExogenous factors Social Norms-Person related-Person related Entrepreneurialfactors intent- Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  30. 30. PerceptionsPerceived desirabilityPerceived desirability 81% find attractive the idea of starting a university spin-off Cumulative Desirability Percent Percent Not attractive at all 2% 2% Not attractive 3% 5% Rather not attractive 4% 9% No the opinion 10% 19% Rather attractive 22% 40% attractive 36% 76% Very attractive 24% 100%
  31. 31. Key findings Incentives to start a business1. To improve skills & widen career perspectives2. To improve the image of research & its social impact3. Money4. Autonomy, challenges, New environment
  32. 32. Key findings Incentives to start a business1. To improve skills & widen career perspectives2. To improve the image of research & its social impact3. Money4. Autonomy, challenges, New environment Deterrents to start a business 1. Bankruptcy (financial risk) 2. To live a very risky and dubious situation 3. Not to have spare time for leisure activities, family, friends 4. Stress and anxiety about the success of the project 5. To lose contact with academia
  33. 33. Key findingsPhD students who are moreinterested in entrepreneurshipare:-more motivated by positiveconsequences of entrepreneurship- less deterred by negativeconsequences of entrepreneurship
  34. 34. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirabilityExogenous factorsExogenous factors Social Norms-Person related-Person related Entrepreneurialfactors intent- Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  35. 35. PerceptionsPerceived feasibilityPerceived feasibility 71% believe that they are able to start a university spin-off? Cumulative Self efficacy Percent Percent Completely unable 3% 3% Unable 3% 5% Rather unable 9% 14% Neither able nor unable 15% 29% Rather able 33% 62% Able 29% 91% Completely able 9% 100%
  36. 36. PhD students who are moreinterested in entrepreneurshiptrust more their skills andcompetences to carry out varioustasks necessary to starting auniversity spin-off.
  37. 37. The framework for the study External factors Perceptions Intent Perceived Perceived desirability desirabilityExogenous factorsExogenous factors Social Norms-Person related-Person related Entrepreneurialfactors intent- Situational factors Perceived Perceived feasibility feasibility
  38. 38. Key findingsEntrepreneurial IntentEntrepreneurial1. 88% would seriously consider becoming an entrepreneur If they find commercial application for their research results/skills2. 61% think it’s probable that they will start their own business in the next 5 years?3. 63% would prefer entrepreneurship If they had to choose between setting up their own business or being an employee (on salary)4. 75% have interested in either to create or take part in the creation of a university spin-off.
  39. 39. Key findingsProfile of intentionalsProfile of intentionals • 72% of the intentionals are ready to abandon a job in public administration to start their business • 50% want to participate in both capital and work, 39% only in work • 24% want to be the major founder, 51% one of the major founders, 14% scientific counselor •5% want to occupy managerial position, 40% Scientific or technical position, 51% Occupy both managerial and technical position
  40. 40. Key findingsMajor Perceived Obstacles The major perceived barriers that impede the translation of the entrepreneurial intentions into start-up actions are: 1. Access to funding (89 citations) , 2. lack of skills and information (72) , 3. Administrative bureaucracy (45), 4. The gap between research and the market (33), 5. Lack of support (infrastructure, expertise, counselling …) , 6. Risks (bankruptcy, failure), 7. Lack of ideas and opportunities, competition in the market 8. Social environment.
  41. 41. Key findings Comparison of intentionals with Comparison of intentionals with incubatees incubateesExcept for the management ofIntellectual property issuesIncubatees trust morethemselves in carrying out therequired tasks
  42. 42. To Sum Up A strong interest of Moroccan PhD students in the creation of innovative companies based on performance or skills of research. (81%: attractive); ( 71%: feel able); ( 75%: interested in starting a spin-off). The major perceived barriers that prevent the transformation of entrepreneurial into innovative business are in order of importance: 1. access to finance, 2. lack of skills and access to information and training, 3. bureaucracy and red tape, 4. the nature and level of research in Morocco, 5. the risks (including financial risk and the risk of failure), 6. inadequate system of support for entrepreneurship, environment and social norms
  43. 43. To Sum Up Overall, PhD students who are interested in entrepreneurship: • tend to link entrepreneurship with positive consequences, • they are less hampered by the negative consequences of starting a business, • perceive more encouragement from their social environment and are more sensitive to the views of some social groups that compose it, • they also feel more able to create a university spin-off and perform the required tasks. Comparison between the perceptions of PhD students who are interested in entrepreneurship and the more realistic views of incubatees has shown the existence of a number of significant differences on several levels. Indeed, Incubatees: • feel more motivated by the perspectives of profit, autonomy, • less hampered by the negative consequences of entrepreneurship, • less responsive to the views of their social circle and • consider themselves more capable to perform different tasks critical to business creation
  44. 44. Key findingsImportance from incubatees point of view Importance from incubatees point of view 1. Risks assessment 2. Identify relevant information about markets, potential clients et competitors 3. Negotiation and selling skills 4. Attract shareholders, private equity investors. 5. Find prospective industrial partners, client, suppliers etc. 6. Ensure the administrative and legal steps to start the business 7. Planning the creation process 8. manage and design the strategy of the start-up, team building and human resources management 9. Handle IP issues
  45. 45. Technology TransferResearchers with ideas System
  46. 46. Background s ersitie n Univ r occa eof Mo 2008  l r ol no mica Turning point: o -eco RMIE: missions & a soci 2005 structure? ds Towar  Effective start of MISN 2002 2000 1999 Authorities + France (FSP) : National pgm of  technology transfer (IMIST, RDT, RGI et MISN) Charte COSEF LAW 01-00 Rapprochment University- Role of the university in entreprise :priority the dvlpt of the country
  47. 47. MISN Funders et pilots : - Ministry of Higher Education - Ministère of Commerce et Industry - CNRST (Coordination of the network) - SCAC (France) Training & Expertise : PFinancing- Association R&D Maroc- FBPCE (Popular Bank Foundation) MISN - Seed Capital Sindibad - OMPIC(IPR) 6 Incubators
  48. 48. MISN International Vision to technology Financial support to the projects transfer & Incubation Policy hosted in incubators (members of   MISN)Development of innovative start-ups Raise awareness about innovation& spin-off creation in Morocco & entrepreneurship  MISN Missions  Training of human resources involved   Professionalization of incubators in the emergence of spin-offs Promoting Best Practices
  49. 49. Some numbers 2005-2008 Global amount 6 500 000 dh grants for projects 10 Structures members   72 months 6 Active Incubators allowances living expenses  Incubatees 70 Submitted Projects Training to Incubatees  30Supported Projects Trainings   Incubators Assistants   12 projects finished 18 Projects incubation abandoned-failed
  50. 50. Marketing of incubators Moroccan Cases Casablanca Technopark Al Akhawayn University Marrakech University Incubator Incubator Incubator (IN MA)- Company: 35% Public Private University (Non profit Public University65% Private (for profit organization)organization) Location : Ifrane mountainous Location : Marrakech 1stLocation : Casablanca city in the middle Atlas at 60 touristic city.economical capital Km from Fez & Meknes Target Sector: ResearchTarget Sector: ITC Target Sector: ITC, based Spin-offs all fields. Biotechnology, E-business
  51. 51. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth EnterprisesResults Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  52. 52. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth EnterprisesResults Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  53. 53. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value/wealthResults Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -professor, Business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  54. 54. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Value/wealth EnterprisesResults Creation University culture Protection/Patent Access to resources Risks: - « publish or perish » - IP management -intangibles - Foster - Share of royalties -tangibles -Delocalization Entrepreneurship + material -Promotion System Development + finances - Change of -Technological Trajectory prospecting (prototype) Relations between -Commercial (business University… - Commercial Evaluation plan) -…Spin-off dependence -technological -…professor, Business -commercial Funding creator -managerial Development grants Seed Capital Source : Prinay (2000)
  55. 55. Presentation of RMIE Financers & pilots : - Ministry of Higher Education - Ministry of Commerce & Industry - CNRST (Prime Contractor) - French Embassy Training & Expertise : Post-creation- Association R&D Maroc Financing - FBPCE RMIE - OMPIC - Seed Capital Sindibad 6 Incubators (active)
  56. 56. Presentation of RMIE International Vision to technology Financial support to the projects transfer Policy (RETIS, MENAinc) hosted in incubators (members of   RMIE) 25 000 US $Development of innovative enterprises Raising awareness ofcreation in Morocco (assistance + expertise) entrepreneurship  RMIE Missions  Training of human resources involved   Professionnalization of incubators in the emergence of spin-offs Promoting Best Practices (training)
  57. 57. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Value/wealth Ideas Projects EnterprisesResults Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Authorities Source : Prinay (2000)
  58. 58. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises Value/wealthResults Creation Universities Challenges - Clarification of relations between researcher- creator-Spin-off & university - Development of the entrepreneurial culture - Alleviation of the administrative burden – - Enhancing the quality of economic evaluation - Improvement of the IP management
  59. 59. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises ValueResults Creation Financial sectors Universities Levers of improvement - Diversification of financial tools (One seed Capital, No business angels, venture capitalists) - Easing access to credit (Doing business World bank- ranked Morocco 143rd place regarding access to credit). Source : Prinay (2000)
  60. 60. ‫التمويل!!!!!‬ ‫توليد‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫إنشاء‬ ‫نمو‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.2‬ ‫3‬ ‫.4‬‫نتائج الحبحاث‬ ‫أفكار‬ ‫مشاريع‬ ‫مقاولت‬ ‫قيمة مضافة‬‫شباب, حباحثون‬ ‫ا‪Grants‬‬ ‫القروض الرأسمال المخاطر/المغامر‬ ‫لمنح‬ ‫‪Private equity‬‬ ‫‪Loans‬‬ ‫تسبيق مقرون بالسداد‬ ‫في حالة النجاح‬ ‫‪Reimbursable loans‬‬ ‫‪in case of success‬‬ ‫)0002( ‪Source : Prinay‬‬
  61. 61. ‫التمويل!!!!!‬ ‫توليد‬ ‫تطوير‬ ‫إنشاء‬ ‫نمو‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.2‬ ‫3‬ ‫.4‬ ‫نتائج الحبحاث‬ ‫أفكار‬ ‫مشاريع‬ ‫مقاولت‬ ‫قيمة مضافة‬ ‫شباب, حباحثون‬‫السلطات العمومية‬ ‫ملئكة الستثمار‬‫‪Public Money‬‬ ‫‪Business Angels‬‬ ‫المستثمرين المغامرين‬ ‫البنوك‬ ‫الصناديق المختلطة‬ ‫‪banks‬‬ ‫‪VC‬‬ ‫‪Mixed funds‬‬ ‫القطاعين العام و الخاص‬
  62. 62. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises ValueResults Creation Technological business Incubators Challenges - Reinforcing autonomy towards universities ( Inadequate management) - Recruiting experienced professionals in business support  Provide adequate business assistance - Incubation and business creation definition?
  63. 63. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises ValueResults Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Put In place national & Regional Clusters Source : Prinay (2000)
  64. 64. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises ValueResults Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Encourage Research on entrepreneurship. Courses/trainnig on Business creation Source : Prinay (2000)
  65. 65. Incubation Context Generate Development Start Consolidate 1. 2. 3. 4.Research Ideas Projects Enterprises ValueResults Creation Financial Sector Universities Technology Business Incubators Clusters Clusters Entrepreneurship centers Authorities Innovation Law Source : Prinay (2000)
  66. 66. Incubation Context “Valley of Death” Inc ub The Darwinian Sea ato rs BasicResearch Lack of Skills Lack of $Invention •Research & •Innovation: new Innovation •Invention Viable •business & Business New Business
  67. 67. ‫ولكن أحل م الرجال تضيق‬ ‫لعمرك ما ضاقت حبل د حبأهلها‬‫شكرا على حسن الغصغاء‬ ً ‫مع تمنياتنا للجميع‬ ‫بالتوفيق‬ Contact azzioui@cnrst.ma Tél: +212 537 56 98 42 National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research www.cnrst.ma

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