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European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
Promoting collaborative R&D Networks in Morocco
some elements for thought
Ilyas AZZIOUI
CNRST. Morocco
Date : 29 Octobre 2015
Eléments d’une Stratégie en Recherche et Développement
sur les Ressources Génétiques dans le contexte de Protocole de Nagoya
au Maroc
Atelier de concertation
Collaborative R&D
projects
Check this article “Managing collaborative research projects: A synthesis of
project management literature and directives for future research”.
Jan vom Brocke ,a, Sonia Lippe ,b,(2015)
International Journal of Project Management.
BUT?
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Why and how innovation is so
important to economic growth ?
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Why economic growth ?
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Why economic growth ?
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Why economic growth ?
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Introduction of an innovation that would multiply
the productivity by 2
Ot= At Kt
β
Lt
1-β
Ot= 2 Kt
β
Lt
1-β
Innovation &
Economic Growth
480
120
Productivity: 2X
Long Run GDP: 4X
480 = 4 x 120
Innovation &
Economic Growth
The Innovation Multiplier
Labor and capital more productive
Incentives to invest in more capital.
Additive or Multiplicative?
2+2 = 4 ; 22
=4
Innovation &
Economic Growth
Intensive Vs
Extensive
Harvest by Vibration
Introduction of an innovation that would
multiply the productivity by x3 will lead to
a multiplication of the output/GDP by x9
Innovation &
Economic Growth
480
1080
120
Output (GDP/PIB)
At3 = 1080
Output (GDP/PIB)
At2 = 480
Output (GDP/PIB)
At0 = 120
X 9
X 4
NIS History &
concepts
 National Innovation System (NIS) first coined by Chris Freeman (1987) it
was known by a handful of scholars (Lundvall, Nelson)
 A decade later there was a rapid dissemination of the concept among
innovation stakeholders and scholars from various fields of knowledge
particularly economic geographers when they study innovation and
competence building phenomena.
 this rapid dissemination was accompanied by an alteration and misuse
by policymakers and many academics of the concept as compared to the
original versions developed by the early scholars : Focus on science
based innovation with “innovation policies” predominantly aiming at the
promotion of R&D and R&D infrastructure in high-tech sectors.
 Empirical evidences show that a double emphasis is needed not only on R&D
and science infrastructure but also on institutions and organizations
supporting learning and competences building at national as well as regional
levels
History & precision
of concepts
 This neglect stems first from the dominance of standards economics
mindset (Neo-classical) in international organizations and among
policymakers + It’s not easy to measure
 Another factor that contributed to this narrow understanding of innovation is
the wide misuse of the Triple Helix Model (overemphasize the role of
universities in innovation) not as a tool to analyze a subsystem of innovation
but as an equal alternative to the NIS approach.
 This rapid dissemination was accompanied by an alteration and misuse by
policymakers and many academics of the concept as compared to the original
versions developed by the early scholars : Focus on science based innovation
with “innovation policies” predominantly aiming at the promotion of R&D and
R&D infrastructure in high-tech sectors.
History & precision
of concepts
 All the definitions of innovation highlight the aspect of “a successful
exploitation” of the innovative idea in the Market.
 Bringing an innovation to the Market - whether is it science based or not-
would require organizational learning, industrial networks, employees
contribution and competences building. These processes are referred to
as experienced-based learning or DUI learning: learning by Doing, Using
and Interacting
 Triple Helix Model approaches might be suitable for capturing processes
linking science and technology to innovation referred to as STI learning
they fail to take properly into account experience based learning (DUI
learning).
How to use NIS ?
Morocco
NIS ?
Knowledge at the
heart of Innovation
 “The most fundamental resource in the modern economy is knowledge and,
accordingly, the most important process is learning”. In a knowledge based
economy, capacity to learn is the most critical factor for economic
success of individuals, regions and countries.
 Knowledge comes in two forms: explicit (easily codified in letters, words,
videos,) and tacit/implicit (non-codified).
 Lundvall and Johnson (1994) introduced a distinction between four
categories of knowledge critical to innovation:
 Know what : refers to access to information (usually explicit );
 Know Why: refers to understanding laws and principals usually through
R&D and training;
 Know How: refers to the experience based knowledge (tacit) learnt
through doing, using and interacting;
 Know Who: to the social capital of the enterprise and the degree of its
integration in knowledge based networks.
National Innovation System or National
Learning System?
Challenges in
studying NIS
 US at the top of performance together with the small Nordic countries. But
their system is fundamentally different in terms of institutions and
characteristics(population size, size of the public sector, degree of inequality,
culture, industrial structure and mode of innovation). there is no reason to
assume that the mechanism linking R&D effort to innovation and
economic performance is the same in the two countries
 It is important to develop and use analytical techniques that make it
possible to study how different factors interact in a systemic context.
‘population’ is so small and heterogeneous.
 Clustering procedures in statistical analysis are more effective dividing the
population into different ‘sub-species’ or ‘families’ with common characteristics
(level of development, size, continental belonging etc.) and second in looking
for patterns of interdependency for each of the different families and finally
relating this to multidimensional indicators of economic performance.
Challenges in
studying NIS
 Understanding knowledge and learning. how different kinds of knowledge
are created and used in the process of innovation. Different sectors in the
economy and in society make use of different mixes of local and global
knowledge, tacit and explicit, etc.
 .
Types of learning
STI & DUI impact
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
What can we learn from the story of catch-up in six different sectors
in emerging Countries (Taiwan, Korea, brazil, India, China, and
others)?
1.Pharmaceuticals (Science based),
2.Autos (scale intensive),
3. Software (specialized supplier and service sectors),
4.Semiconductors and Telecom (design and engineering is important),
5. Agro-food (traditional sectors).
« Catching-up in different sectoral systems: evidence from six
industries »
Franco Malerba & Richard Nelson (2010)
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
 firms are the key actors in catch-up , Learning
and Capabilities development of domestic
firms is a necessary condition for catch up
because they provide the catching up country
with the ability of absorbing foreign knowledge
& technology and adapting and modifying
them to generate new knowledge and
products.
 Learning comes in 4 forms:
 Learning by Interacting ( building trust
among stakeholders)
 Learning by Searching
 Learning by Doing
 Learning by Using
Common features affecting
catch-up in 6 sectors
Firms Learning
Access to foreign
Knowledge
Skilled Human Capital
Active Government
Policy
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
Conclusion
Conclusion
 Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties,
deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace
these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These
societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook.
 Secular-rational values have the opposite preferences to the traditional
values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, traditional family
values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as
relatively acceptable. (Suicide is not necessarily more common.)
 Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is
linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust andlow levels of trust and
tolerancetolerance.
 Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection,
growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and
rising demands for participation in decision-making in economic and political
life.
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
 the channels to which this access took place
have differed (sector & country). from vertical
networks with suppliers and users, to local
networks, collaborative R&D or production
agreements, to participation to the global value
chain or just outsourcing;
 When access to foreign knowledge did not
take place, as in telecommunications in India
and Brazil, the catch-up process has been
seriously unpaired
Common features affecting
catch-up in 6 sectors
Firms Learning
Access to foreign
Knowledge
Skilled Human Capital
Active Government
Policy
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
 Important inward mobility form advanced
countries of highly skilled human capital
(scientists, engineers, technopreneurs)
Diasporap and foreigners (consultants) were
critical to the catch-up)
Common features affecting
catch-up in 6 sectors
Firms Learning
Access to foreign
Knowledge
Skilled Human Capital
Active Government
Policy
Catching up in
different sectoral
systems
 In our 6 sectors government policy has indeed
stimulated and fostered the learning processes
and the capability formation of domestic firms
with different intensity and tools.
Common features affecting
catch-up in 6 sectors
Firms Learning
Access to foreign
Knowledge
Skilled Human Capital
Active Government
Policy
Résolution des
Problèmes
Comment les individus et les équipes s’attaquent à des
problèmes complexes?
comment la diversité conduit à des innovations, et
comment la recombinaison des innovations peut
conduire à encore plus d'innovations?
L’importance de la diversité de perspectives dans la
recherche de solutions aux problèmes complexes?
 Une perspective est une représentation de l’ensemble
de toutes les solutions possibles.
Perspective
Perspective
Idea
Value F(s)
Solutions (S)- Des micro-organismes/diététique
- Un code
PAYASAGE RUGUEUX
(x,y)
(r,Θ)
Cartésien Polaire
Comment peut-on représenter un point
dans un plan?
 La pertinence de la perspective dépendra du problème à traiter
Perspective
Perspective
Perspective
Idea
Value F(s)
Optimum
localOptimum
local
Perspective
Bars de chocolat
Perspective
Calories
1
2
3
Perspective
Mastication
1 2
3
5
4
Pas très bonne comme perspective
Perspective
Perspective
Value F(T)
Taille (T)
Pelles
Perspective
Value F(T)
Taille (T)
Pelles
Mont Fuji
Perspective
Value F(T)
Mastication (min)Cereal bars
Mont Fuji
Perspective
Idea
Value F(s)
Solutions (S)
PAYASAGE RUGUEUX
Heuristique
 heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes »
Heuristique
 heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes »
Big Rocks First
Heuristique
 heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes »
Big Rocks First
Heuristique
 heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes »
Big Rocks First
Equipe & Diversité
Little Rocks First
number of chunks
Equipe & Diversité
number of chunks
Equipe & Diversité
B
A
C
Equipe & Diversité
B
D
A
F
E
Equipe & Diversité
Heuristique
Calories A B C
Mastication A B C D E
Equipe & Diversité
Pics A B C
Valeur 10 8 6
Mastication : Moyenne = 6
Calories : Moyenne = 8
Pics A B C D E
Valeur 10 8 6 4 2
Equipe & Diversité
Pics A B C
Valeur 10 8 6
Mastication : Moyenne = 6
Calories : Moyenne = 8
Pics A B C D E
Valeur 10 8 6 4 2
Intersection (A,B) : Moyenne = 9
Les 2 équipes ne peuvent se coincer qu’au niveau d’une solution
qui est un optimum local pour les membres des deux équipes.
Equipe & Diversité
Jeu de Coopération
 no-punishment condition (the N experiment) and a punishment condition (the
P experiment).
 Groups of four members played the following public goods game in both
conditions
 Each member received an endowment of 20 tokens
 Participants had to decide how many tokens to keep for themselves and how
many to contribute to a group project
 Each of the four group members earned 0.4 tokens for each token invested in
the project, regardless of whether he or she contributed any. keeping all one’s
own tokens was always in any participant's material self-interest
 if each group member retained all of his or her tokens, there were no earnings to
be shared. If everyone invest all tokens each member would earn 0.4 × 80 = 32
 punishment decision was implemented by assigning the punished member
between 0 and 10 deduction points
 Each deduction point assigned reduced the punished member’s earnings by
3 tokens and cost the punishing member 1 token..
Jeu de Coopération
Jeu de Coopération
Mean contributions to the public good over the 10 periods of the P
experiment.
Each line corresponds to the average contribution of a particular
participant pool. The numbers in parentheses indicate the mean
contribution (out of 20) in a particular participant pool.
Jeu de Coopération
Mean antisocial punishment and mean contribution (across all
periods) per participant pool.
Rho indicates Spearman rank order correlation between
participant pool averages.
Jeu de Coopération
Mean contributions to the public good over the 10 periods of the N experiment.
Each line corresponds to the average contribution of a particular participant
pool.
The numbers in parentheses indicate the mean contribution (out of 20) in a
particular participant pool.
May 8th, 2013 ESCWA Expert meeting 65
Thanks for your attention !
‫لصغائكم‬ ‫شكرا‬ !
Conclusion

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Promoting collaborative RD networks in morocco some elements for thought

  • 1. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013 Promoting collaborative R&D Networks in Morocco some elements for thought Ilyas AZZIOUI CNRST. Morocco Date : 29 Octobre 2015 Eléments d’une Stratégie en Recherche et Développement sur les Ressources Génétiques dans le contexte de Protocole de Nagoya au Maroc Atelier de concertation
  • 2. Collaborative R&D projects Check this article “Managing collaborative research projects: A synthesis of project management literature and directives for future research”. Jan vom Brocke ,a, Sonia Lippe ,b,(2015) International Journal of Project Management. BUT?
  • 3. Innovation & Economic Growth Why and how innovation is so important to economic growth ?
  • 11. Innovation & Economic Growth Introduction of an innovation that would multiply the productivity by 2 Ot= At Kt β Lt 1-β Ot= 2 Kt β Lt 1-β
  • 12. Innovation & Economic Growth 480 120 Productivity: 2X Long Run GDP: 4X 480 = 4 x 120
  • 13. Innovation & Economic Growth The Innovation Multiplier Labor and capital more productive Incentives to invest in more capital. Additive or Multiplicative? 2+2 = 4 ; 22 =4
  • 14. Innovation & Economic Growth Intensive Vs Extensive Harvest by Vibration Introduction of an innovation that would multiply the productivity by x3 will lead to a multiplication of the output/GDP by x9
  • 15. Innovation & Economic Growth 480 1080 120 Output (GDP/PIB) At3 = 1080 Output (GDP/PIB) At2 = 480 Output (GDP/PIB) At0 = 120 X 9 X 4
  • 16. NIS History & concepts  National Innovation System (NIS) first coined by Chris Freeman (1987) it was known by a handful of scholars (Lundvall, Nelson)  A decade later there was a rapid dissemination of the concept among innovation stakeholders and scholars from various fields of knowledge particularly economic geographers when they study innovation and competence building phenomena.  this rapid dissemination was accompanied by an alteration and misuse by policymakers and many academics of the concept as compared to the original versions developed by the early scholars : Focus on science based innovation with “innovation policies” predominantly aiming at the promotion of R&D and R&D infrastructure in high-tech sectors.  Empirical evidences show that a double emphasis is needed not only on R&D and science infrastructure but also on institutions and organizations supporting learning and competences building at national as well as regional levels
  • 17. History & precision of concepts  This neglect stems first from the dominance of standards economics mindset (Neo-classical) in international organizations and among policymakers + It’s not easy to measure  Another factor that contributed to this narrow understanding of innovation is the wide misuse of the Triple Helix Model (overemphasize the role of universities in innovation) not as a tool to analyze a subsystem of innovation but as an equal alternative to the NIS approach.  This rapid dissemination was accompanied by an alteration and misuse by policymakers and many academics of the concept as compared to the original versions developed by the early scholars : Focus on science based innovation with “innovation policies” predominantly aiming at the promotion of R&D and R&D infrastructure in high-tech sectors.
  • 18. History & precision of concepts  All the definitions of innovation highlight the aspect of “a successful exploitation” of the innovative idea in the Market.  Bringing an innovation to the Market - whether is it science based or not- would require organizational learning, industrial networks, employees contribution and competences building. These processes are referred to as experienced-based learning or DUI learning: learning by Doing, Using and Interacting  Triple Helix Model approaches might be suitable for capturing processes linking science and technology to innovation referred to as STI learning they fail to take properly into account experience based learning (DUI learning).
  • 19. How to use NIS ? Morocco NIS ?
  • 20. Knowledge at the heart of Innovation  “The most fundamental resource in the modern economy is knowledge and, accordingly, the most important process is learning”. In a knowledge based economy, capacity to learn is the most critical factor for economic success of individuals, regions and countries.  Knowledge comes in two forms: explicit (easily codified in letters, words, videos,) and tacit/implicit (non-codified).  Lundvall and Johnson (1994) introduced a distinction between four categories of knowledge critical to innovation:  Know what : refers to access to information (usually explicit );  Know Why: refers to understanding laws and principals usually through R&D and training;  Know How: refers to the experience based knowledge (tacit) learnt through doing, using and interacting;  Know Who: to the social capital of the enterprise and the degree of its integration in knowledge based networks. National Innovation System or National Learning System?
  • 21. Challenges in studying NIS  US at the top of performance together with the small Nordic countries. But their system is fundamentally different in terms of institutions and characteristics(population size, size of the public sector, degree of inequality, culture, industrial structure and mode of innovation). there is no reason to assume that the mechanism linking R&D effort to innovation and economic performance is the same in the two countries  It is important to develop and use analytical techniques that make it possible to study how different factors interact in a systemic context. ‘population’ is so small and heterogeneous.  Clustering procedures in statistical analysis are more effective dividing the population into different ‘sub-species’ or ‘families’ with common characteristics (level of development, size, continental belonging etc.) and second in looking for patterns of interdependency for each of the different families and finally relating this to multidimensional indicators of economic performance.
  • 22. Challenges in studying NIS  Understanding knowledge and learning. how different kinds of knowledge are created and used in the process of innovation. Different sectors in the economy and in society make use of different mixes of local and global knowledge, tacit and explicit, etc.  .
  • 24. STI & DUI impact
  • 25. Catching up in different sectoral systems What can we learn from the story of catch-up in six different sectors in emerging Countries (Taiwan, Korea, brazil, India, China, and others)? 1.Pharmaceuticals (Science based), 2.Autos (scale intensive), 3. Software (specialized supplier and service sectors), 4.Semiconductors and Telecom (design and engineering is important), 5. Agro-food (traditional sectors). « Catching-up in different sectoral systems: evidence from six industries » Franco Malerba & Richard Nelson (2010)
  • 26. Catching up in different sectoral systems  firms are the key actors in catch-up , Learning and Capabilities development of domestic firms is a necessary condition for catch up because they provide the catching up country with the ability of absorbing foreign knowledge & technology and adapting and modifying them to generate new knowledge and products.  Learning comes in 4 forms:  Learning by Interacting ( building trust among stakeholders)  Learning by Searching  Learning by Doing  Learning by Using Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors Firms Learning Access to foreign Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 27. Catching up in different sectoral systems
  • 29. Conclusion  Traditional values emphasize the importance of religion, parent-child ties, deference to authority and traditional family values. People who embrace these values also reject divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide. These societies have high levels of national pride and a nationalistic outlook.  Secular-rational values have the opposite preferences to the traditional values. These societies place less emphasis on religion, traditional family values and authority. Divorce, abortion, euthanasia and suicide are seen as relatively acceptable. (Suicide is not necessarily more common.)  Survival values place emphasis on economic and physical security. It is linked with a relatively ethnocentric outlook and low levels of trust andlow levels of trust and tolerancetolerance.  Self-expression values give high priority to environmental protection, growing tolerance of foreigners, gays and lesbians and gender equality, and rising demands for participation in decision-making in economic and political life.
  • 30. Catching up in different sectoral systems  the channels to which this access took place have differed (sector & country). from vertical networks with suppliers and users, to local networks, collaborative R&D or production agreements, to participation to the global value chain or just outsourcing;  When access to foreign knowledge did not take place, as in telecommunications in India and Brazil, the catch-up process has been seriously unpaired Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors Firms Learning Access to foreign Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 31. Catching up in different sectoral systems  Important inward mobility form advanced countries of highly skilled human capital (scientists, engineers, technopreneurs) Diasporap and foreigners (consultants) were critical to the catch-up) Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors Firms Learning Access to foreign Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 32. Catching up in different sectoral systems  In our 6 sectors government policy has indeed stimulated and fostered the learning processes and the capability formation of domestic firms with different intensity and tools. Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors Firms Learning Access to foreign Knowledge Skilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • 33. Résolution des Problèmes Comment les individus et les équipes s’attaquent à des problèmes complexes? comment la diversité conduit à des innovations, et comment la recombinaison des innovations peut conduire à encore plus d'innovations?
  • 34. L’importance de la diversité de perspectives dans la recherche de solutions aux problèmes complexes?  Une perspective est une représentation de l’ensemble de toutes les solutions possibles. Perspective
  • 35. Perspective Idea Value F(s) Solutions (S)- Des micro-organismes/diététique - Un code PAYASAGE RUGUEUX
  • 36. (x,y) (r,Θ) Cartésien Polaire Comment peut-on représenter un point dans un plan?  La pertinence de la perspective dépendra du problème à traiter Perspective
  • 47. Heuristique  heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes »
  • 48. Heuristique  heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes » Big Rocks First
  • 49. Heuristique  heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes » Big Rocks First
  • 50. Heuristique  heuristique: « l'art d'inventer, de faire des découvertes » Big Rocks First
  • 52. number of chunks Equipe & Diversité
  • 53. number of chunks Equipe & Diversité
  • 56. Heuristique Calories A B C Mastication A B C D E
  • 57. Equipe & Diversité Pics A B C Valeur 10 8 6 Mastication : Moyenne = 6 Calories : Moyenne = 8 Pics A B C D E Valeur 10 8 6 4 2
  • 58. Equipe & Diversité Pics A B C Valeur 10 8 6 Mastication : Moyenne = 6 Calories : Moyenne = 8 Pics A B C D E Valeur 10 8 6 4 2 Intersection (A,B) : Moyenne = 9 Les 2 équipes ne peuvent se coincer qu’au niveau d’une solution qui est un optimum local pour les membres des deux équipes.
  • 60. Jeu de Coopération  no-punishment condition (the N experiment) and a punishment condition (the P experiment).  Groups of four members played the following public goods game in both conditions  Each member received an endowment of 20 tokens  Participants had to decide how many tokens to keep for themselves and how many to contribute to a group project  Each of the four group members earned 0.4 tokens for each token invested in the project, regardless of whether he or she contributed any. keeping all one’s own tokens was always in any participant's material self-interest  if each group member retained all of his or her tokens, there were no earnings to be shared. If everyone invest all tokens each member would earn 0.4 × 80 = 32  punishment decision was implemented by assigning the punished member between 0 and 10 deduction points  Each deduction point assigned reduced the punished member’s earnings by 3 tokens and cost the punishing member 1 token..
  • 62. Jeu de Coopération Mean contributions to the public good over the 10 periods of the P experiment. Each line corresponds to the average contribution of a particular participant pool. The numbers in parentheses indicate the mean contribution (out of 20) in a particular participant pool.
  • 63. Jeu de Coopération Mean antisocial punishment and mean contribution (across all periods) per participant pool. Rho indicates Spearman rank order correlation between participant pool averages.
  • 64. Jeu de Coopération Mean contributions to the public good over the 10 periods of the N experiment. Each line corresponds to the average contribution of a particular participant pool. The numbers in parentheses indicate the mean contribution (out of 20) in a particular participant pool.
  • 65. May 8th, 2013 ESCWA Expert meeting 65 Thanks for your attention ! ‫لصغائكم‬ ‫شكرا‬ !

Editor's Notes

  1. Hi this playlist of presentations we are going to discuss Why and how innovation is so important to economic growth ? We will do it following three steps: 1- Why should we be interested in economic growth in the first place? Is it the only thing that matters ? 2- we are going to show how economies grow and why without innovation, growth stops? For that purpose we are going to build a quite interesting basic economic model of a primitive economy that produces only one product 3- in the third and last section of this presentation we will move from this basic model to a more sophisticated one called a solo growth model. Solo model integrates innovation as a factor of growth and we will show how innovation could have a multiplier effect on economic growth and subsequently on our well-being.
  2. Hi this playlist of presentations we are going to discuss Why and how innovation is so important to economic growth ? We will do it following three steps: 1- Why should we be interested in economic growth in the first place? Is it the only thing that matters ? 2- we are going to show how economies grow and why without innovation, growth stops? For that purpose we are going to build a quite interesting basic economic model of a primitive economy that produces only one product 3- in the third and last section of this presentation we will move from this basic model to a more sophisticated one called a solo growth model. Solo model integrates innovation as a factor of growth and we will show how innovation could have a multiplier effect on economic growth and subsequently on our well-being.
  3. So first thing first why economic growth? Usually When we are talking about economic growth we are talking about GDP Growth. Gross Domestic Product. So this is just the total market value of all the goods and services produced within an economy, okay? It focuses on material wealth and one legitimate question would be shouldn’t we be more interested in whether people are happy satisfied with their life or not? I personally Being happy is more important than having a lot of stuff. So does more GDP growth make us happier? You can imagine that is quite difficukt question to answer.
  4. So first thing first why economic growth? Usually When we are talking about economic growth we are talking about GDP Growth. Gross Domestic Product. So this is just the total market value of all the goods and services produced within an economy, okay? It focuses on material wealth and one legitimate question would be shouldn’t we be more interested in whether people are happy satisfied with their life or not? I personally Being happy is more important than having a lot of stuff. So does more GDP growth make us happier? You can imagine that is quite difficukt question to answer.
  5. So first thing first why economic growth? Usually When we are talking about economic growth we are talking about GDP Growth. Gross Domestic Product. So this is just the total market value of all the goods and services produced within an economy, okay? It focuses on material wealth and one legitimate question would be shouldn’t we be more interested in whether people are happy satisfied with their life or not? I personally Being happy is more important than having a lot of stuff. So does more GDP growth make us happier? You can imagine that is quite difficukt question to answer.
  6. There is a world survey on life satisfaction that is launched on regular basis across many countries. Here’s a graph that shows the connection between GDP per capita and life satisfaction in these countries. Of course the surveyers are aware of the difficulty of measuring life satisfaction so they had to survey a lot of people to frame the questions correctly etc. What can be infered from this graphic does money makes us happier?
  7. What we can notice in this graph with the names of the countries removed is that we could divide it into two zones
  8. In the first zone between 0 & 20000 $ the answer is a decisive yes money makes us happier.
  9. In the second zone as we move beyond $ 20,000 we don’t get much happier by possessing more material wealth. Actually what matters most for life satisfation (among others) in this zone is income equality. Actually, according some OECD Surveys in developped Countries they have shown consistently that countries with the highest income inequality score the lowest in terms of life satisfaction. So what is the conclusion? For poor developing countries getting people from $0 to $15000 will make a huge difference in their life satisfaction the reason might be related to satisfaying basic needs of poor people such as healthcare, food shelter education and those sorts of things. Making rich people richer may not make them any happier. So lefting people out of poverty clearly makes them happier and that could be a rational for at least why developing and emerging economies need more GDP/economic growth. We have finished this first introductory presentation. in the following presentation we are going to show how economies grow and why without innovation, growth stops?
  10. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  11. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  12. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  13. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  14. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  15. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  16. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  17. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  18. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  19. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  20. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  21. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  22. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  23. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  24. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  25. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  26. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  27. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  28. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  29. Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.