Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

2,759 views

Published on

A paper presentation at the Seeram conference on the use of bio coagulants like drumstick seeds and chitosan powder to treat sewage

Published in: Environment, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Use of bio coagulant in wastewater treatment_Kanoj Neeraj_2013

  1. 1. Use of Bio-Coagulants in wastewater treatment and determination of treatment process efficiency using model study BY : KANOJ NEERAJ D. B.E.CIVIL ENGINEERING F.Y.M.Tech EWRE COEP
  2. 2. Introduction Figure 1:Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process.
  3. 3. Modification in the conventional process Coagulation and Flocculation TRICKLING FILTER Application of Biocoagulants SEDIMENTATION TANK SLUDGE DISINFECTION AND DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT Figure 2:Proposed modification in the conventional treatment process.
  4. 4. What is Coagulation? • Coagulation: is a process in which dispersed colloidal particles agglomerate together. • Coagulants: are substances which bring about coagulation. • Bio-coagulants: Natural, bio-degradable coagulants. In our project study we have used the following biocoagulants: 1)Dried Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder(Drumstick seeds). 2) Chitosan Powder.
  5. 5. Bio-coagulants used 1. Dried Moringa Oleifera seed powder (Drumstick seeds):
  6. 6. Bio-coagulants used 2. Chitosan powder
  7. 7. Why is Coagulation necessary? Sewage 97% Water 3% Solids Suspended Solids Dissolved Solids
  8. 8. Why is Coagulation necessary? Particles with high specific gravity Settle under influence of gravity Particles with low specific gravity Do not settle under influence of gravity Coagulation Helps in Flock Formation Increases sp.gravity of particles and helps them to settle
  9. 9. Why use Bio-Coagulants instead of the conventional treatment processes and methods ? ASP (Activated Sludge Process) Used in developing/ed countries to treat large magnitudes of sewage Because process is quite expensive to construct ,operate and maintain Aerated Lagoons,Oxidation Ponds Used in economically weak areas to treat small magnitudes of sewage. Because process is relatively cheaper to construct , operate & maintain.
  10. 10. BUT WHAT TO DO WHEN LARGE MAGNITUDES OF SEWAGE ARE TO BE TREATED IN ECONOMICALLY WEAKER REGIONS ???? A GOOD OPTION IS TO USE A BIO-COAGULANT AIDED TF
  11. 11. Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF? Conventional TF Attached growth process Attached growth process Based on formation a bacterial slime layer on filter media
  12. 12. Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF? BOD removal efficiency of a conventional TF Maintenance of aerobic conditions in slime layer Difficult in a tropical country like India Usually 90% Due to variations in atmospheric conditions
  13. 13. Why use Bio-coagulant aided TF instead of a normal conventional TF? Due to these reasons Inorder to ensure that: BOD removal efficiency of TF decreases BOD removal efficiency of TF remains high irrespective of the conditions We aid the TF with Biocoagulants. This seriously affects the quality of treated effluent This also reduces load on the TF
  14. 14. Components of the project Project Stage: 1 Determination of optimum dose of bio-coagulant Stage: 2 Determination of the process efficiency using model study
  15. 15. Stage: 1 Only Moringa Oleifera Determination of optimum dose of bio-coagulant for: Only Chitosan Mixture of Moringa Oleifera & Chitosan Alum
  16. 16. Methodology of Stage:1 Wastewater sample Nephelometer to determine initial turbidity. Model Study (Stage:2) Nephelometer to determine final turbidity. Jar test to determine optimum dose of coagulant
  17. 17. Stage:1 Test Results 45 30 40 25 35 30 20 % Reductio n in Turbidity % Reductio n in Turbidity 15 25 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 -5 5 15 25 Dosage of Chitosan( mg/l) Graph 1:optimum dose of coagulant is 15 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 18%. -5 5 15 25 Dosage of Chitosan and Moringa Oleifera (mg/l) Graph 2:optimum dose of coagulant is 20 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 38.92%.
  18. 18. Stage:1 Test Results 90 60 80 50 70 60 % Reductio n in Turbidity 40 % Reductio n in Turbidity 50 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 -5 0 5 15 25 Dosages of Moringa Oleifera (mg/l) Graph 3:optimum dose of coagulant is 15 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 80%. -10 10 30 50 Dosages of Alum (mg/l) Graph 4:optimum dose of coagulant is 30 mg/l % Reduction in turbidity is 24.11%.
  19. 19. Stage:1 Test Results BIO-COAGULANTS TURBIDITY RANGE (NTU) REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY(%) MORINGA OLEIFERA 45 – 50 20 – 48 CHITOSAN POWDER 45 – 70 25 – 40 M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 32 – 70 17 – 47 ALUM 45 – 70 15 – 30 Table 1:Results depicting estimated reduction of turbidity BIO-COAGULANTS OPTIMUM DOSE (mg/l) REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY(%) MORINGA OLEIFERA 15 38.4 CHITOSAN POWDER 15 32.52 M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 20 27.2 ALUM 30 25.84 Table 2: Optimum dosages of bio-coagulants and actual reduction in turbidity obtained
  20. 20. Stage:1 Test Results SAMPLE ORIGINAL TURBIDITY NEW TURBIDITY REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY (%) I 86.1 56.7 34.14 II 87.9 66.7 24.11 III 77.6 44.3 42.91 IV 77.4 39.1 49.48 Table 3: Reduction in Turbidity using Alum as a coagulant. SAMPLE ORIGINAL TURBIDITY NEW TURBIDITY REDUCTION IN TURBIDITY (%) I 86.1 49.5 42.5 II 87.9 54.1 38.4 III 77.6 42.3 45.48 IV 77.4 39.0 49.61 Table 4: Reduction in Turbidity using Moringa Oleifera as a coagulant.
  21. 21. Stage:1 Test Results COAGULANT DOSAGE(mg/l) AVERAGE TURBIDITY REDUCTION( % ) MORINGA OLEIFERA 15 38.4 CHITOSAN 15 32.52 M.OLEIFERA + CHITOSAN 20 27.2 ALUM 30 24.11 Table 5: Reduction in Turbidity using various coagulants. Maximum reduction in turbidity is obtained by using Moringa Oleifera at it’s optimum dosage of 15 mg/l.
  22. 22. Stage:1 Test Results 45 40 1 2 MORINGA OLEIFERA 3 M.OLEIFERA+CHIT OSAN 4 35 CHITOSAN ALUM 30 25 % Reduction inTurbidity 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Graph 5:Histogram of Optimum reduction in turbidity 4
  23. 23. Stage:2 A:Design stage Stage:2 Determination of the process efficiency using model study B:Assembly(model making) stage C:Testing Stage
  24. 24. Stage:2 (Part: A Design Stage) Design stage Design of CLARIFLOCCULATOR Design of TF Design of SST
  25. 25. Stage:2 (PART:A Design Stage) • • • • Click here to view the design data. 1.Design Of Clariflocculator. 2.Design Of Trickling Filter. 3.Design Of Sedimentation Tank.
  26. 26. Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage) • THE FINALISED DIMENSIONS AND DESIGN PARAMETERS OF VARIOUS TREATMENT UNITS ARE AS FOLLOWS: A)CLARIFLOCCULATOR: 1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M. 2. DEPTH = 0.15 M. 3. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR. 4. DETENTION PERIOD = 1 HOUR. 5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 60,000 L/SQ.M/DAY
  27. 27. Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage) B)TRICKLING FILTER: 1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M. 2. DEPTH = 1 M. 3. DEPTH OF FILTER MEDIA = 0.7 M. 4. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR. 5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 1500 KG/HAM/DAY.
  28. 28. Stage:2 (Part:A Design Stage) C)SEDIMENTATION TANK: 1. DIAMETER = 0.3 M. 2. DEPTH = 0.15 M. 3. DESIGN DISCHARGE = 10 L/HR. 4. DETENTION PERIOD = 1 HOUR. 5. ORGANIC LOADING RATE = 70000 L/SQ.M/DAY
  29. 29. Stage:2 (Part:B Assembly Stage)
  30. 30. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage) • Click here to view the video of the working model.
  31. 31. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage) 5-DAY BOD OF THE INFLUENT TO CLARIFLOCCULATOR IS CALCULATED (INITIAL BOD) 5-DAY BOD OF THE EFFLUENT FROM SEDIMENTATION TANK IS CALCULATED (FINAL BOD) THE BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF THE PROJECT IS CALCULATED.
  32. 32. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results) SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE DESCRIPTION INITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION FACTOR BOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l) 1 NONE INFLUENT 21 16.5 20 90 2 AGGREGATE WITHOUT COAGULANT 17.2 15.9 20 26 3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT 18.2 17.6 20 12 4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT 18.9 17.5 20 28 5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT 18.4 17.6 20 16 TRIAL 1:
  33. 33. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results) SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE DESCRIPTION INITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION FACTOR BOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l) 1 NONE INFLUENT 23 17.9 20 102 2 AGGREGATE WITHOUT COAGULANT 17.8 16.4 20 28 3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT 18.6 17.9 20 14 4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT 18.2 16.7 20 30 5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT 17.9 17.1 20 16 TRIAL 2:
  34. 34. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results) SR.NO FILTER MEDIA SAMPLE DESCRIPTION INITIAL DO FINAL DO DILUTION FACTOR BOD5 @ 20°C (mg/l) 1 NONE INFLUENT 23.2 18.9 20 86 2 AGGREGATE WITHOUT COAGULANT 17.6 16.3 20 26 3 AGGREGATE WITH COAGULANT 18.2 17.7 20 10 4 PLASTIC WITHOUT COAGULANT 18.4 17.1 20 26 5 PLASTIC WITH COAGULANT 18.6 17.9 20 14 TRIAL 3: As per BIS the 5-day BOD of the effluent to be released in rivers is <= 20 mg/l
  35. 35. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results) SR.NO TRIAL NO. FILTER MEDIA BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY WITHOUT COAGULANT (%) BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY WITH COAGULANT (%) 1. I AGGREGATE 71.11 86.67 PLASTIC 68.88 82.23 AGGREGATE 72.55 86.27 PLASTIC 70.58 84.31 AGGREGATE 69.76 88.37 PLASTIC 69.76 83.72 2. 3. II III
  36. 36. Stage:3 (Part:C Testing Stage Results) WITH COAGULANT:87.10% SAND/AGGREGATE FILTER WITHOUT COAGULANT:71.14% AVERAGE BOD REMOVAL EFFICIENCY WITH COAGULANT:83.42% PLASTIC FILTER WITHOUT COAGULANT:69.74%
  37. 37. RATE ANALYSIS AND COST COMPARISON 1) For A Conventional ASP Based STP Located At Bhatnagar, Chinchwad, Pune: (Plant Capacity=30MLD). SR.NO PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs/MONTH) 1 OVERALL COSTS 5,00,000 2 ELECTRICITY COSTS 1,90,000 3 LABOUR COSTS 2,00,000 TOTAL 8,90,000 OR 30,000 PER DAY 2) For The Bio-Coagulant Aided Process Based STP: (Plant Capacity=30mld). SR.NO PARTICULARS AMOUNT (Rs/MONTH) 1 OVERALL COSTS 5,00,000 2 ELECTRICITY COSTS 86,450 3 LABOUR COSTS 2,00,000 4 COST OF BIO-COAGULANTS 90,000 TOTAL 8.76,450 OR 29,215 PER DAY
  38. 38. Conclusions According to the project results it is concluded that: 1) Cost of sewage treatment using bio-coagulants < Cost of sewage treatment using ASP. 2) Cost of treatment using the natural bio-coagulants < Cost of treatment using Alum. 3) Efficiency of treatment process using bio-coagulants > Efficiency of treatment process using Alum.(in terms of turbidity reduction). 4) Efficiency of treatment process using bio-coagulants > Efficiency of treatment process using no coagulants.( in terms of BOD removal). 5) Efficiency of treatment process using Aggregate/Sand Filter > Efficiency of treatment process using Plastic Filter.( in terms of BOD removal). 6) Coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Chitosan powder stock solution > Coagulation efficiency of Alum.
  39. 39. Significance and Future Scope of the project The use of bio-coagulants in waste water treatment has the following benefits: 1 )Reduced expenditure on processing of costly chemicals. 2) Reduced dependency on chemical coagulants. 3) Process is very economical for developing countries. 4) The bio-coagulants are eco-friendly. 5) Development of a new industry of bio-coagulant production. 6) Saving of electricity which is already deficient in India.
  40. 40. Sponsors • The project was funded by BCUD PUNE UNIVERSITY.
  41. 41. References 1) John Samia A.A. (1998) , “Using Moringa Oleifera and Chitosan as coagulant in developing countries.” journal of AWWA Management and Operations. 2) Prof.M.R.Gidde, Prof.A.R.Bhalerao, Mr.C.P.Pise “Turbidity removal by blended coagulant Alum and M.Oleifera”, ICER BITS Pilani, Goa campus403726. 3) Hitendra Bhupawat, G.K.Folkard, Sanjeev Chaudhary “Innovative physicochemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa Oleifera seed coagulant.” CESE, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076, India. 4) Suleman A. Muyibi, Lillian Evision et al.(1995), “Optimizing the Physical Parameters affecting coagulation of turbid waters with Moringa Oleifera seeds.”
  42. 42. References 5. Gassenschmidt U., Jany K. D., Tauscher B. and Niebergall H. (1995) “Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera lam”. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 143, 477-481. 6. Muyibi S.A. and Okufu C. A. (1995) “Coagulation of low turbidity surface water with Moringa oleifera seeds”. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 48, 263-273. 7. Muyibi S.A. and Evison L.M. (1995) “Optimizing Physical Parameters Affecting Coagulation of Turbid Water with Moringa Oleifera seeds”. Wat. Resources, 29(12), 2689-2695. 8. Ndbigengesere, A., Narasiah, K.S. and Talbot, B.G. (1995). “Active Agent and Mechanism of Coagulation of Turbid Waters Using Moringa Oleifera”. Wat. Resources, 2, 703-710.
  43. 43. THANK YOU!!!! PROJECT BY : KANOJ NEERAJ D. (F.Y.M.Tech EWRE CoEP) PROJECT GUIDE: PROF.S.A.NIKAM (M.E. Environmental Engg.),RSCOE,Pune.

×