Ethics IX-C
ETHICS <ul><li>The word  ethics  is derived from the Greek word  ethos  meaning “character” </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with w...
Ethics <ul><li>Moral standards by which people judge behavior with respect to the  rightness and wrongness  of certain act...
 
Ethical Factors <ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Carefulness </...
Ethical Factors <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Social responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Non-discrimination </li>...
Ethical Codes <ul><li>One of the earliest law codes developed, the  Code of Hammurabi , made  Bribery  a crime in Babylon ...
Ethics & Law <ul><li>Ethical issues and existing laws may be  at conflict at times. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive answers can...
Evolution Personal Value <ul><li>Never take any action that is not  honest, open and truthful  and that you would not like...
Evolution Religious Injunctions <ul><li>Never take any action that is not  kind , and that does not  build a sense of comm...
Evolution Utilitarian Benefits <ul><li>Never take any action that does not result in  greater good than harm  for the soci...
Evolution Universal Rules <ul><li>Never take any action that you would not be  willing to see others , faced with the same...
Evolution Distributive Justice <ul><li>Never take any action in which the  least among us will be harmed  in any way. </li...
Evolution Contributive Liberty <ul><li>Never take any action that will  interfere with the rights of others for self-devel...
Ethical Issues <ul><li>Corporate Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Governance . </li></ul><ul><li>Politica...
Issues <ul><li>Insider trading ,  securities fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Executive compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery,  ki...
Issues <ul><li>Discrimination  issues such as  gender, race, religion, disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Issues surrounding t...
Issues <ul><li>Issues affecting the privacy of the employer:  whistle-blowing </li></ul><ul><li>Issues relating to the fai...
Issues <ul><li>Ethical relations between the company and the environment:  pollution ,  environmental ethics </li></ul><ul...
Issues <ul><li>Product testing ethics:  use of economically  disadvantaged groups as test objects . </li></ul><ul><li>Pate...
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S9 c impl_ethics

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S9 c impl_ethics

  1. 1. Ethics IX-C
  2. 2. ETHICS <ul><li>The word ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos meaning “character” </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with what is good for the individual and for society and establishes the nature of obligations, or duties , that people owe themselves and one another. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ethics <ul><li>Moral standards by which people judge behavior with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions . </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics are often summed up in what is considered the “golden rule”— do unto others as you would have them do unto you . </li></ul>
  4. 5. Ethical Factors <ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Carefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for others </li></ul>
  5. 6. Ethical Factors <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Social responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Non-discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Legality </li></ul><ul><li>Protection (of human subjects) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Ethical Codes <ul><li>One of the earliest law codes developed, the Code of Hammurabi , made Bribery a crime in Babylon during the 18 th century B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the law does influence the conduct of some professions, many ethical issues cannot be settled by the courts . The ethics of a particular act is many times determined independently of the legality of the conduct. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Ethics & Law <ul><li>Ethical issues and existing laws may be at conflict at times. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive answers cannot always be given for many ethical issues because there are no enforceable standards or reliable theories for resolving ethical conflicts such as creating a dam that will dislocate ethnic population . </li></ul>
  8. 9. Evolution Personal Value <ul><li>Never take any action that is not honest, open and truthful and that you would not like to see reported in the media. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Evolution Religious Injunctions <ul><li>Never take any action that is not kind , and that does not build a sense of community , a sense of all of us working together for a commonly good acceptable goal . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Evolution Utilitarian Benefits <ul><li>Never take any action that does not result in greater good than harm for the society of which you are a part. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Evolution Universal Rules <ul><li>Never take any action that you would not be willing to see others , faced with the same or closely similar situation, also be free and even encouraged to take . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Evolution Distributive Justice <ul><li>Never take any action in which the least among us will be harmed in any way. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Evolution Contributive Liberty <ul><li>Never take any action that will interfere with the rights of others for self-development and self-improvement. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Corporate Social Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Governance . </li></ul><ul><li>Political contributions . </li></ul><ul><li>Misleading financial analysis. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Issues <ul><li>Insider trading , securities fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Executive compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery, kickbacks </li></ul>
  16. 17. Issues <ul><li>Discrimination issues such as gender, race, religion, disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Issues surrounding the democratization of the workplace: union </li></ul><ul><li>Issues affecting the privacy of the employee: workplace surveillance , drug testing </li></ul>
  17. 18. Issues <ul><li>Issues affecting the privacy of the employer: whistle-blowing </li></ul><ul><li>Issues relating to the fairness of the employment contract and the balance of power between employer and employee: employment law . </li></ul>
  18. 19. Issues <ul><li>Ethical relations between the company and the environment: pollution , environmental ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical problems arising out of new technologies: genetically modified food </li></ul>
  19. 20. Issues <ul><li>Product testing ethics: use of economically disadvantaged groups as test objects . </li></ul><ul><li>Patent infringement, copyright infringement ,. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical issues arising out of international business transactions; e.g. bioprospecting and biopiracy in the pharmaceutical industry </li></ul>

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