Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Hoda El-Enbaby (IFPRI Egypt)• 2018 IFPRI Egypt: “Women Empowerment for Revitalizing Rural Areas in Egypt”

35 views

Published on

As part of the IFPRI Egypt Seminar in partnership with UN Women: “Women Empowerment for Revitalizing Rural Areas in Egypt”

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Hoda El-Enbaby (IFPRI Egypt)• 2018 IFPRI Egypt: “Women Empowerment for Revitalizing Rural Areas in Egypt”

  1. 1. The Impact of Takaful on Women’s Decision-Making Working Draft IFPRI Egypt 30 October, 2018 IFPRI Egypt Seminar Series
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Perceptions on Takaful • Findings on Decision-Making • Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Women’s empowerment & CCTs • Women’s empowerment is an important development goal. • Many conditional cash transfer programs have been targeted to women. • There is mixed evidence on the impact of giving cash to women on their decision making abilities. • Aim: Explore the impact of the Egypt’s new cash transfers program on women’s decision-making.
  5. 5. Egypt’s Takaful & Karama Program • In March 2015, Egypt launched its first national (conditional) cash transfer program “Takaful & Karama” (TKP). • Takaful: • Cash transfers to poor households with children • Transfers are given to women • Size of cash transfer scaled by the ages and number of children (up to 3) • Conditionalities of school attendance and health monitoring (not yet implemented) • Karama: • Poor elderly, people living with disabilities and orphans • IFPRI evaluated the program using both quantitative and qualitative methods.
  6. 6. Perceptions on Takaful
  7. 7. Qualitative Study • Six governorates: o61 interviews with men and women across 34 households o12 Focus group discussions (6 Male, 6 Female) oCommunity profiles Urban Rural Lower Egypt & Cairo 1 community 2 communities Upper Egypt 1 community 2 communities
  8. 8. Favorable perceptions • It is rare for either men or women to express unfavorable views about giving transfers to women. • Men are likely to say “it doesn’t make difference”. • Both men and women say that transfers decrease stress in household. • Hypothetical conflict (and second-hand stories) were mentioned. “Yes, the transfers can cause some problems because.. Some men can get annoyed because the money is coming to the woman, so he would think she’ll spend it on herself” 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Men Women Favorable Mixed Unfavorable No effect (doesn't matter)
  9. 9. Who decides on spending decisions • Women reported more control over the transfers, than general household spending. “Since we started, [my husband] told me it is not his business how I use it [He said} you live in the house and can see what your kids need and what the house needs” 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mother-in-law decides on both transfers and usual household spending Woman decides on transfers jointly with husband/in-law but does not decide usual household spending Woman decides on both transfers and usual household spending jointly with husband/in-law Woman only decides on transfers but not on usual household spending Woman decides on transfers and usual household spending # households
  10. 10. General empowerment • Takaful may be empowering women beyond the narrow definition of ability to influence decisions • Strengthening women’s role as mothers and managers of their households. • This type of impact would not easily emerge in quantitative work. “It’s good this way (that the transfers are going to women) … the State’s caring for me … In other words, it’s given me dignity”
  11. 11. Findings on Decision-Making
  12. 12. Quantitative Methodology • Surveyed a random sample of 6,541 households in 22 governorates o From all households registered for Takaful and Karama. • Results compare (similar) beneficiaries to non-beneficiaries. • Regression Discontinuity (RD) approach o To establish causal relationship (i.e. Takaful transfers cause the impacts that we describe).
  13. 13. Assessing women’s decision-making 9 CATEGORIES Wage Employment Major HH Expenditures Minor HH expenditures Using government subsidies/transfers What food should be cooked Getting medical treatment for self Buying new clothes for self Taking a child to the doctor Child’s school • Women’s decision-making index: • Construct an index using principal components analysis (PCA) • The index reflects the degree to which the woman can influence household decisions in 9 categories
  14. 14. Negative impact on decision-making • Negative impact on women’s decision-making. • The decrease is higher among women with less than primary education. Women’s decision-making index (1) (2) All women Women with less than primary education Takaful household -0.269** -0.665*** (0.135) (0.226) Observations 5629 1955 R2 0.110 0.093 First stage F-statistic 160.842 66.025 Mean Dependent Variable -0.056 -0.086 Standard errors in parentheses Estimates from Instrumental Variables Model * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01
  15. 15. Negative impact on decision-making • Negative impact on decision-making for several categories; with stronger and additional outcomes for low educated women. Less than primary education Major HH Expenditures Minor HH expenditures Using government subsidies/transfers Getting medical treatment for self Buying new clothes for self Taking a child to the doctor All women Wage Employment Taking a child to the doctor Child’s school
  16. 16. Possible pathways • Two other program impacts on women with less than primary education are strongly associated with the decrease in decision- making influence • Paid non-agricultural work for women decreased of 3.2 percentage points as a result of the Takaful transfer • Note: Overall rate of employment for women is quite low: 3.4%. • Men became more involved in decisions on: • Using government subsidies/ transfers • What food should be cooked • Buying new clothes for the woman
  17. 17. Possible consequences for consumption • Overall, transfers caused households to increase consumption, but there are differences in categories of consumption which may be related to decision-making dynamics Smoking Meat Less than primary education Increased by 14EGP per person No impact At least primary education No impact Increased by 13EGP per person
  18. 18. Conclusion
  19. 19. Takaful and women’s decision-making • Giving the transfers to women does not necessarily increase their decision-making power. • Takaful resulted in a negative impact on women’s decision-making power. • Female labor force participation • Head of household involvement in new decision-making domains • Women’s education level is key. • Empowerment in a broader sense needs further investigation.

×