International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 649...
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Factors afeecting the coagulation of turbid water with blend coagulant moringa oleifera & alum

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Factors afeecting the coagulation of turbid water with blend coagulant moringa oleifera & alum

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME181FFAACCTTOORRSS AAFFEEEECCTTIINNGG TTHHEE CCOOAAGGUULLAATTIIOONN OOFF TTUURRBBIIDD WWAATTEERRWWIITTHH BBLLEENNDD CCOOAAGGUULLAANNTT MMOORRIINNGGAA OOLLEEIIFFEERRAA && AALLUUMMDr. S. A. Halkude1, C. P. Pise21Professor and Principal, Department of Civil Engineering, Walchand Institute ofTechnology, Solapur, Maharashtra, India2Research Scholar and Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SKN SinhgadCollege of Engineering Pandharpur, Dist-Solapur, Maharashtra, IndiaABSTRACTThe scope of the present study is optimizing the parameters which affect coagulationof turbid water namely, slow mix velocity gradient, dose of blend coagulant Moringa Oleifera& Alum, basin parameters with different initial turbidity water samples. Initially theseparameters are varied randomly, while keeping all other parameters constant for carrying outoptimization. Optimum dose for removal turbidity using blend coagulant required for thedifferent initial turbid water samples (e.g, 150 NTU, 300 NTU and 500 NTU), is found out.While other parameters like jar configurations, velocity gradient, slow mixing time,settlement time are kept constant. Dose of coagulant which is found to be optimum during theinitial study is used in the all the testing. Results are analyzed by preparing the graphs ofDose versus Residual turbidity. Effect of various jar configurations such as Circular NonBaffled Jar (CNBJ), Circular Baffled Jar (CBJ), Square Non Baffled Jar (SNBJ) and SquareBaffled Jar (SBJ) is studied, while all other parameters are kept constant. The dose ofcoagulant is again optimized with respect to Jar Configurations by observing the effect ofdifferent Jar Configurations and results are analyzed. Also the study for different velocitygradients like 40 s-1, 65 s-1and 90 s-1is carried out, while other parameters are kept constantexcept SBJ and CBJ, which are found most influential. Results are analyzed & presented inthe graphs between residual turbidity versus velocity gradient.KEYWORDS: Blended coagulant, Moringa Oleifera, Optimization, coagulation, velocitygradient, Basin Parameter.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June 2013, pp. 181-190© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME182INTRODUCTIONAbility of Moringa oleifera in the removal of many contaminants from water effluentsis well known since long time. [1, 2]. As a tropical multipurpose tree, M. oleifera iscommonly known as the miracle tree [3] because of its wide variety of benefits that coverfrom nutritional issues [4] to cosmetics [5]. Among many other properties, Moringa oleiferaseeds contain a coagulant protein to be used either in drinking water clarification [6] orwastewater treatment [7]. It is said to be one of the most effective natural coagulants and theinvestigation on these kinds of water treatment agents is growing day by day [8]. The raworigin of this coagulant makes its speciation difficult; however researchers have identified thecoagulant component from M. oleifera seed extract as a cationic protein [9,10] is ingeneral agreement in considering it as formed of that dimeric proteins with a molecularweight in the range of 6.5–14 k Da. The use of Moringa Oleifera as a coagulant is full ofadvantages, when compared with traditional alum or ferric salts [11].The drawbacks of chemical coagulants is well known, there is a need to developalternative, cost effective and environmentally friendly coagulants. A number of effectivecoagulants from plant origin have been identified: Nirmali [12]; Okra [13]; red bean, sugarand red maize [14], Moringa oleifera [15], and a natural coagulant from animal origin;chitosan. Natural mineral coagulants have also been used including fluvial clays and earthfrom termite hills. Of all plant material investigated, it is observed that seeds of MoringaOleifera are one of the most effective sources of coagulant for water treatment.In laboratory and field tests, seed of Moringa Oleifera have shown promise as acoagulant in the clarification of turbid water [16, 17, and 18]. The seeds contain water solublepositively charged proteins that act as an effective coagulant however the crude moringaextract (though efficient in removal of turbidity) increased the organic load in the treatedwater [19].Moringa Oleifera as natural coagulant is reported to have many advantages overchemical coagulant e.g. Alum. Use of chemical coagulant has constrains of pH and alkalinity.However, Moringa Oleifera has been reported to be free of these constraints. Sludge productwith Moringa Oleifera is reported to be four to five times compact than that produced withalum. Turbidity removal can be achieved with Moringa Oleifera. The use of MoringaOleifera as a coagulant is mostly used in water treatment that too on small scale and majorwork has been reported in laboratory scale water treatment that too on small scale. TheMoringa oleifera is not used in field because of the some drawbacks of Moringa oleifera as itrequires large amounts of seeds for small water treatment plant. Also, the settling time ismore. If the blended coagulant of Moringa oleifera & alum is used then the drawbacks ofalum and moringa oleifera is reduced and this blend coagulant gives best results. [20, 21]The investigations carried out using the conventional jar test have been used toevaluate the coordination efficiency of Moringa Oleifera in the treatment of surface waters &synthetic waters.At present, in most of such studies the physical parameters like slow mixing velocitygradient & time, rapid mixing velocity gradient & time are determined according to standardjar test values for alum coagulation. The only parameter varied in most of the cases is dose ofblend of Moringa Oleifera & alum. Further more studies into the interaction between physicalparameters affecting coagulation like slow mix, rapid mix rates & time is not studied. In thisstudy laboratory investigation is carried out to determine the multiple effects of physicalparameters of slow mixing grades & dose of coagulant & basin parameters & initial
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME183particulate concentration (turbidity) on coagulation of turbid water with blend of MoringaOleifera & alum. The three parameters slow mix velocity gradient, doses of blend coagulantMoringa Oleifera & alum, and basin parameters. These three parameters are varied, whilekeeping other parameters constant & study is carried out for arriving at an optimum dose ofMoringa Oleifera & alum.MATERIALS AND METHODSPreparation of Seed Extracts:Tree dried Moringa Oleifera seeds are procured from local trees. Good quality seedsare then picked up and crushed to fine powder. Then 5 gm of seed powder is mixed with 500ml distilled water for 2 minutes. Then mixture is kept for 2 mins. Again mixture is stirred for1 min. Then, mixture is filtered through Muslin Cloth. Filtrate is diluted by distilled water tomake it up to 500 ml. Resulting stock solution is having approximate concentration of 10000mg/l (1%). Fresh stock solutions are prepared every day for the one day’s experimental run.Preparation of 1% Alum Solution:1 gm of the Alum is mixed with 100 ml of distilled water. This mixture is stirred for 5minutes so that all the Alum powder is soluble into the distilled water. This Alum solution isof 1 % concentration. When the Alum is added to the turbid sample the acidity is increased.For neutralizing the induced acidity by Alum, 1% Lime dose is added with it. Also this Limedoses helps in pH correction.Preparation of 1% Lime Solution:1 gm of the Lime is mixed with 100 ml of distilled water. This mixture is stirred for 5minutes so that all the Lime powder is soluble into the distilled water. This Lime solution isof 1 % concentration. For finding the doses of the Alum using the jar test the following dosesof Alum and Lime solution, should be added into the sample.Preparation of Moringa Oleifera & Alum Solution:Moringa Oleifera & Alum Solution are prepared separately and entered separately withAlum first and Moringa Oleifera a couple of seconds later. But, for preparation of blendcoagulant the optimum dosage found for different initial turbidity samples are taken as baseline and different proportions of alum and Moringa Oleifera are tested for removing theturbidity from jar test, then it is observed that for 150 NTU initial turbidity, the optimum doseof the Alum is reduced to 75 % and the optimum dose of the Moringa Oleifera is reduced to40 % then this blended coagulant gives the minimum residual turbidity. Similarly for 300NTU & 500 NTU initial turbidity, the optimum dose of the Alum is reduced to 62.5 % andthe optimum dose of the Moringa Oleifera is reduced to 25 % then this blended coagulantgives the minimum residual turbidity.Preparation of turbid water sample:5gm of kaolin clay is mixed to 500 ml distilled water. Mixed clay sample is allowedfor soaking for 24 hrs. Suspension is then stirred in the rapid stirrer so as to achieve uniformand homogeneous sample. Resulting suspension is found to be colloidal and used as stocksolution for preparation of turbid water samples. Everyday stock sample of kaolin clay isdiluted to tap water to desired turbidity.
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME184EXPERIMENTATION METHODMainly the scope of the work is to deal with the slow mixing parameters whichaffect the effective floc formation and settlement characteristics of the turbid water. Entirework comprises of three stages, viz. Optimum dose determination, effect of different jarparameter and effect of different velocity gradient of slow mixing, at the same time, rapidmixing procedure is kept constant throughout all the experimental runs. Entire work isdivided into three different stages. In each stage one variable is changed while others are keptconstant. In all the stages, rapid mixing is done at approximately 120 rpm for the timeinterval of 2 minutes so as to achieve uniform dispersion of coagulant.Optimum dose determination:The optimum dose required for the different initial turbidities like, 150 NTU, 300NTU and 500 NTU dealt while other parameters like jar configurations, velocity gradient,slow mixing time, settlement time are kept constant for all the initial turbidity ranges. Dose ofBlend coagulant which is found to be optimum is used in the all the testing. Results areanalyzed by preparing the graphs between Doses versus respective Residual turbidity.Effect of different jar parameter:The effect of different jar configuration like SBJ, SNBJ, CNBJ, and CBJ while otherparameters like, slow mixing time and velocity gradient, settling time are kept constant. Inthis Part dosage of coagulant is again optimized with respect to different Jar Configurationsand effect of different Jar Configurations is tested. In this Part results are analyzed byworking out the variations in the residual turbidity with respect to Jar Configurations which isreflected in the graphs.Effect of different velocity gradient:Effect of different velocity gradients like 40 s-1, 65 s-1and 90 s-1while otherparameters like jars, slow mixing time, settling time are kept constant. SBJ and CBJ are usedas they are found to be most effective during the trial. Results are analyzed by preparing thegraphs between residual turbidity versus velocity gradient.Table -1 show different types of jars used in the experiment with their dimensions andfigures Table- 2 shows various physical parameters considered in the experiment and Table -3 shows the optimum dose of blend coagulant for different initial turbidity samples.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME185Table 1: Types of JarsSr. Type of jar Dimensions (Internal) Photo No. of jars1. SquareBaffled Jar(SBJ)10 cm (L) × 10 cm (B) ×16cm(H) With 4 baffles(oneon each side) of 1.2 cm ×0.2 cm all along the height32. Square Non-baffled Jar(SNBJ)10cm(L) × 10 cm (B) ×16cm(H)33. Circular Non-Baffled Jar(CNBJ)12 cm (dia) × 16 cm (H) 34. CircularBaffled Jar(CBJ)12 cm (dia) × 16 cm (H)With 4 baffles(one at eachquadrant point) of 1.2 cm ×0.2 cm all along the height3Procedure Followed For Determination of Velocity Gradient (G):PGVµ=…. (1)Where,µ = Viscosity (N.s/m2)P = Power input (N.m/s)V = Volume of mixing basin (m3)P = D x Vp … (2)Where,D = Drag force on paddles (N)vp = Velocity of paddles (m/s)2D p p(C A V )D =2ρ× × ×… (3)Where,CD = co-efficient drag, 1.8 for flat blades.AP = Area of paddles (m2)ρ = Density of water (kg/ m3)
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, MayWhere,Table 2: Physical Parameters with 150, 300, 50Sr Physical Parameters1 Initial Turbidity2 Concentration of3 Slow mix velocity4 Slow mixing time5 Rapid mix velocity6 Rapid mixing time7 Settling timeTable 3024681025,62.5150 NTURESIDUALTURBIDITYGRAPHSr. Turbidityin NTU115023430056750089International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME186p( D N)V =60π… (4)N = r.p.m. (No.)D = Diameter of blades (m)Physical Parameters with 150, 300, 500 NTU initial turbidityPhysical Parameters RemarkInitial Turbidity 150, 300,500Concentration of coagulant 1 %Slow mix velocity 30 rpmSlow mixing time 30 minsRapid mix velocity 120 rpmRapid mixing time 2 minsSettling time 30 minsTable 3: Optimum Dose of Alum & M.O.12.5,7510,10030,12520,10040,17540,17530,15050,200150 NTU 300 NTU 500 NTUDOSE & INITIAL TURBIDITYGRAPH -1 OPTIMUM DOSE OF M.O. & ALUMSET 1SET 2Turbidityin NTUDosemg/LResidualturbidityAverage25, 62.5 8.8 8.1 8.4512.5, 75 4.1 4.9 4.510, 100 7 7.1 7.0530,125 8.6 8.5 8.5520, 100 4.5 4.8 4.6540, 175 6.8 6 6.440, 175 8 8.8 8.430, 150 3.8 3.2 3.550, 200 6 6.3 6.15International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSNJune (2013), © IAEME… (4)0 NTU initial turbidity
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME187051015202530CNBJ CBJ SNBJ SBJRESUIDUALTURBIDITYTYPES OF JARSGRAPH -2 EFFECT OF JAR PARAMETER150 NTU300 NTU500 NTU051015202530CNBJ CBJ SNBJ SBJRESIDUALTURBIDITYTYPES OF JARSGRAPH - 3 EFFECT OF JARS WITH OPTIMUM DOSE 20, 100mg/l150 NTU300 NTU500 NTU051015202530SBJ CBJ SBJ CBJ SBJ CBJ150 NTU 300 NTU 500 NTURESIDUALTURBIDITYTYPES OF JAR & TURBIDITYGRAPH -4 EFFECT OF SLOW MIX VELOCITY GRADIENT40 s-165 s-190 s-1
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME188RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONFrom the Graph-1, the optimum dose of the blended coagulant for initial turbidity 150NTU is Alum - 12.5 mg/lit, M.O. – 75 mg/lit. For initial turbidity 300 NTU the optimum doseof the blended coagulant is Alum – 20 mg/lit, M.O. - 100 mg/lit. For initial turbidity 500NTU the optimum dose of the blended coagulant is Alum - 30 mg/lit, M.O. - 150 mg/lit.From Graph-2, it is found that optimum dose of blend coagulant required for almostall the initial turbidity in between 150 NTU and 500 NTU is 20 mg/lit for Alum & 100 mg/litfor M.O. At this blend dose (Alum – 20 mg/lit, + M.O. - 100 mg/lit) floc formation andparticle settling is highest for CBJ jars. This value of optimum dose is higher as compared toother studies reported. Further increase of coagulant dose, it is observed that Residualturbidity increase with increasing dose. However, further increase in blend coagulant doseshows marginal increase in the residual turbidity. Turbidity removal efficiency, in the case of150 NTU initial turbidity is 95.5%, for 300 NTU initial turbidity, it is 95.35% and for 500NTU initial turbidity, it is 96.5%. This clearly indicates that increase in the initial turbidityincreases the turbidity removal efficiency. This observation can be explained in terms of theincrease in suspended particles available for adsorption and inter-particle bridge formation.The effect of jar parameters, (CBJ, CNBJ, SBJ, SNBJ), with respect to different initialturbidities is shown by Graph -3. It is seen from the Graph. 2 that SBJ and CBJ are givingless residual turbidities as compared to their non-baffled counter parts. Baffled jars areshowing approximately 10 % more turbidity removal than the non-baffled jars of respectivetypes. More turbidity removal in case of Baffled jars is due to vortex formation. This is due tointroduction baffles leading centrifugal forces. These centrifugal forces make them to moveoutwards and may make particle to settle down. Second likely reason, the more inter particlecollision because of turbulence created by baffles, leading to higher rate of agglomeration.All above discussion leads to a conclusion that baffled jars give higher rate of agglomeration,resulting into higher turbidity removal.The Graph-4 shows the effect of slow mix velocity gradient with water sample ofinitial turbidity 150 NTU, 300 NTU and 500 NTU. From this graph, it is observed that theoptimum velocity gradient is 65 s-1.7580859095100SBJ CBJ SBJ CBJ SBJ CBJ40 s-1 65 s-1 90 s-1REMOVALEFFICIENCYSLOW MIX VELOCITY GRADIENT & JARSGRAPH -5 TURBIDITY REMOVAL EFFICIENCY (%)150 NTU300 NTU500 NTU
  9. 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME189It is observed that the all parameters which affect the coagulation activity which areoptimum in earlier experiment shows maximum removal efficiency refers Graph -5. Fromthe graph-5, it is observed that at slow mix velocity gradient 65 s-1at which the removalefficiency for SBJ and CBJ is maximum. The removal efficiency for SBJ for 150 NTU,300NTU & 500NTU turbidity is 95.2, 96.9, and 97.9 respectively .The removal efficiency forCBJ for 150 NTU, 300NTU & 500 NTU turbidity is 95, 95.8, and 96 respectively.CONCLUSIONSThe coagulation of turbid water is influenced by various parameters such as slow mixvelocity gradient, dose of Blend coagulant Moringa Oleifera (M.O.) & Alum, the basinParameters, and initial turbid of water samples.The optimum dose of blended coagulant for initial turbidity 150 NTU is Alum - 12.5mg/lit, M.O. – 75 mg/lit. For initial turbidity 300 NTU the dose is Alum – 20 mg/lit, M.O. -100 mg/lit and for 500 NTU the optimum dose is Alum - 30 mg/lit, M.O. - 150 mg/lit.The efficent jar configuration found is Circular Baffled Jar (CBJ) and Square BaffledJar (SBJ), which are producing less residual turbidity as compared to non-baffled Jars.Baffled jars are showing 10 % more turbidity removal efficiency with respect to non-baffledjars. , The optimum dose of coagulant is observed to be same for various Jar Configurations,which is 20 mg/lit for Alum, 100 mg/lit for M.O.The optimum slow mix velocity gradient is 65 s-1at which the turbidity removalefficiency for SBJ & CBJ is maximum.REFERENCES1. A. Olsen (1987), Low technology water purification by bentonite clay Moringa oleiferaseed flocculation as performed in Sudanese villages: effects on Schistosoma mansonicercariae, Water Research 21 (5) 517–522.2. B. Bolto, J. Gregory (2007), Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment, Water Research41 (11) 2301–2324.3. L.J. Fuglie (2001), the Miracle Tree. The Multiple Attributes of Moringa, TechnicalCentre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation.4. H.P.S. Makkar, K. Becker (1996), Nutritional value and anti-nutritional components ofwhole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves, Animal Feed Science andTechnology 63(1) 211–228.5. I. Armand-Stussi, V. Basocak, G. Pauly, J. McCaulley (2003), Moringa oleifera: aninteresting source of active ingredients for skin and hair care, SOFW-Journal 129 (9) 45–52.6. A. Ndabigengesere, K.S. Narasiah, B.G. Talbot (1995), Active agents and mechanism ofcoagulation of turbid waters using Moringa oleifera, Water Research 29 (2) 703–710.7. A. Ndabigengesere, K.S. Narasiah (1998), Use of Moringa oleifera seeds as a primarycoagulant in wastewater treatment, Environmental Technology 19 (8) 789–800.8. M. Sciban, M. Klasnja, M. Antov, B. Skrbic (2009), Removal of water turbidity bynatural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn, Bioresource Technology 100 (24)6639–6643.9. U. Gassenschmidt, K.D. Jany, B. Tauscher, H. Niebergall (1995), Isolation andcharacterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera lam, BiochimicaetBiophysica Acta 1243 (3) 477–481.
  10. 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, May – June (2013), © IAEME19010. H.M. Kwaambwa, R. Maikokera (2007), A fluorescence spectroscopic study coagulatingprotein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 60(2) 213–220.11. J. Beltrán-Heredia, J. Sánchez-Martín (2009), Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate bycoagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract, Journal Hazardous Materials164 (2–3) (713–719.12. Tripathi, P.N., M. Cahudhuri and S.D. Bokil. (1976), Nirmali Seed – A naturallyOccurring Coagulant, Indian J. Environmen. HELTH,18(4):272-281.13. Al-Samawi, A. A., and Shokralla, E. M. (1996), An investigation into an indigenousnatural coagulant. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Environ. Sci. Eng.Toxic Hazard. Subst.Control (8), 1881-1897.14. Gunaratna, K. R., Garcia, B., Andersson, S., and Dalhammar, G. (2007), Screening andevaluation of natural coagulants for water treatment. Water Science and Technology -Water Supply-, 7(5/6), 19.15. Jahn, S. A. A. (1988), Using Moringa Seeds as Coagulants in Developing Countries.Journal American Water Works Association, 80(6), 43-50.16. Folkard, G., Sutherland, J., and Shaw, R. (1999) Water clarification using MoringaOleifera seed coagulant: technical brief 60.Waterlines,17(4),15-18.17. Kalibbala, H. M. (2007), Application of indigenous materials in drinking water treatment.[Online]18. Ndabigengesere, A., Narasiah, K. S., and Talbot, B. G. (1995), Active agents andmechanism of coagulation of turbid waters using Moringa Oleifera. Water Research,29(2), 703-710.19. Ndabigengesere, A., and Narasiah, K. S. (1998), Quality of water treated by coagulationusing moringa Oleifera seeds. Water Research, 32(3), 781-791.20. C P Pise, S A Halkude (2011), A Modified Method for Settling Column Data Analysis,International Journal of Engineering & Science Technology, Volume 3 (4) 3177-3183.21. C P Pise, S A Halkude (2012), Blend of natural and chemical coagulant for removal ofturbidity in water, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology, Volume 3(2) 188-197.

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