Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

From Vulnerable to Resilient Cities


Published on

Strategies to help cities reduce vulnerability and enhance competitiveness.

Published in: News & Politics

From Vulnerable to Resilient Cities

  1. 1. 1 From Vulnerable to Resilient Cities Strategies to help cities reduce vulnerability and enhance competitiveness
  2. 2. 2 Did you know that… …half of humanity lives in cities?
  3. 3. 3 And… …by 2050, 70% of the global population will be living in cities?
  4. 4. 4 What does that mean? Providing a growing urban population with energy, water and and security, energy, water, nutrition food security, as well as long-lasting, reliable infrastruct long-lasting, reliable infrastructure and shelter is the defining challenge of our time. defining challenge of our time.
  5. 5. 5 Currently, cities consume 75% of the world’s energy 75% of the world’s energy and are responsible for 80% of the world’s carbonof the world’s carbon emissions. 80% emissions. Cities
  6. 6. 6 And what about water? Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century.
  7. 7. 7 But… …every day, we’re learning more about how cities can reduce their energy and water consumption.
  8. 8. 8 For example, in Melbourne, Australia…
  9. 9. 9 The city’s 1200 Buildings retrofit program is: – Saving water, helping to meet Melbourne’s target to reduce potable water use in the commercial sector by 5 billion liters (1.3 billion gallons). – Decreasing energy use to meet an annual savings goal of 38% or 383,000 metric tons (422,185 tons) of greenhouse gas emissions. – Driving private sector reinvestment. – Creating “green collar” jobs — employing engineers, environmental and sustainability consultants, builders, surveyors and many other industry professionals — with a goal of 8,000 jobs upon completion.
  10. 10. 10 But Melbourne first had to address a few challenges…
  11. 11. 11 Melbourne’s 1200 Buildings retrofit program …To Results Solution: The City of Melbourne became the clearinghouse for information on benchmarking, auditing, costs and consultants. From Challenge… Problem: Lack of knowledge on implementation and the rewards of retrofitting. Supporting materials have been produced in the form of advice sheets, tutorials, video/written case studies, reports, facts on the central website, and seminars held to provide information to prospective participants.
  12. 12. 12 Melbourne’s 1200 Buildings retrofit program …To Results Solution: From Challenge… Problem: Difficulty procuring financing for projects. The Victorian Parliament passed legislation allowing the Melbourne City Council to act as an intermediary between owners and banks to facilitate the loan process and reduce owner risk.
  13. 13. 13 Melbourne’s 1200 Buildings retrofit program …To Results Solution: Melbourne developed the Environmental Upgrade Agreement to share costs between owners and tenants. From Challenge… Problem: “Split incentive”; how do you convince owners to make expensive investments that will mainly benefit tenants?
  14. 14. 14 Melbourne’s successes to date – Signed three environmental upgrade agreements for projects representing carbon emissions savings of 5,350 metric tons (5,897 tons) per year. – 53 public signatories and another 150 buildings being considered for or in the process of being retrofitted. – Recognized with a number of awards, including the C40 and Siemens Climate Leadership Award in the Energy Efficient Built Environment category and the United Nations Association of Australia World Environment Day Sustainability Award.
  15. 15. 15 And then there’s the challenge of food security…
  16. 16. 16 Food-production capacity needs to increase exponentially If the U.S. continues to produce food the way it does today, in order to meet increased demand due to population growth, the nation will require an additional 270 million acres of farmland — equivalent to 2.5 times the area of California.
  17. 17. 17 But available land for food production is trending in the opposite direction… Every year, 3 million acres of agricultural land goes out of production in the U.S.
  18. 18. 18 Can urban farming help meet the food security challenge?
  19. 19. 19 The Motor City is driving down that road… Photo: Shawn Wilson via Creative Commons License 1.0.
  20. 20. 20 Under the Greening of Detroit program, the city is… – Extending 450 hours of hands-on-training in farming, agriculture, education and community relationships. – Engaging Detroit youth in urban agriculture via a paid apprenticeship program. – Providing assistance with solutions such as passive greenhouse construction, water catchment systems and soil testing. – Supplementing the Fresh Food Share program, which delivers fresh produce from local farmers to customers at wholesale prices. – Placing fresh food — from the program and grown in school gardens — on the menu of 48 area elementary schools. Courtesy of Greening of Detroit.
  21. 21. 21 The Greening of Detroit includes… – Supporting the community, school, family and market gardens with transplants at MGM Grand Garden, which is also used to train youth and adult apprentices to build horticultural and agricultural skills. – Developing the Detroit Market Garden, a 2.5-acre urban-farm training, production and processing location. – Coordinating the restoration of the 26-acre Romanowski Farm Park, which includes athletic fields, a playground with a teaching garden, a living pavilion, a fruit orchard and a small farm garden. Courtesy of Greening of Detroit.
  22. 22. 22 What else makes a city vulnerable? Weak infrastructure, which threatens global competitiveness.
  23. 23. 23 The American Society of Civil Engineers’ 2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure gave the United States a… D+
  24. 24. 24 “…failing infrastructure will drive the cost of doing business up by adding US$430 billion to transportati costs in the next decade.” transportation Failure to Act: The Impact of Current Infrastructure Investment on America’s Economic Future
  25. 25. 25 How do we develop transportation infrastructure that links to work, amenities and homes, that also… – Withstands force majeure events or quickly recovers functionality in the aftermath? – Better recognizes risks to prevent harm to life and the constructed environment? – Fails gently at specific points? – Works in tandem with natural systems? – Protects economic and human health?
  26. 26. 26 Southern California points the way — and for good reason… – Consists of the United States’ #1 most sprawling metro area. – Is home to the world’s third worst traffic congested city. – Features the country’s most ozone-smog-polluted city. – Includes the nation’s most particle-polluted city. – Comprises two of America’s 20 riskiest counties for developing cancer from toxic air pollution. – Ranks as the fifth worst metro area for per capita carbon emissions from transportation in the United States.
  27. 27. 27 To address these vulnerabilities, the vulnerabilities, the region’s infrastructure Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — an initiative of six counties representing 38,000 square miles, 191 cities and 18 million residents — developed the Regional Transportation Plan.
  28. 28. 28 The 23-year SCAG Regional Transportation Plan expects to: – Increase investment in public transport and walkability. – Reduce traffic congestion by 24% per capita. – Add 60% more housing in transit-accessible locations. – Create 4.2 million jobs. – Place 87% of all jobs within ½ mile walk of transit. – Save US$1.5 billion in annual health care expenditures by reducing respiratory illness. – Preserve more than 400 square miles of farmland and open space.
  29. 29. 29 Coastal cities have even more critical even more critical resiliency issues.
  30. 30. 30 The world’s coastal cities are increasingly at risk… – 21 out of the 33 cities projected to have populations in excess of eight million by 2015 are located in coastal regions. – 100 million people currently live less than 1 meter (3.28 feet) above sea level.
  31. 31. 31 Top 20 Cities: Highest Potential Flood Loss in 2050 Shenzhen Calcutta Boston Surat Tianjin Bangkok Nagoya Xiamen New York New Orleans Tampa Guangzhou Miami Zhanjiang Abidjan Given current flood protection, this map displays the top 20 global cities ranked as the most vulnerable to monetary loss from flood risk — with the larger circles indicating the cities with the greatest risk in annual average loss from flooding. Guayaquil Ho Chi Minh City Mumbai Chennai Jakarta Source: Nature Climate Change (
  32. 32. 32 global cost of flooding The global cost of flooding in the world’s 136 largest coastal cities could rise to $52 billion a year US$52 billion a year in the next few decades. Nature Climate Change
  33. 33. 33 Adding to the problem, in some cities, natural buffers have been consumed to accommodate growth — allowing urbanization to occur in risk-prone areas such as flood plains or steep slopes subject to landslides.
  34. 34. 34 The consumption of natural buffers exacerbates the impact of natural disasters.
  35. 35. 35 Unstable deforested slopes surrounding Port-au-Prince, Haiti, intensified catastrophic flooding. Photo: NASA.
  36. 36. 36 The lack of trees and soil to absorb torrential rainfall aggravated the impact of flood waters in Manila, Philippines. Photo: Trocaire via Creative Commons License 2.0.
  37. 37. 37 Some coastal cities and regions are already implementing resiliency plans The U.K.’s Blackpool Coastal Defence Scheme… – Protects 1,500 homes and businesses from flooding, and provides defense against sea-level rise; – Was designed to enhance the seafront experience and allow easy access to the beach for recreation; and – Combines flood protection with highquality open space that promotes tourism and enhances the community.
  38. 38. 38 The Baltimore Climate Action Plan expects to: – Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 15% below 2010 levels by 2020. – Grow a green city through initiatives such as increasing the number of trees planted and composting organic material. – Improve land use and transportation by creating high-quality pedestrian- and transit-oriented neighborhoods. – Increase energy savings and supply.
  39. 39. 39 San Francisco’s Transportation Pilot Project: The "Adapting to Rising Tides: Transportation Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Pilot Project" aims to: – Assess the risk to assets and the transportation system as a whole from projected climate change. – Advance existing adaptation assessment activities in collaboration with state Departments of Transportation and Metropolitan Planning Organizations. – Assist the Federal Highway Administration in test-driving the pilot project model for national application.
  40. 40. 40 Produced by AECOM and IBM, the City Resilience Scorecard aims to: – Support the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction’s goal to promote a “culture of prevention” and to build resilient nations and communities as an essential condition for sustainable development. – Determine resilience strengths and weaknesses across city systems. – Identify pathways to increase resilience in cities — attracting business and investment, and reducing insurance risk and costs as a result. – Advance the development of the processes and infrastructure required to withstand extreme events.
  41. 41. 41  Urban population growth…  Energy reduction…  Water stewardship…  Infrastructure improvement…  Food security…  Coastal flood protection… …Interrelated challenges require an integrated systems approach to resilience. How do we start?
  42. 42. 42 Top 10 things cities should be doing… 1. Establish an administrative framework. Collaboration among government, citizens and businesses in risk reduction and preparedness is key. 2. Assign a budget. Disaster risk reduction does not have to add cost; identify and leverage planned investments to include disaster resilience. 3. Know your risk. Understanding risk assessment should be a constituent of every decision-making process.
  43. 43. 43 Top 10 things cities should be doing… 4. Invest in critical infrastructure. Maintain, upgrade and protect. Integrated solutions can leverage benefits across multiple systems; adding resiliencethinking to all design can add value at greatly reduced costs. 5. Protect schools and health care facilities. These can serve as critical hubs in a quick recovery. 6. Enforce realistic, risk-compliant regulations. Communities should be building safe buildings on safe land.
  44. 44. 44 Top 10 things cities should be doing… 7. Train and educate. Ensure that the public knows what to do in an emergency. 8. Protect ecosystems and natural buffers. These serve the dual function of amenity and natural defense. 9. Install early warning systems. Effective preparedness reduces risk and loss of life. 10. Focus rebuilding efforts on the needs of the most vulnerable. A community is only as strong as the most vulnerable among it.
  45. 45. 45 From Vulnerable to Resilient Cities More information on case studies… Melbourne’s 1200 Buildings Program The Greening of Detroit ASCE 2013 infrastructure report card Southern California transportation plan Blackpool Coastal Defence Scheme City of Baltimore’s Climate Action Plan San Francisco Bay transportation pilot project City Resilience Scorecard
  46. 46. 46 From Vulnerable to Resilient Cities More information on AECOM’s work… 10 ideas that can change the world Australia’s Garnaut Climate Change Review Carbon Disclosure Project — 2013 global cities report Creating Sustainable Places initiative Disaster and storm solutions FEMA climate change report Future proofing our world