Wouters talk edinburgh watsan conf may 2008


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Prof Patricia Wouters talk May 2008; Pat is Director of the Dundee UNESCO Water Law Centre, part of the University of Dundee

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Wouters talk edinburgh watsan conf may 2008

  1. 1. Professor Dr Patricia Wouters Chair International Water Law & Policy
  2. 2. Transboundary Boundaries: Water Law & Policy <ul><li>Water (law) </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>Context : 24 UN agencies (water); Interdisciplinary; global remit
  3. 3. Water Law? Question: What does water law have to do with it?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Water Law: 3 research areas </li></ul>Research and Development: Water Law International water law National Water Law Trans-National Water Law Mekong Nile Licences Pollution Good Governance PPP
  5. 5. Addressing the Global Water Challenge How would YOU solve the world’s water problems?
  6. 6. The global water challenge 1.2 billion without drinking water 250 major international rivers 2.4 billion without sanitation
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>the fish? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the dams? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cotton? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the people? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… .. and Why? </li></ul></ul></ul>“ Who” should get “what” “water”?
  8. 8. Water Wars? A new wave of Water Wars?
  9. 9. Water Wars in the future? Across the world, they are coming: the water wars . From Israel to India, from Turkey to Botswana, arguments are going on over disputed water supplies that may soon burst into open conflict. Yesterday, Britain's Defence Secretary, John Reid, pointed to the factor hastening the violent collision between a rising world population and a shrinking world water resource: global warming …. The Independent (28 Feb 2006)
  10. 10. Water Wars in the future? “ Britain must be prepared for humanitarian disaster relief, peacekeeping and warfare to deal with the dramatic social and political consequences of climate change . ” “ Impacts such as flooding, melting permafrost and desertification could lead to loss of agricultural land, poisoning of water supplies and destruction of economic infrastructure.” “ Mr Reid signalled Britain's armed forces would have to be prepared to tackle conflicts over dwindling resources .” The Independent (28 Feb 2006)
  11. 11. Who should get what “water” and why? How to reconcile competing uses? Water wars? Who gets priority? Ecosystem? <ul><ul><li>Upstream? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture? </li></ul></ul>Industry? <ul><ul><li>Domestic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor? </li></ul></ul>What rules and principles govern?
  12. 12. <ul><li>Customary and treaty law </li></ul><ul><li>“ equitable and reasonable utilisation” of shared waters </li></ul>Rule of International Water Law
  13. 13. Art. 5: Equitable and Reasonable Use <ul><li>Watercourse States shall in their respective territories utilise an international watercourse in an equitable and reasonable manner . In particular, an international watercourse shall be used and developed by watercourse States with a view to attaining optimal and sustainable utilization thereof and benefits therefrom taking into account the interests of the watercourse States concerned consistent with adequate protection of the watercourse. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conflict of use International Watercourse Fish? Dams? People? Upstream State (hydro-electric dam) Downstream State (irrigation) What role for Water law??
  15. 15. Selected international basin (legal) disputes Danube Uruguay Tajo/Tagus Nile Sesan
  16. 16. Research and Development: Water Law Water Law = Water for All Legal Assessment Model (LAM)
  17. 17. Legal Analytical Framework Substantive Rules Equitable and reasonable use Procedural Rules <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Dispute settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul>Scope Defines rights & responsibilities of users Ensures compliance and accommodates changes in circumstances What uses? What waters? What users?
  18. 18. Implementing “Equitable and Reasonable Utilisation” – the Legal Assessment Model (LAM) Mozambique Palestine China
  19. 19. The Legal Assessment Model Law Hydrology Economics Phase I Defining Scope Phase II Data Collection 2. Data Collection Tools <ul><li>Legal Audit Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant Factors Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary of Terms </li></ul>Phase III Evaluation <ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrological </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Parameters </li></ul>Phase IV Options ensuring equitable entitlement 1. Defining Scope 3. Evaluation 4. Legal Options
  20. 20. Water for All -- How? “ All Relevant Factors” Climate Change Global Change Stakeholders
  21. 21. <ul><li>UNESCO HELP programme </li></ul><ul><li>“ innovative management approach” </li></ul><ul><li>stakeholder driven </li></ul><ul><li>67 basins around the world </li></ul><ul><li>interdisciplinary engagement </li></ul>
  22. 22. HELP Basins <ul><li>                  </li></ul>Uptake & Dissemination 67 HELP basins worldwide
  23. 23. <ul><li>The Global Water Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts of use are inevitable – strong need for effective local water Governance </li></ul><ul><li>“ Water Law = Water for all” </li></ul><ul><li>(legitimate framework for identifying and balancing all competing needs) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Operationalising an interdisciplinary approach </li></ul>
  24. 24. Water Law / Transboundary Issues <ul><li>Water law </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>Rules of the Game (3 levels) “ All relevant factors” <ul><li>Global change </li></ul><ul><li>Water Security </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty focus </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Water Law, Water Leaders </li></ul>Water Law, Water Leaders programme New generation of local water leaders “ frightening lack of leadership”
  26. 26. Research Questions <ul><li>Water Security : what science to influence “water for all”? Implementing “all relevant factors” ( equity ) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Peace : frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership : stakeholder engagement / mentoring </li></ul>
  27. 27. THANK YOU ! Dundee UNESCO Centre of Water Law, Policy & Science