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General ethics an introduction final 2003


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This is a class lecture note in ppt which is prepared with the help of other renowned writers of the world.

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General ethics an introduction final 2003

  1. 1. General Ethics An Introduction By Md. Shamsul Arefin, A member of Bangladesh civil service (Admn), 1984 Batch . (This lecture note is prepared for the ACAD, BPATC) Dated:30 October 2011 BPATC, DHAKA
  2. 2. Professional Ethics Ethics for Civil Service Professionals Md. Shamsul Arefin Joint Secretary Government of Bangladesh
  3. 3. What Is Ethics? <ul><li>Knowing the difference between right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding to do the right thing under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Assume people are trying to do their best </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical issues are not clear-cut </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ethics <ul><li>The code of moral principles and values that govern the behaviors of a person or group with respect to what is right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Lies between the domains of codified law </li></ul><ul><li>and free choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on shared principles and values. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is the Basis for Ethical Standards? <ul><li>Natural and inherent? </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude of culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on religious beliefs? </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from logical reasoning? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on concepts? On consequences? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Is it absolutely dependent variables? <ul><li>&quot;Ethics has to do with what my feelings tell me is right or wrong.“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethics has to do with my religious beliefs.“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Being ethical is doing what the law requires.“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethics consist of the standards of behavior our society accepts.“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I don't know what the word means.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. Is it feelings? <ul><li>Many people tend to link ethics with their feelings. But being ethical is clearly not a matter of one's feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>A person following his or her feelings may retreat from doing what is right. In fact, feelings frequently deviate from what is ethical. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Is it Religion? <ul><li>Should one identify ethics with religion. Most religions, of course, advocate high ethical standards. Yet if ethics were confined to religion, then ethics would apply only to religious people. </li></ul><ul><li>But ethics applies as much to the behavior of the nonbeliever as to that of the saint. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion can set high ethical standards and can provide intense motivations for ethical behavior. Ethics, however, cannot be confined to religion nor is it the same as religion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Is it Law? <ul><li>Being ethical is also not the same as following the law. The law often incorporates ethical standards to which most citizens subscribe. </li></ul><ul><li>But laws, like feelings, can deviate from what is ethical. USA pre-Civil War slavery laws and the apartheid laws of present-day South Africa are obvious examples of laws that deviate from what is ethical. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Is it acceptance of society? <ul><li>Finally, being ethical is not the same as doing &quot;whatever society accepts.&quot; In any society, most people accept standards that are, in fact, ethical. </li></ul><ul><li>But standards of behavior in society can deviate from what is ethical. An entire society can become ethically wrong. Nazi Germany is a good example of that society. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li> Ethical Values </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is not religion. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. Most religions do advocate high ethical standards . </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). &quot;When in Rome, do as the Romans do&quot; is not a satisfactory ethical standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Professional Ethics <ul><li>Official functions </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Junior officers </li></ul><ul><li>Obeying Senior officers </li></ul><ul><li>Managing people </li></ul>
  13. 13. An Ethical Crisis <ul><li>Misuse of funds </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Winning at all costs </li></ul><ul><li>Making ourselves an exception </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Five Principles <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Societal attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Lawful action </li></ul>
  15. 15. Principles of Moral <ul><li>Just </li></ul><ul><li>Truthful </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Moral courage </li></ul><ul><li>Moral autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Benevolence </li></ul>
  16. 16. Can We Improve? <ul><li>Is it possible to learn values and morals? </li></ul><ul><li>What values if they already know what is right and wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to learn how to recognize the trap of an ethical dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>Role models </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul>
  17. 17. Three Domains of Human Action Domain of Codified Law (Legal Standard) Domain of Ethics (Social Standard) Domain of Free Choice (Personal Standard) Amount of Explicit Control High Low
  18. 18. Ethical Dilemma <ul><li>A situation that arises when all alternative choices or behaviors have been deemed undesirable because of potentially negative ethical consequences, making it difficult to distinguish right from wrong. </li></ul>
  19. 19. General Ethical Imperatives <ul><li>Contribute to society and human well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid harm to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest and trustworthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Be fair and take action not to discriminate. </li></ul><ul><li>Honor your people </li></ul><ul><li>Give proper credit for intellectual person </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the privacy of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Honor confidentiality. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Professional Responsibilities <ul><li>Strive to achieve the highest quality, effectiveness and dignity in professional work. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire and maintain professional competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Know and respect existing laws pertaining to professional work. </li></ul><ul><li>Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Leadership Imperatives <ul><li>Articulate official responsibilities of </li></ul><ul><li>members of an office and encourage full </li></ul><ul><li>acceptance of those responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage personnel and resources that </li></ul><ul><li>enhance the quality of working life. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and support others </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities for members of the </li></ul><ul><li>organization to learn honesty. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Moral-Rights Approach <ul><li>Human beings have fundamental rights that cannot be taken away by an individual's decision. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Free consent </li></ul><ul><li>2. Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conscience </li></ul><ul><li>4. Free speech </li></ul>
  23. 23. Case Study #1 <ul><li>A teacher’s request for personal leave was denied based on the district’s policy of no personal days before or after Winter/Spring Break. The teacher called in ill. </li></ul><ul><li>An investigation by the principal revealed that the teacher took a planned trip during the time he requested sick leave. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Case Study #2 <ul><li>A High School teacher was distressed with student misbehavior. She submitted a letter of resignation to the Board secretary mid-semester but failed to notify the principal. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher did not report to work again. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Laws, Morals, Ethics: What’s the Difference? <ul><li>Laws: A set of rules for personal or professional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Morals: A set of standards for personal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics: A set of standards for professional behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Morals and ethics are voluntary in some sense, </li></ul><ul><li>Like laws, they are open to many interpretations </li></ul>
  26. 26. “ Whenever you do a thing… ask yourself how you would act were all the world looking at you, and act accordingly.” --Thomas Jefferson
  27. 27. <ul><li>Sources of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution is the prime source of upholding the spirits of ethics. Civil servants are expected to maintain and strengthen the public's trust and confidence in government, by demonstrating the highest standards of professional competence, efficiency and effectiveness, upholding the Constitution and the Rule laws. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Laws and procedures which require civil servants to give reasons for their official decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Management approaches which encourage all public officials and civil servants to deal with ethical practice. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Religion: The universal basis for achieving uniformity in human behavior regarding rightness and wrongness should be some impersonal ethical code, which can be achieved from religion </li></ul><ul><li>e. Society can articulate an idea, logic about ethics. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sources of Ethics f. Family is the foundation for attaining some rationale behavior. g. Rules and Regulations can create compulsion of doing things right. h. National policy can enhance broader concept of hypothetical criteria for assessing the appropriateness. i. Role model in the Civil service can influence fellow civil servants to follow some of his/her attitude and conduct in running day to day official practice and life style.
  29. 29. Sources of Ethics j. Good practices and procedures based on legislation, and backed by management leadership and high-level political commitment are another source of maintaining high ethical standard. k. The civil service Conduct Rules & Discipline and Appeal Rules to stop errant behavior, and non-performance. l. The core education service values in the rules are considered to be neutrality, integrity, fairness and equity, and an ethos of serving for the teaching learning process.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Demonstration of Personal Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of the highest standards in all activities to inspire confidence and trust in Education service is now essential which can be achieved through following process: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain truthfulness and honesty and not to compromise them for advancement, honor, or personal gain. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Zealously guard against conflict of interest or its appearance: e.g., nepotism, improper use of rules, misuse of public resources or the acceptance of gifts. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Respect superiors, subordinates, colleagues and the public. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Take responsibility for their own errors. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Conduct official acts without partisanship. </li></ul><ul><li>g. Establish procedures that promote ethical behavior and hold individuals and organizations accountable for their conduct. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability is a concept in ethics and governance with a meaning of responsibility, answerability or liability of account-giving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the definition of accountability, some focusing on official processes, some dealing with official actions, some dealing with policy outcomes, but actually it holds officials to account to the citizen. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Challenges of Ethics Erosion of Values Now in many cases, people do not feel any hesitation to take paper, pen or ink from the office to home for personal use. But once taking pen or pencil or ink from office to home for personal use was considered a serious mental pressure. Mr Mohammad Ali Ex, Chief Minister of Pakistan after submitting resignation letter from his office, he took pen of Bangabhaban with him beyond his knowledge. But when he had seen the pen in his pocket, he came back and returned it to Bangabhaban. If this is happened now a days, people might say it is done just as a administrative standbazi.
  33. 35. Materialistic social expectations Now demand of a family has increased. In a family it needs many things to run life. Once employee did not expect any color TV, car and or anything like that costly items. This has increased cost of living which compels in many cases to do unfair means. d. Unwanted intervention: Unwanted intervention also creates some impediments for maintaining ethical judgment of a person. e. Undue pressure: This is also responsible for demoralizing of ethical judgments.
  34. 36. <ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of insecurity like undue transfer, excluding from the scope of promotion etc. are also responsible for not maintaining high morale standard in many cases. Insecurity also derives from sense of shelters like a plot or a flat. After departure from service where they will go, this is a pertinent question to all of them. If they are provided at least a plot or a flat after departure from their service anywhere in countryside. </li></ul><ul><li>This will help create a sense of security which will tighten their integrity at large. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Teaching of Hazrat Muhammed SA (Peace be upon him) An example is seen in the life of Prophet Muhammed sa (Peace be upon him) As the head of the Madina state, the Prophet once appointed Abdullah-bin –Laithai of Banu Jargan tribe as Amil (tax collector). At the time of depositing the collected zakat (compulsory tax on wealth from Muslims) before the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), Abdullah had divided that into two parts and said, “O Prophet (Peace be upon you)! One part of this is zakat money from people, and the other is the gift presented by people to me.” Hearing this, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “Would the people have given the gifts to you if you had not been given the responsibility of collecting zakat?” Saying this, the Prophet of Islam instructed Abdullah to deposit the gifted amount along with the collected revenue to Baitulmal (government treasury), and the following morning issued an official circular prohibiting officials to receive any gift from people. He added further: “If anybody is entrusted with official responsibility, he will be given salary sufficient to meet his needs. If he receives anything beyond this, that would be a breach of trust”(Al-Buraey,1985:245). Another related Hadith (Teachings of Prophet Muhammed sa, (Peace be upon him) is that: “ He who receives bribe, he who offers bribe and the mediator between the two, are all equally doers of punishable offence”.
  36. 38. <ul><li>Remedial Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Virtue </li></ul><ul><li>The use of power and performance of responsibility with utmost honesty and sincerity for nation’s interest is not only obligatory for organizational interest, but also a religious virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian great leader Mr. M.K. Gandhi said “On this earth there is enough for everyone’s need, not enough for their greed”. </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Way Ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency : We should be accountable for the decisions we make, even in applying discretionary power. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity: Public employment being a public trust, the improper use of a public service position for private advantage should be more clearly regarded as a serious breach of duty. </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy : The power and authority should be exercised legitimately, impartially and without fear or favor, for its proper public purpose as determined by the government. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Way Ahea d Fairness : We should make decisions and act in a fair and equitable manner, without bias or prejudice, taking into account only the merits of the matter respecting the rights of affected people. Responsiveness: We are required to serve the legitimate interests of citizens, in a timely manner with care, respect and courtesy and without any special favor to a particular cast, creed, race and religion. Efficiency and Effectiveness : We are required to obtain best value for public assets deployed in or through public management, and to avoid waste in expenditure and the use of public assets.
  39. 41. “ No responsibility of a Government is more fundamental than the responsibility for maintaining the highest standards of ethical behavior by those who conduct the public business. There can be no dissent from the principle that all officials must act with unwavering integrity, absolute impartiality, and complete devotion to the public interest. This principle must be followed not only in reality but in appearance. For the basis of effective government is public confidence, and that confidence is endangered when ethical standards weaken or appear to weaken”. President John F. Kennedy, April 27, 1961.
  40. 42. Concluding Remarks It goes without say that, we are required to observe a number of responsibilities of good citizenship, in relation to honesty , lawfulness, and the prevention of corruption. Discipline and management practices must be objective, fair, and reasonable. Perhaps most important of all, Our salaries must reflect the cost of an adequate standard of living, both to minimize individuals' temptation to corruption, and to maximize the ability to attract and retain talented officers in the profession who can make a contribution to the society. The promotions also may be ensured after a certain duration of time as per rules equitably without prejudice.
  41. 44. <ul><li>Now You may take note from excerption . </li></ul><ul><li>Please divide yourself into three groups. You are required to prepare a presentation paper to present before the class for 7 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe that your organization needs a holistic & comprehensive “Code of Ethics” for the members of your service to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>a. What does ethics mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>b. What would be the shape of the Code of Ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>c. Why do you think that it is necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>d. When do you expect that will come into force? </li></ul>
  42. 45. What is a Profession? <ul><li>An occupation that regulates the activities of its members by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requiring specialized training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requiring some sort of certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having professional organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having a code of ethics </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Ethics, Values <ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) “ Branch of philosophy concerned with the evaluation of human conduct. ” ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) The study of the nature of obligation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Values” -the conception of the good and particular obligations that guide the behavior of a person or group. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Basics of Professional Ethics <ul><li>Some core principles of professional ethics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Injurious (literally “non-harm”): Do not use your professional skills to do wrong. For example, do not use your public role for private benefit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy (literally “self-rule”): Respect the autonomy of those you serve. Let them make fundamental decisions that effect their own lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed Consent : Completely inform and gain consent of those you serve before taking actions that affect them. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Bayles’ List of “Professional Obligations <ul><li>Michael Bayles lists the following professional obligations in Professional Ethics . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He includes as well, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation of Obedience (within bounds of legality and ethics) </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. Codes of Ethics <ul><li>All professions have a code of ethics, which expresses their particular professional obligations as viewed by members of the profession. </li></ul>
  47. 50. Civil Service Code of Ethics <ul><ul><ul><li>1. We provide the highest level of service to all citizens’ through appropriate resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to humiliate people. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Civil Service Code of Ethics <ul><li>3. We protect each citizen's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>4. We recognize and respect person’s own initiatives. </li></ul>
  49. 52. Civil Service Code of Ethics <ul><li>5. We treat our colleagues with respect, fairness and good faith, and advocate conditions of employment that safeguard the rights and welfare of all employees of our institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>6. We do not attach personal interest at the expense of interest of our colleagues or our citizens. </li></ul>
  50. 53. Civil Service Code of Ethics <ul><ul><li>7. We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties and do not allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation of the aims of our institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. We strive for excellence in the profession by maintaining and enhancing our own knowledge and skills, by encouraging the professional development of officers, and by fostering the aspirations of potential members of the profession. </li></ul></ul>