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N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and                    Applications (IJERA...
N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and                       Applications (IJ...
N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and                    Applications (IJERA...
N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and                   Applications (IJERA)...
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  1. 1. N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.1718-1721 A Low Cost Nodes Distribution on Hexagonal method for Wireless Sensor Networks N. Pushpalatha* , Dr. B. Anuradha** 1 Department of ECE, AITS, Tirupathi, India 2 Department of ECE, S.V. University College of Engineering, Tirupathi, IndiaABSTRACT Mechanical Systems and other modern technology,In some atmospheric environment, randomly wireless sensor networks are becoming an activedeployed sensor nodes could not satisfy the research area. Wireless sensor network is composed ofrequirements of wireless sensor networks. massive collaborative sensor nodes, and each node hasTherefore, it is necessary to use mobile sensor the abilities of sensing, computing andnodes in specially shaped area conditions. After communicating. It has synthesized sensor techniques,moving nodes are deployed randomly, they could embedded computations, distributed informationbe relocated according to the real-time situation of processing and wireless communication technique,network coverage area. This paper proposes A Low which can cooperate to complete real-time monitoring,Cost Nodes Distribution on Hexagonal method for sensing and gathering of object information, and thenwireless sensor networks (WSNs) using MDS transmit it to the user after information processing. Atalgorithm. It is to determine the Distribution of present, wireless sensor network has a very broadsensor nodes on the geographic area and application in military defense [6], industrial controlcomputational cost of the system is presented. In [7], urban management [8], biomedicine [9],this paper, to measure the accuracy of nodes environmental monitoring [10], disaster and dangerousdistribution, a hexagonal method is used to deploy regional remote control, etc. Network coverage is thesensor nodes to the appropriate positions of fundamental issue of wireless sensor network, and itwireless sensor network. Nowadays Wireless has played a vital role in the coverage performancenetworking is used to meet a variety of needs. and life span of wireless sensor network. CoverageSmart environments represent the next problem can be divided into two classes, static sensorevolutionary development step in buildings, network coverage and mobile sensor networkutilities, industrial, scientific, medical, home, coverage. This paper mainly discusses mobile sensorshipboard, military, transportation systems network coverage.automation and mobile applications. Like anyorganism, the smart environment relies first and The work presented in the paper is A Lowforemost the sensory data from the real world. It is Cost Nodes Distribution on Hexagonal method forused for 3D open and closed surfaces. The wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Some challenges ofhexagonal method simulation results indicate that position estimation problem in real applications areit has hundred percent coverage area with low dealt in this paper. The conditions that most existingcomputational cost for more than 100 nodes and sensor positioning methods fail to perform well are therange error is low. anisotropic topology of the sensor networks and complex terrain where the sensor networks areKey Words - Wireless Sensor Networks, Nodes deployed. Moreover, cumulative measurement error isDistribution, Hexagonal method, Network Coverage a constant problem of some existing sensor positioningArea methods [1-2]. This proposed method able to distribute the sensor nodes on hexagonal method and1. Introduction also estimate the computational cost. With the development of sensor technique, The focus of the paper is A Low Cost Nodesnetwork, wireless communications, Micro-Electro- Distribution on Hexagonal method for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The paper is organized as follows. 1718 | P a g e
  2. 2. N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.1718-1721Section 2 presents the previous work of localization 10problem in wireless sensor networks. Proposedmethod has been discussed in section 3. In section 4 8Simulation Results of the paper has been discussed. Insection 5 Conclusion and Future work, where the 6future challenges and directions to improvelocalization in WSN technology are described. 42. Previous Work 2 The multidimensional scaling technique, 0which was a technique that had been successfully used 0 2 4 6 8 10to capture the inter correlation of high dimensionaldata at low dimension in social science, was used [4].A Square method was used to estimate all sensors’ Fig.2. Randomly distributed sensors in arelative locations by applying MDS to compute the Square method.relative positions of sensors with high error tolerance[3]. In order to collect some of pair wise distances 3. Proposed Methodamong sensors, we select a number of source sensors, In this section, we present A Low Cost Nodesand they initialize the whole network to estimate some Distribution on Hexagonal method for wireless sensorof the pair wise distances [2]. These estimated networks (WSNs).The choice of integrating MDS isdistances are then transmitted to a computer or sensor based on our extensive studies on existing localizationfor square computation of some sensor system design algorithms. In this paper it is proposed 100 uniformlyor fly-over base-station. In this method, the number of distributed nodes and there are no measurement errors.nodes is more when compared to triangle positioning The Simulation results with 100 anchors randomlymethod algorithm and the coverage area was also more distributed across the networks are shown in Figure shown in Fig. 1 and Fig.2. A hexagonal method is used to deploy all the sensors within the coverage network area. In the square method some of the sensor nodes are not placed in the coverage area and there exists a ranging error. In the 10 proposed method the sensors are deployed without any ranging error and coverage area is very high. 8 38 85 65 81 22 78 6 1 50 84 42 89 3 6 25 56 752 7311 29 18 46 92 4 40 70 8 36 0.5 14 71 54 86 98 9932 5 37 21 59 16 63 79 26 No.of nodes 35 75 88 15 2 48 0 64 27 51 6169 72 87 82 12 58 10 44 74 67 23 24 0 1 55 19 83 62 66 77 68 -0.5 94 49 3439 0 2 4 6 8 10 80 97 90 60 28 4720 4 9 57 31 91 30 245 -1 76 41 95 43 93 96 33 100 17 53 13 Fig.1 Randomly distributed sensors -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 No.of nodes 0.5 1 1.5 in a triangular Method Fig.3 Randomly deployed sensors on a hexagonal method 1719 | P a g e
  3. 3. N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.1718-17214. Simulation Results 5. Conclusions and Future Work It is shown that the proposed algorithm works In this paper A Low Cost Nodes Distributionwell for near uniform radio propagation. However, in on Hexagonal method for wireless sensor networksthe real world, radio propagation indoors and in (WSNs) is present. Simulation results also show thatcluttered circumstances is far from uniform. Local our proposal is low cost to adverse effect of anchorposition estimation may also be very high. In the mat placement. The proposed algorithm can belab simulation the proposed algorithm is a random implemented in a distributed fashion efficiently whennetwork of >100 nodes are created for a hexagonal the number of anchors is chosen appropriately. Fromarea and a low cost hexagonal method is used to find simulations, we find that choosing anchors is moreout the computational cost as shown in table 1.In this than 100 in the network. However, most networks inmethod the computational cost is increases when we real-world applications are not isotropic. Forare increasing the number of nodes in the entire area of anisotropic networks a circle shaped MDS algorithmthe hexagon and the coverage area of the network is can give better results than hexagonal method. The100% up to 300 nodes are randomly deployed in the main advantage of the hexagonal method is used inentire area of the hexagon. The proposed method Cellular and Mobile Networks as shown in Fig.4. Inshows that when number of sides is increases in the this algorithm the Computational cost is very lowentire area of the network the coverage area is comparative to the previous method. In this methodincreases and range error reduces. the coverage area is more and computational cost is low and it can reduce the power consumption. It is used in 3D open and closed surfaces. The futureTable.1 Analysis of Hexagonal Method enhancement is increasing radio range for wireless sensor networks. The main limitation is when we are increasing the number of nodes above 300, then it can decrease the coverage area and range error is decreased. To overcome that better to increase number sides in the perimeter of the entire coverage area like octagon. 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Fig.4 Hexagonal Cell site used in mobile networks 1720 | P a g e
  4. 4. N. Pushpalatha, Dr. B. Anuradha / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.1718-17216. References 9 R. Arumugan, V. Subramanian, A. Minai.1 N.Pushpalatha and Dr.B.Anuradha, “A Two- SCRIBE: self organized contention and routing Dimensional IR Algorithm for Position in intelligent broadcast environments [C], Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Military Communications Conference, 2003: International Journal of Computer Science and 1567-1572. Technology, ISSN : 0976-8491(Online) | ISSN : 2229-4333 (Print) IJCST Vol. 3,Issue 2, 10 Wu-chun Feng. Securing wireless Version 1, April - June 2012.Pp:35-39. communication in heterogeneous environments [C], MILCOM, 2002, 2: 1101-1106.2 N.Pushpalatha and Dr.B.Anuradha, “Shortest path position estimation between source and destination nodes in wireless sensor networks N.Pushpalatha completed her B.Tech with low cost”, International Journal of at JNTU, Hyderabad in 2004 and Emerging Technology and Advanced M.Tech at A.I.T.S., Rajampet in 2007. Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue Presently she is working as Assistant 4, April 2012). Pp:6-12 Professor of ECE, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences3 N. Pushpalatha and Dr.B.Anuradha, Tirupati since 2006. She has guided many B.Tech projects. Her Research “Distribution of Nodes on Square Method for area includes Data Communications Wireless Sensor Networks”, in International and Ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Journal of Computer Science and Networks. Telecommunications [Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2012]. Dr.B.Anuradha is working as4 N.Pushpalatha and Dr.B.Anuradha, “ Study of Associate Professor in the Various Methods of Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Department of ECE, at Sri Networks using Multidimensional Scaling for Venkateswara University College of Position Estimation” Global Journal Engineering and AppliedSciences-ISSN2249- Engineering since 1992. She has 2631(online): 2249-2623(Print) GJEAS guided many B.Tech and M.Tech Vol.1(3) , 2011.Pp:76-81 projects. At present Five Scholars are working for PhD. She has published a5 Eiko Yoneki and Jean Bacon, “A survey of good number of papers in journals and Wireless Sensor Network technologies: conferences. research trends and middleware’s role” University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Cambridge CB3 0FD, United Kingdom6 D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, et al. Next century challenges: scalable coordination in sensor networks [C], Mobile Communications, 1999: 263-2707 PG. J. Pottie, W. J. Kaiser. Wireless integrated network sensors [J], Communications of the ACM, 2000, 43(5): 51-58.8 T. Arici, Y. Altunbasak. Adaptive sensing for environment monitoring using wireless sensor networks [C], Wireless Communications and NetworkingConference,2004,4:2347-2352. 1721 | P a g e