Hirakud Dam (Oriya: ହୀରାକୁଦ ବନ୍ଧ ) is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. Built in 1957, the dam is one of the world's longest earthen dam. Behind the dam extends a lake, Hirakud Reservoir, 55 km long. Hirakud Dam is the longest man-made dam in the world, about 16 mi (26 km) in length. It is one of the first major multipurpose river valley project started after India's independence.
http://www.weforum.org/young-global-leaders/sanjeev-khagram http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/news-events/the-20 12-ics-annual-lecture-sanjeev-khagram http://youtu.be/lgkGOifClfM His latest lecture Sanjeev Khagram is known worldwide for his interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral leadership on globalization and transnationalism, sustainable development, human security, governance and leadership. He is currently the John Parke Young Professor in Global Political Economy at Occidental College, Founder and Chair of Innovations for Scaling Impact, and architect of the Global Initiative for Fiscal Transparency. Previously, he was Dean of the Desmond Tutu Peace Centre, Deputy Secretary General at the World Commission on Dams, Associate Professor at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Wyss Scholar at the Harvard Business School and Director of the Lindenberg Center for Global Citizenship. Khagram has worked with global networks, multilateral agencies, governments, corporations, civil society organizations, professional associations and universities all over the world. He holds a BA in Development Studies and Engineering, an MA in Economics and a PhD in Political Science from Stanford University.
3 번째 문단 정리 http://www.icold-cigb.org/GB/Dams/role_of_dams.asp
이러한 수요와 큰 댐 건설을 부축이는 기관들의 노력에도 불구하고 , 지난 25 년간 댐 건설은 급격하게 줄어들었다 . -> puzzling
The dramatic decline in the construction of these projects globally over the past 25 years: 1975~2000 Source: ICOLD, 1998. Note: Information excludes dams in China.
http://multimedia.wri.org/watersheds_2003/gm17.html ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). 1998. World Register of Dams 1998 . Paris, France: ICOLD. IJHD (International Journal of Hydropower and Dams). 1998. 1998 World Atlas and Industry Guide. Surrey, U. K.: Aqua-Media International. Revenga, C., S. Murray, J. Abramovitz, and A. Hammond, 1998. Watersheds of the World: Ecological Value and Vulnerability . Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Revenga, C., J. Brunner, N. Henninger, K. Kassem, and R. Payne. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: freshwater systems. Washington DC: World Resources Institute. Online at: http://www.wri.org/wr2000/freshwater_page.html Vörösmarty, C. J., K. P. Sharma, B. M. Fekete, A. H. Copeland, J. Holden, J. Marble, and J. A. Lough. 1997. “The Storage and Aging of Continental Runoff in Large Reservoir Systems of the World.” Ambio 26(4): 210–219.
사진 하나 넣기 !!!
As the next section describes, the antibank campaign quickly gathered momentum.
IRN 이 하는 일 간단히 정리해서 말해주기 . 잡지도 발행한다고 함 .^^
aul Nelson, Administrator, Scott County Water Management Organization
2012-2 Global & intercultural identity Toward Democratic Governance for Sustainable Development : Translational Civil Society Organizing around Big Dams by Sanjeev Khagram12 December 2012 Presented by Kim, Hyunjung(Physics 09)
ContentsAuthor DescriptionIntroductionThe Rise of Domestic OppositionThe Building of Transnational LinkagesTaking on the World BankThe Genesis of the World Commission on DamsSummary
Dr. Sanjeev Khangram Affiliate Professor, Public Affairs and International Studies, University of Washington Ph. D., Stanford University Young Global Leader, World Economic Forum Areas of specialization : Civil Society, Corporate Citizenship, Cross- Sectoral Networks, Global Governance, Human Security, Impact Evaluation, Political Economy, Sustainable Development, Transnational Studies
Dams20% of global electricity generationIn 65 countries, hydropower produces 50% of electricityIn 25 countries, hydropower constitute over 90% of electricityWorldwide, agricultural crops> 30% of water from irrigation 1/17
Why do we need dams?1. The needs of a growing global population~ 1 billion people sill w/o adequate supplies drinking water~ 2 billion people w/ no access to electricity2. The need for better flood management: undeniable.due to massive & destructive floods!!! 2/17
However, the Rate of Dam ConstructionWorldwide is like… Drastically decline over 25 years → Technical/Financial/Economic factors behind this trend 3/17
What is the whole story? 1) Technical factor: The decreasing availability of sites for big dams ex) As of 1986, 95% of big dams -> 25 countries having more than 100 dams. Only 2% were spread over more than 150 countries where sites were still plentiful. 2) Financial & Economic factors: omitted in our book but you can look up the reference 4/17
Translational civil society coalitions A multitude of struggles & campaigns carried on worldwide → change the dynamics of big dam projects Ex 1) Environmental NGOs from the 1st world(Int’l level) → slowing and halting global spread of big dams Ex 2) Direct influence on local people(Domestic level) → social movements and domestic NGOs : reform/block the completing of these projects in their own countries. Result: Domestic successes & Subsequent internationalization of environ/human/indigenous rights organization in the West 5/17
The Rise of Domestic Opposition Transnational civil society advocacy efforts ~ a narrow range of elite values and interests: not always true! Why? Domestic opposition has been independently organized in numerous countries outside the West. - Example: India, Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, Chile, Hungary, the former Soviet Union, South Africa etc. Case study: India(The Hirakud Dam, the Silent Valley project), The Chico project in the Philippines, Brazil, The United States(the Echo Park Dam, Grand Canyon) and Western Europe. 6/17
Case 1. The Hirakud Dam : One of independent India’s first multipurpose projectsIn 1940s, an anti-Hirakud campaign was waged ~ involving the fullrange of lobbying & pressure: 30,000 villegers and townpeople evenprotested in front of the state governor.Such purely domestic campaigns : generally unsuccessful through 1960s.Nevertheless, local opposition to big dams mounted during 1970s-1980sand internationally highlighted.By the end of the 1980s, a meeting of over 80 representatives called for amoratorium on big dam project in an “assertion of collective will againstbig dams.”Domestic decision-making processes became more participatory and the resultsof projects more socially just and environmentally sustainable. 7/17
Case 2. India was not unusual1) The campaign of cordilleran 대산맥의 peoples in the Philippines against the Chico River project in the mid-1970s : worldwide for the confrontations between opposition and government. → the World Bank eventually withdrew its funding2) A nationwide movement of dam-affected peoples grew in size and The end of the expansion years of big dam building & The growth of a strength in Brazil national environmental movement in the United States : from domestic social and environmental policy reform to the broader democratization process.3) The States and Western Europe certainly contributed to the broader decline of big dam building in most European countries in 1970s. 8/17
The Building of Transnational Linkages During 1980s, focus shift from domestic movement to elsewhere ex) Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, and its successor states, the Third World.where demand: still high, funding: available, criticism: less organized,democratic/environmental norms: less institutionalized. More than ⅔ of new big dam starts occurred in the Third World. These indigenous peoples, human rights, environmental and even sustainable development NGOs consciously built coalitions with allies all over the world. The antibank campaign quickly gathered momentum. 9/17
International Rivers Network(IRN) Motive to the establishment of IRN: Edward Goldsmith and Nicholas Hildyard’s The Social and Environmental Effects of Large Dams The Book further strengthened emergent transnational connections : the first to systematically integrate the main arguments against big dams & insist that the problem caused were largely inherent to tech. The San Francisco Declaration(1988): New standards or common ground on the issues of big dam projects, river basin management, and the provision of water and power services. ⇔ International Commission on Large Dam(Dam Proponents) 10/17
The World Bank The central international organization promoting big dam building around the world since its founding, managing 50 to 70 % of world big dam funds. The Bank’s initial loan to fifteen Third World countries was for big dam projects. ex) India received $8.38 billion for building 104 dams. → Critical to the initiation and management of big dam projects.* Even contributed to the creation of numerous dam-building bureaucratic Overlapped with dam-cons, Strengthening its themes: involuntaryresettlement ofThird World. ex)from dam Electricity protection of agencies in the communities Thailand’s projects, Generating Authority, Colombia’s Interconexion Electrica SA.indigenous peoples’ lands, accountability and transparency of bank. Western-based conservationists’ campaign↑ against multilateral banks ⤴ 11/17
The broader anti-multilaternaldevelopment bank campaign Antidam opponents compelled the Bank not only to reduce its involvement in big dam projects and but also to adopt new policies and mechanism for resettlement, environmental management, indigenous peoples, information disclosure, monitoring, and appeals. The cumulative effect of transnational allied civil society → more than 60 % decline in Bank funding in these projects → the Bank’s first comprehensive review of big dams Civil society critiques of the Bank’s review sparked the creation of an independent World Commission on Dams. 12/17
The Genesis of the WorldCommission on Dams In April 1997, the World Bank and the World Conservation Union gathered in Gland, Switzerland. 39 representatives of International for benefits from governments development agencies big dams Transnational civil Private Sector due to reputational society & financial risks To push for an independent and comprehensive review of big dams. At the Gland Workshop, the 39 participants unanimously agreed to this demand of the WCD. 13/17
The World Commission on Dams An independent international body composed of 12 commissioners known for their leadership roles in social movements, NGOs, academia, the private sector, and governments all over the world. The unprecedented mandate of WCD: 1) Conduct a global review of the development effectiveness of dams and assess alternatives for sustainable water resources and energy management, 2) developmentIf it is successful, the WCD could pavefor decisionfor a wave internationally accepted criteria and guidelines the way making in the planning, design, appraisal, construction, monitoring, operation, andof novel multistake-holder global public policy processes decommissioning of dams.in the twenty-first century. The most innovative international institutional experiment in the area of democratic governance for sustainable development today. 14/17
In summary,On this blue planet, less than 2.5% of our water is fresh, less than 33% offresh water runs in fluid, less than 1.7% of fluid water runs in streamsA number of human activities can impact on the water cycle: dammingrivers for hydroelectricity, using water for farming, deforestation andthe burning of fossil fuels. When people use water for irrigation, they aretaking water from streams or from the ground and, as a result, the watertable drops. It can take a long time for groundwater to be recharged. Theflow-on effect is a reduction in the amount of water in rivers or lakes,which then impacts on the environment – animals living in the watermay find themselves affected. 16/17
Summary(Flow of article) The Rise of Domestic Opposition in the mid 1950s-1970s The Building of Transnational Linkages in 1980s Taking on the World Bank in the 1980s-1990s : the broader anti-multilateral development bank campaign The Genesis of the World Commission on Dams in 1997 : representatives of governments, international development agencies, the private sector, and transnational civil society. Toward Governance for Sustainable Development 17/17