Mexico’s Popula/on Growth, 20th Century Year Popula+on (Millions) 1800 4.5 1850 7.5 1875 9.5 1895 12.6
Indian Pueblos 1800-‐1850 • Indian Pueblos 1/3 of the popula/on in Mexico live in the most part in /ny villages, socially and economically isolated from the remainder of the country. • No Schools • No churches (only big ones) • Subsistence farming • Curandero
Rural Towns 1800-‐1850 • 1000-‐3500 houses of primarily Mes/zos and Indians who had accommodated to the Hispanic way of life. • Spanish main language. • Some/mes private schools. • Churches • “Leva” system was implemented • System of forced conscrip/on directed to the uneducated masses (Indians exempt given they did not speak Spanish) used by local commanders to ﬁll their military quotas. Troublemakers, vagabonds, and prisoners were taken.
Provincial Ci/es 1800-‐1850 • Was were we can ﬁnd signs of wealth in Mexico. • Imported carriages were a sign of status. • Cathedrals. • Secondary Schools. • Aristocracy dressed with the latest European fashion. • Most visible employment was the “tameme”
Modernizing Mexico 1850-1900 • During the second half of the 19th century Mexico would go a profound industrial transformation.
Modernizing Mexico 1850-1900During the second half of the 19th century Mexico wouldgo a profound industrial transformation. • Benito Juarez President (1858-1872) • Liberal leader • 1859 Leyes de Reforma • Nationalized church property • Separation of Church and State, Ex. Schools, Convents.
Porfirio Diaz (1876-1910) • Porfirio Diaz believed that potential investors had to be convinced that stability was supplementing turbulence.
Technological Innovations and Mexico’s Industrial Growth • 1876-1910 Steam, water, electric power began to replace animal and human muscle. • 1880 telephone arrived. • 1901 oil production began and nine years later 13 million barrels were produced, mostly for export. • Mining industry was revived, with copper now rivaling silver as the most valuable ore. • What was the biggest industrial innovation of its time?
Mexico’s Railroad Expansion. Year Miles of Railway 1860 150 1876 400 1892 6,876 1910 12,000 1911 15,000 Approx. 80 % of the capital outlay came from the United States.
U.S. Railroad Tracks 1860 In 1860 when the U.S. had over 30,000 miles of track in operation, Mexico had only 150 miles
The Impacts of the Railroad • As a result of the arrival of the railroad new agricultural land specialized in commercial agriculture, and land value would increase.• Machinery was also able to be imported aiding to the expansion in production.• Mexico s foreign trade (exports and imports) increased from 50 million pesos in 1876 to about 488 million pesos in 1910.