The broken cycle between   research, university and society        in ESCWA countries:        proposals for changeSari Han...
1. Introduction   Dynamic of research and innovation is not a    simple response to national policies and    national fro...
1. Introduction   Non-hegemonic countries with two    essential dimensions:       position of the country in the interna...
Diversity   Types of research systems   Categorization is always the result of    history       role of the state,    ...
Diversity - history   3 historical stages:       After IIWW: science as a national endeavor,        and as an expression...
2. Research systems1.   Insufficient data on research and     innovation in the Arab world.        No reliable and robust...
Characterize the research and    innovation systems   Principal component analysis for 16 data       Absolute indicators...
Figure 1: Diagram of Variables
4 types of research and innovation systems
Table 1: Distribution of Countries According to GDP/head & GERD (% GDP)                                                   ...
R=0.307   p=0,285 (>0.01 n.s.)
Relation of GDP (2010) with GERD to GDPR=-0.293 ; p= 0.290 (>0,01 : n.s.)
Expenditures in R&D: The public    factors   No correlation between expenditures in    R&D and the size of GDP or even th...
Expenditures in R&D : the foreignfactor   R&D –mainly public–funded more    often by international programmes    (agricul...
Foundations for research   Qatar Foundation   Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation    in the United Arab Emirates (...
Frameworks of collaborationsMIRA Survey (4 340 scientists having fulfilled the questionnaire; 48%working in Europe and 52%...
Expenditures in R&D: The private       factor   Low Private and productive sector in R&D    (but see Jordan = 30%; see gr...
Public and privateTable 1: Scientific Research Sources of Financing in Arab CountriesSources                         Expen...
Faults in expenditures in R&D   Very highly profitable    companies belonging to the    state DO NOT invest in research: ...
Policies: “up-grading” or    innovation?   Support to SMEs for R&D and    innovation: up-grading programmes   Rare suppo...
Innovation: general characteristics   Middle-sized companies (around 300    employees) with verified record of    technic...
initiatives in favour of R&D   Jordan: “A professor in every factory”    (promoted in 2003)   Lebanon: LIRA and ELCIM  ...
Innovation policies: the networkparadigm   Most policies assume the idea of    developing a network approach or    Resear...
Research Systems : structuralissues   Scientific research agencies attached to    higher education systems, rather than t...
Research Systems : governanceissues   Centralized systems of governance    (Maghreb, Saudi Arabia, Egypt)   Decentralize...
5. Scientific ProductionInformation problem is mainly a policy  issue : no governments wants to  tackle !   Bad use of sc...
Figure 1: Scientific documents published in the Arab World (2000-2010)                                           A small a...
A specific and marked specializationpattern   Mainly in physical/chemical sciences    and engineering (Egypt, Saudi    Ar...
Specialization pattern of ESCWA       region as a whole (2000-2010)Note
A marked specialization pattern in the Arabcountries
A marked specialization pattern in the Arabcountries
A marked specialization pattern in theArab countries
A marked specialization pattern in theArab countries
Engineering? So where are the      patents ?      Patents Granted to 13 MENA Countries by US Patent      Office (1977-2009...
Low Citations, low impact?       Scientific production & H-index (1996-       2010)                                       ...
Local Journals in Databases (countriesaround the Mediterranean Basin)        SCI+SSCI +                                   ...
Share                                                                   %         Int. %        Int.              (%)     ...
International cooperationScientific Co-publications in the Arab World (2000-2008)
Med countries
Publications & co-publications -Lebanon
Explaining the relatively low production inscience in the Arab countries        The role of the university promotion     ...
8. ScientificCapital:Universities andResearchersTheRose of Windsof ResearchResearch is amultiple facetsactivity
Recommendations: A vision of future    Making innovation a clearly stated     objective of public policy    Fixing the c...
Recommendations: Address research inuniversities and     Consolidating teams („labeling‟, policy,      collectives)     ...
Reconnect research and uses    Diversify funding1.   Few strategic funding programmes with     strong linkages with produ...
The broken cycle between research, university and society in ESCWA countries
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The broken cycle between research, university and society in ESCWA countries

546 views

Published on

Report presented to ESCWA by Sari Hanafi and Rigas Arvanitis. Presents statistics and an analysis of the research systems i nthe ARab countries.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
546
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The broken cycle between research, university and society in ESCWA countries

  1. 1. The broken cycle between research, university and society in ESCWA countries: proposals for changeSari Hanafi, Professor, AUBRigas Arvanitis, Seniorresearcher, IRD
  2. 2. 1. Introduction Dynamic of research and innovation is not a simple response to national policies and national frontiers. Various social actors: researchers, research teams, institutions, universities and high educational institutions, research communities, enterprises Public policies enacted by governments and inter-governmental programmes + influence Desire to become „knowledge societies‟ Need for increased research activity and innovation.
  3. 3. 1. Introduction Non-hegemonic countries with two essential dimensions:  position of the country in the international division of scientific work  do not have financial instruments capable of influencing the broader goals of knowledge production. Importance of collaboration and cooperation policies
  4. 4. Diversity Types of research systems Categorization is always the result of history  role of the state,  relation of the state to its scientists  use of knowledge in the state apparatus  development strategies  trust in science.
  5. 5. Diversity - history 3 historical stages:  After IIWW: science as a national endeavor, and as an expression of national sovereignty.  70s- 90s: creation of national plans for science and technology, and of drawing national priorities.  2000s: As globalization becomes an economic and political norm, the national orientation has been strategically under threat. Areas such as nanotechnology or biotechnology developed in emerging countries despite low investments in other areas.
  6. 6. 2. Research systems1. Insufficient data on research and innovation in the Arab world.  No reliable and robust indicators  -> Use of opinion surveys or polls; and the use of rankings  No willingness to promote indicators, „Observatories‟
  7. 7. Characterize the research and innovation systems Principal component analysis for 16 data  Absolute indicators (size): number of professors, students, researchers, volumes of production (in number of articles) and shares of World scientific production, Gross Expenditures in R&D (GERD)  Proportional indicators: that relate research to population of researchers or size of the country  Indicators of changes, such as the growth rates of scientific production;  Complex indicators : General Innovation Index, Assessment of R&D business investment (competitivity index survey)
  8. 8. Figure 1: Diagram of Variables
  9. 9. 4 types of research and innovation systems
  10. 10. Table 1: Distribution of Countries According to GDP/head & GERD (% GDP) Public expenditure Public on education expenditure as % of total on education government GERD (as a GDP per as % of GDP expenditure % of GDP)Country GDP 2010 capita (2010) (2008) (2008) (2007) (1)Tunisia 33.4 3165 6.4 16.5 1.20Morocco 59.9 1844 5.7 25.7 0.75Libya* 49.4 7 885 2.7 19.8 0.70*Qatar 54.2 33 932 2.4 8.24 0.33Sudan 22.8 524 0.4 4.1 0.30Jordan 15.3 2 534 4.9 20.6 0.30Egypt* 160.3 1976 3.8 11.9 0.23*UAE 158.4 21 087 0.9 27.2 0.20Lebanon** 28.5 6 747 2 8.1 0.20Oman 303.5 11 192 4.3 22.6 0.17Algeria 79.2 2232 4.3 20.3 0.16Syria 31.2 1 526 4.9 16.7 0.12Kuwait 61.4 25 100 6.6 14.8 0.09Saudi Arabia 258.7 9 425 5.7 19.3 0.05
  11. 11. R=0.307 p=0,285 (>0.01 n.s.)
  12. 12. Relation of GDP (2010) with GERD to GDPR=-0.293 ; p= 0.290 (>0,01 : n.s.)
  13. 13. Expenditures in R&D: The public factors No correlation between expenditures in R&D and the size of GDP or even the expenditures in Education Expenditures in R&D depend upon specific institutions, programmes and policies Universities play an important role because they concentrate most of the research activity Except Agriculture, few research- dedicated public research institutes
  14. 14. Expenditures in R&D : the foreignfactor R&D –mainly public–funded more often by international programmes (agriculture, environment, NIH in health, global foundations, NGOS, EU funding, ….) Few countries have the ability to influence funding that runs in international arenas
  15. 15. Foundations for research Qatar Foundation Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (2007) Middle East Science Fund in Jordan (2009) 2008 European Union-Egypt Innovation FundOnly Qatar set the bar high by calling for the allocation of 2.8 per cent of the general budget to support scientific research in mid of 2008.
  16. 16. Frameworks of collaborationsMIRA Survey (4 340 scientists having fulfilled the questionnaire; 48%working in Europe and 52% working in South and East Med countries)
  17. 17. Expenditures in R&D: The private factor Low Private and productive sector in R&D (but see Jordan = 30%; see growth in Morocco) 40% of foreign companies from outside the Middle East and North Africa, that invest in the region plan to increase their R&D investment BUT FDI has not had so much impact in terms of spillovers and production
  18. 18. Public and privateTable 1: Scientific Research Sources of Financing in Arab CountriesSources Expenses in million dollars Expenses in %State budgets 840.9 61.5%University budgets 217.3 27.8%Private sector 12.6 2.9%External funding 61.5 7.8%TOTAL 782.3 100%Source: UNESCO (2009: 541)
  19. 19. Faults in expenditures in R&D Very highly profitable companies belonging to the state DO NOT invest in research: ex. OCP in Morocco invests 1% of its sales into R&D…. Partnerships between the private and public sectors in promoting R&D have been rare and relatively inefficient.
  20. 20. Policies: “up-grading” or innovation? Support to SMEs for R&D and innovation: up-grading programmes Rare support to large investment projects in highly competitive areas No direct support to successful „champions‟ (but see Morocco) No banking alternatives to small innovation projects
  21. 21. Innovation: general characteristics Middle-sized companies (around 300 employees) with verified record of technical success and strong economic strengths are not aimed by policies FDI does not show a record of in-house R&D Innovation is more frequent than is usually assumed rather in medium- sized countries : technological learning
  22. 22. initiatives in favour of R&D Jordan: “A professor in every factory” (promoted in 2003) Lebanon: LIRA and ELCIM RDI programmes in Jordan, Egypt and Tunisia (EU funding) Technopoles: Berytech (Lebanon), El- Ghazala (Tunisia)Less successful programmes: Practically all University-productive sector transfer units have disappeared or delayed
  23. 23. Innovation policies: the networkparadigm Most policies assume the idea of developing a network approach or Research-to-industry Clustering of industry Techno-poles (Tunisia , Lebanon) – mix of incubators and technopole Funding: VC (Leb: Berytech Fund)
  24. 24. Research Systems : structuralissues Scientific research agencies attached to higher education systems, rather than to production and service sectors  But see the KAST (King Abdul-Aziz city of S&T) No Coordination Public research institutes focused on the basic sciences  Monitoring needed: diversification of PRI to include medical, agricultural sciences, applied industrial specializations, Humanities and social sciences, environmental sciences.
  25. 25. Research Systems : governanceissues Centralized systems of governance (Maghreb, Saudi Arabia, Egypt) Decentralized (Lebanon and Jordan) more or less controlled by the central authorities Small market-oriented systems (Qatar, UAE, Bahrein) No other stakeholders than the State !
  26. 26. 5. Scientific ProductionInformation problem is mainly a policy issue : no governments wants to tackle ! Bad use of scientific production stats. No serious bibliometric research. No excuse: SCOPUS, Web of science and E-Marifa are now accessible. Example of Abdul-Azziz Foundation (Casablanca)
  27. 27. Figure 1: Scientific documents published in the Arab World (2000-2010) A small and rapidly growing scientific production
  28. 28. A specific and marked specializationpattern Mainly in physical/chemical sciences and engineering (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria) Little emphasis in bio-medical sciences (except Lebanon & Tunisia) and relatively little to agric/environmental concerns Re-growth of environmental/agricultural sciences
  29. 29. Specialization pattern of ESCWA region as a whole (2000-2010)Note
  30. 30. A marked specialization pattern in the Arabcountries
  31. 31. A marked specialization pattern in the Arabcountries
  32. 32. A marked specialization pattern in theArab countries
  33. 33. A marked specialization pattern in theArab countries
  34. 34. Engineering? So where are the patents ? Patents Granted to 13 MENA Countries by US Patent Office (1977-2009) Number of Patents % of totalSaudi Arabia 324 40.75Kuwait 127 15.84Egypt 97 12.20UAE 77 9.68Lebanon 58 7.29Morocco 42 5.28Jordan 24 3.01Tunisia 18 2.26Oman 8 1.006Qatar 8 1.006Algeria 5 0.628Bahrain 5 0.628Yemen 3 0.377Total 795 100%Note: Stats for 01/01/1977-31/12/2009Source: http://www.uspto.gov/wen/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_all.htm
  35. 35. Low Citations, low impact? Scientific production & H-index (1996- 2010) National Citations per HRank Country Citable documents Citations Rank H-index Citations Document index 40 Egypt 63 415 367 134 78 841 6,79 115 48 50 Saudi Arabia 35 161 200 216 28 678 6,42 106 55 52 Tunisia 25 780 116 113 27 106 6,37 75 75 55 Morocco 19 721 116 525 21 795 6,48 84 67 59 Algeria 17 288 71 453 14 240 6,01 68 84 61 Jordan 14 477 74 534 11 684 6,38 66 87 United Arab 66 12 372 68 035 8 154 7,02 72 76 Emirates 67 Kuwait 10 723 69 937 10 457 7,06 71 80 69 Lebanon 9 319 69 103 7 321 8,98 82 72 82 Oman 5 488 30 617 3 987 6,64 52 98 95 Qatar 3 286 13 450 1 326 5,07 39 127 97 Iraq 3 147 9 345 1 084 4,24 31 148 Syrian Arab 99 2 827 21 004 2 874 9,01 50 104 Republic 102 Sudan 2 693 17 692 2 602 8,5 45 114 108 Bahrain 2 304 9 257 1 051 4,72 33 141 Libyan Arab 111 1 944 5 996 385 4,5 29 154 Jamahiriya 113 Palestine 1 787 9 374 1 511 7,34 35 134 127 Yemen 1 093 5 894 691 6,96 32 147 168 Mauritania 250 1 893 96 8,17 22 167 191 Djibouti 79 464 19 6,21 11 200 206 Somalia 42 233 3 7,82 10 204
  36. 36. Local Journals in Databases (countriesaround the Mediterranean Basin) SCI+SSCI + A&HCI Scopus (WoS) Spain 356 163 France 770 251 Monaco 3 0 Malta 1 0 Italy 572 168 Slovenia 29 25 Croatia 104 62 Bosnia- Herzegovina 2 4 Montenegro 0 0 Albania 0 0 Greece 39 18 Turkey 143 73 Syria 0 0 Cyprus 2 0 Lebanon 4 0 Israel 70 25 Egypt 14 3 Libya 0 0 Tunisia 2 0 Algeria 1 0 Morocco 1 0 Total 2084 792
  37. 37. Share % Int. % Int. (%) Documents Collaboration Collaboration Share (%) World Country Documents 2000 2010 (2000) (2010) World (2000) (2010) Saudi Arabia 1835 5739 26.1 56.2 0.15 0.26 Egypt 2858 8459 28.1 40.2 0.24 0.4 Bahrain 89 266 15.73 42.48 0.01 0.01 Iraq 91 724 16 30 0.01 0.03 Jordan 627 2062 30.46 41.46 0.05 0.09 Lebanon 448 1259 38.4 54.6 0.04 0.06 Kuwait 568 1050 27.9 45.7 0.05 0.05 Oman 255 779 42.4 60.7 0.02 0.04 Palestine 40 281 50.0 50.9 0 0.01International Qatar 58 693 34.5 69.6 0 0.03Scientific Syria 139 402 52.5 62 0.01 0.02Collaborations UAE 425 2059 47.5 58.2 0.04 0.09 Yemen 41 198 68.3 70.2 0 0.01Publications & Sudan 99 466 55.6 59.2 0.01 0.02Co-authorship in Algeria 495 2862 51.5 52.5 0.04 0.13Arab Countries Libya 72 468 34.7 51.9 0.01 0.02(2000-2010) Morocco 1184 2277 51.4 47.6 0.1 0.1 Tunisia 755 4415 39.7 43.9 0.06 0.2 Mauritania 14 20 78.6 100 0 0
  38. 38. International cooperationScientific Co-publications in the Arab World (2000-2008)
  39. 39. Med countries
  40. 40. Publications & co-publications -Lebanon
  41. 41. Explaining the relatively low production inscience in the Arab countries  The role of the university promotion system  The research policy of high education institutions  The lack of good Arab science journals  Engage in a systematic analysis of impact of research programs
  42. 42. 8. ScientificCapital:Universities andResearchersTheRose of Windsof ResearchResearch is amultiple facetsactivity
  43. 43. Recommendations: A vision of future  Making innovation a clearly stated objective of public policy  Fixing the cycle between research, university and society --> Reconnect research and uses  Research systems: promote diversification
  44. 44. Recommendations: Address research inuniversities and  Consolidating teams („labeling‟, policy, collectives)  Interacting with others: international, regional and local networking  Refereed Academic journals  “Diaspora” options to be examined  Better living conditions
  45. 45. Reconnect research and uses Diversify funding1. Few strategic funding programmes with strong linkages with productive sector. “strategic” and applied research: water, desertification, renewable sources of energy, agro-food2. Some socio-economic objectives without economic interests (health, social programmes, education…).3. Basic sciences and engineering and stron collaborations : objective is neither socio-economic, nor innovation driven.

×