A stydy on employees job satisfaction in hassan co operative milk union ltd

30,989 views

Published on

A stydy on employees job satisfaction in hassan co operative milk union ltd

Published in: Business, Technology
10 Comments
33 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
30,989
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
10
Likes
33
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

A stydy on employees job satisfaction in hassan co operative milk union ltd

  1. 1. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction INTRODUCTION “A Study on employees Job satisfaction in with reference to HAMUL” Objectives of the study:  To measure the employees job satisfaction level in HAMUL.  To study the employees perception towards organization.  To study the attitude of the employees towards their Work.  To identify the factors that motivates the employees.  To give suggestions for the growth & perspective of the company. Scope of the study:  Job Satisfaction is an important output that employees work for Organization.  It comprises of extrinsic and intrinsic factors and helps Maintain an able and willing work forces.  It is an interesting and significant area for conducting research.  The study made on the topic of Job Satisfaction will reveal the factor of feelings of employees  This report is useful to the management of the company to know the satisfaction levels of employees and they can take measures to increase productivity.  This report may be useful to the management students for reading, and may be useful in preparing their report on the job satisfaction” In business concerns, public organization etc. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 1
  2. 2. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Problem statement: The selected topic was “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION”  It is said that satisfied employee is a productive employee, any kind of grievance relating to organizational or personal to a greater extent influence on the job.  So every organization is giving higher priority to keep their employees with satisfaction by providing several facilities which improves satisfaction and which reduces dissatisfaction.  Job Satisfaction is considered as a key issue by the entrepreneur where efforts are taken and programs are initiated.  If an employee is not satisfied with the job there are chances for absenteeism, low turnover, lower productivity. committing of mistakes, diverting energy for different types of conflicts keeping this thing in view all organizations are trying to identify the areas where satisfaction to be improved to get out of the above dangers  In this connection a survey was conducted on behalf of HAMUL to identify the level of satisfaction in terms of strongly agree to strongly disagree on various job related factors. Research Methodology: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 2
  3. 3. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Data Sources: Primary Data: The Primary data was collected from the respondents by administering a structured questionnaire and also through observation, interview & discussion with management. Secondary Data: Apart from Primary data collected, the data collected through text books, the records of HAMUL, Journals from Library, Academic Reports, and Internet is used for the study. Sampling Sample Population: There are totally 415 employees working in the organization. Sample Size: Out of the total strength the sample taken amongst workers .i.e., 40 respondents. Sampling Area: The research was conducted at HAMUL, HASSAN Sample Method: The research was made by the survey in accordance to the convenience of the employees. So the sample type is convenient sampling. Tools Used for analysis: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 3
  4. 4. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Contact Instrument: A structured closed - end Questionnaire is used and the type of questions are dichotomous and likert scale. Contact Method: The research was conducted by using contact instruments like Questionnaire, interview and observation. The information was collected from both plant workers as well as from management staff. Data Analysis Techniques: The data is analyzed through simple analysis technique. The data tool is percentage method. Percentage method is used in making comparison between two or sense of Data. This method is used to describe relationship. Percentage of Respondents = No. of Respondents/ Total no. of Respondents X 100 Limitations of the study: • The study is conducted only in HASSAN. • Due to the limitation of the time the research could not be made more detailed. • Due to confidentiality of some information accurate response was not revealed by some of the respondents. • Some of the replies of the respondents may be biased. • Respondents had marked the answers in questionnaires which may be • Socially incorrect irrespective of their actual feelings. 2. INDUSTRY PROFILE H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 4
  5. 5. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction India is called the “country of villages” where it covers nearly 70% of its total area. In this relation we can say that Indian economy is base on rural activities and their development. Therefore we have to give prime importance to the rural activities. A dairy is a place for handling milk and milk products. Technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Dairy technology has been defined as that branch of dairy science which deals with the processing of milk and the milk products on an industrial scale. In developed dairying countries such as the USA the year 1850 is seen as the dividing line between farm and factory scale production. Various factors distribute to this change in these countries such as the concentration of the population in cities where the jobs are plentiful, rapid industrialization, improvement of transportation facilities, development of machines etc., The rural areas are identified for the production, urban areas are for the processing of the milk. 2.1 ORIGIN OF DAIRYING IN INDIA Around 1500 BC to 2000 BC the Aryans were first to domesticate cattle. Use them for tilling their land obtain milk to be consumed as food. Again it were Aryans who priced the milk of a cow more than its meat, forbade its slaughter, created legends about it and even worshipped it. Hindus even to this day consider cow as sacred. Besides it were only the East (India/China) which domesticated buffalo as milch animal succeeded so well that today, more than half the total production of milk in India is obtained from buffalo. Most of the farmers have one milk animal, they sell the milk through local milk contractors or middlemen. These traders have always exploited the poor and uneducated milk producers. It was in the late forties, when integrated approach for dairy development based on farmers owned milk co-operative was first adopted at Anand. The system includes milk procurement productions and marketing through farmer co-operatives. In India, the market milk technology may be considered to have commenced in1950 with the functioning of the Central Dairy of Aarey Milk Colony and milk product technology in 1956 with the establishment of AMUL dairy, Anand. The system of collective ownership, operation and control of milk trade by farmers came to be known as ANAND PATTERN. Anand pattern has given them an opportunity to have access to the modern technology. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 5
  6. 6. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The premises institution NDDB and IDC for application of the Anand pattern throughout the country. The whole project under which replication was envisioned, is named as “operation flood”. The success of Anand pattern depends as establishing a strong co operative infrastructure at the grass root level, making economically viable to strengthen. Dairy industry offers employment opportunity to the people so as to help the farmers to get fair price of milk. The farmers are provided with medical facilities to their cattle. Milk is becoming an alternative life line in our rural economy. With the advent of white revolution that is “SKHEERA KRANTI” in the same pattern of Denmark and Holland. Export of dairy products plays an important role in our foreign trade. It increases the foreign exchange and national income of our country and also economic development of our country 2.2 History of Indian milk market industry: • Organized milk handling was made in India with the establishment of Military Dairy Farms • Handling of milk in co operative milk unions established all over the country on a small scale in early stages. • Long distance refrigerated rail-transport of milk from Anand to Bombay since 1945. • Pasteurization and bottling of milk on a large scale for organized distributed was started at: Aarey - 1950 Calautta - 1958 Delhi - 1959 Mumbai - 1961 Madras - 1963 H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 6
  7. 7. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction • Establishment of milk plants under the 3 year plans for dairy development all over India. They were taken up the dual object of increasing the national level of milk consumption and ensuring better returns to the primary milk producer. Now India is one of the richest milk producing country in the world. In 1999 it produced milk up to 770 lakhs tons and the milk valued up to 75000 crores and 13% of total production in the world is produced by India itself. 2.3 Dairy Industry in Karnataka 2.3.1 Background In June 1974, an integrated project was launched in Karnataka to restructure and reorganize the dairy industry on the co operative principle and to lay foundation for a new direction in dairy development. Work on the first ever, World bank aided dairy development project was initiated in 1975. Initially the project covered 8 southern districts of Karnataka and Karnataka Dairy development corporation was set up to implement the project. Dairy developmental activities was set up with dairy co operative societies at grass root level, milk unions at the middle level and dairy development corporation at state level as an apex body with the responsibility of implementing Rs.51 crores project. After the closure of operation flood II the dairy development activities which continued under operation flood III ended on 1996. The post operation flood works are financed by NDDB under different terms and conditions. 2.3.2 Scope of the union As at the end of March 2009, a network of 972 Dairy Co operative Societies (DCS) have been organized and are spread over 166 taluks of the total 175 taluks in all the 27 districts of Karnataka. Unions are formed by federating societies in earmarked geographical area. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 7
  8. 8. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The Brand 'NANDINI' is the household name for Pure and Fresh milk and milk products. KMF has 13 Milk Unions throughout the State which procure milk from Primary Dairy Cooperative Societies (DCS) and distribute milk to the consumers in various Towns/Cities/Rural markets in Karnataka. Bangalore Belgaum Dakshina Kannada Gulbarga Shimoga Bijapur Mysore Bellary Mandya Dharwar Tumkur Kolar Hassan The Corporate Office of the Karnataka Milk Federation is located on Dr.M.H.Marigowda Road in Bangalore. The Federation has a Board consisting representatives of Milk Producers and the Government nominees. The day to day functions of the Federation is managed by a group of professional managers headed by the Managing Director Karnataka Cooperative Milk Producers' Federation Limited (KMF) is the Apex Body in Karnataka representing Dairy Farmers' Co-operatives. It is the second largest dairy co-operative amongst the dairy cooperatives in the country. In South India it stands first in terms of procurement as well as sales. One of the core functions of the Federation is marketing of Milk and Milk Products. 2.3.4 Mother Dairy, Bangalore, a Unit of KMF, is set up by NDDB on 7.12.1984. The Dairy which has expanded from 4LLPD to capacity of 7.00 LLPD has a unique nature of homogenizing the milk and selling to its consumers through 50 Automatic Bulk Vending Booths, 83 Shoppe’s and 70 FRP tanks. The Dairy also caters Milk in sachets and Milk Products through its 289 retailers. The average sale of milk per day is 2.60 Lakh liters during the year 2008-09. The entire requirement of milk is procured from Kolar Milk Union. The Dairy produces Butter, Ghee, Curds, Ice Cream & Skim Milk Powder. The activities of H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 8
  9. 9. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction all the Departments at Mother Dairy are being carried out through an on-line computer system. 2.3.5 World Bank Study – Observations: The World Bank, in its study on the effect of Co-operative dairying in Karnataka, has pointed out that: • The villages with Dairy Co-operative Societies are much better off than those without. • The families with dairy cattle are economically better than those without dairy cattle. • Women who had no control on the household income have better control in terms of Milk Money • A single commodity “MILK” has acted as a catalyst in the change in the Socio- Economic impact of the rural economy. • There is a positive impact on those at the lower end of the economic ladder both in terms of landholding and caste. 2.3.6 PERSPECTIVE PLAN 2010: After the closure of III project, Government of Karnataka and NDDB signed an MOU during February 2000, for further strengthening the Dairy Development Activities in Karnataka with an outlay of Rs.250 Crores. Consequent to the announcement of new lending terms and conditions by NDDB through an evolution of an action plan - Perspective 2010 to enable the dairy cooperatives to face the challenges of the increased demand for milk and milk products by focusing efforts in the four major thrust areas of Strengthening the Cooperatives. Enhancing Productivity, Managing Quality and building a National Information Network, plans are under implementation. The 4 Milk Unions viz., Dharwad, Tumkur, Bijapur and Gulbarga that were having accumulated losses were included for rehabilitation programme under H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 9
  10. 10. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4 COMPANY PROFILE 2.4.1 Hassan Co-operative Milk Producers' Societies Union Ltd The Union was registered on 30th March 1977 with the operational jurisdiction extended to 3 Districts namely Hassan, Kodagu &Chikkamagalur. The Dairy was setup under the Operation Flood II & III and has a processing capacity of 1,20,000 Litres of milk per day. The Union also has a Dairy at Kudige with a capacity of 50,000 litres per day which is the first Dairy in Karnataka State started during January 1955. The Union has three Chilling Centres at Birur(20,000 LPD), Holenarasipur(20,000 LPD) and Channarayapatna(1,00,000 LPD) with total chilling capacity of 1,40,000 litres per day respectively. The Union also produces Ghee, Peda, Curds, Khova and Butter Milk. The Union procures on an average 3,86,462 litres of milk and sells 1,09,578 litres per day. There are 5 Bulk Milk Coolers & 46 Automatic Milk Collection Units in the Union. Hassan Dairy was established under the world bank aid with an initial handling capacity of 60,000 KGPD and was being managed by the then Karnataka dairy development corporation. In the year 1987 with an idea of bringing all milk allied activities such as milk procurement, milk processing and milk marketing the Hassan dairy and the Kudige dairy (the first commission dairy plant) were handed over to Hassan Co operative Milk Producers Societies Union. The integrated system of monitoring the milk procurement, processing and marketing activities by milk producers themselves was established. 2.4.2 MISSION STATEMENT Hassan milk union aims to render the best services at normal cost to its members to increase milk production and produce good quality milk by paying remunerative price throughout the year, thereby improving their economic and social condition while ensuring high quality milk and milk products to the delighted level of the consumers at competitive price. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 10
  11. 11. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.3 VISION STATEMENT The union thrives hard to adopt the modern and eco friendly technologies to produce milk and milk products of international standards to make our presence prominent in the global market. 2.4.4 Quality policy HAMUL is the committed to the upliftment of its producers surplus member by supporting them to produce surplus milk of good quality and continually satisfy customer expectations and timely delivery of good quality milk and milk products meeting to legal standards by developing an healthy relationships with the suppliers and motivating the work force to adhere to good manufacturing practices 2.4.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Hassan co operative milk producers societies union is completely an autonomous body consisting of representatives from milk producers as policy makers • To produce continuous and remunerative market for the surplus milk in the rural areas. • To supply quality milk to customers in the urban areas at a competitive price. • To provide the technical inputs necessary to produce good quality milk and to facilitate increase in milk yield. • To provide self employment to rural folk and to make them economically self sustainable by which the migration of rural folk to urban areas is minimized. • To prevent the role of the middle men in the milk business and to increase their returns. • To establish a bridge between rural and urban folk and to play a vital role in changing he social and economic status of the rural folk. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 11
  12. 12. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.6 ROLE OF DAIRY CO OPERATIVE SOCIETY The dairy co operatives are organized in rural areas for the milk producers keeping in view the domestic principles and values. These societies educate, guide, support the milk producers in dairy development activities. 2.4.7 FUNCTIONING OF DAIRY CO OPERATIVES The dairy co operative function all through the year in two shifts, this will provide continuous market for the surplus milk produced and the payment for the milk supplied will be distributed to the producers on the predetermined day. And provides employment to the rural folk. Input activities include: • Veterinary services like regular vaccination • Artificial insemination services • Supply of balanced cattle feed and fodder slips • Training facilities 2.4.8 GROWTH OF THE UNION The milk union which was established in the year 1977 with 100 functional dairy co operatives collecting 10,300Kgs of milk per day is procuring on an average 3,86,482 Kgs per day from 1122 co operatives as on date with the increase in milk production the Hassan dairy with the initial capacity of 60,000 KGPD was expanded to 12,0,000 KGPD during 1996. 2.4.9 ACTIVITIES OF HASSAN MILK UNION 1. Organization of dairy co operative societies: As at the end of March 2010, 1197 societies have been registered. Out of functional societies, 330 women societies are functioning. 2. Membership Enrolment: As on 30th March 2010, 1,73,396 members have been enrolled of which 71,046 are small farmer, 48,866 are marginal farmers, 22,199 are agriculture laborers and 31,285 are other farmers. 3. Milk procurement activities: The present average milk procurement from 1122 milk societies is 3,86,462 Kgs/day at the end of March 2010. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 12
  13. 13. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.10 Product Profile Types of milk and milk products marketing by HAMUL Nandini Toned Milk Karnataka’s most favorite milk, Nandini Toned Milk is a Fresh and pure milk containing 3.0% fat and 8.5% SNF. Available in 500ml and 1 liter packs. Better to use within a day from the date of pack. Maximum Retail Price is Rs. 13/- per liter. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 13
  14. 14. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Nandini Homogenized Toned Milk Nandini Homogenized Milk is p.ure milk containing 3% Fat and 8.5% SNF. This is homogenized and pasteurized. Consistent right through, it gives you more cups of tea or coffee and is easily digestible. Available in 500 ml packets Nandini Full Cream Milk Nandini Full Cream Milk, Contains 6% Fat and 9% SNF. A rich, creamier and tastier milk, ideal for preparing home-made sweets and savories- available in 500ml and 1 liter packs. MRP Rs. 15/- per liter H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 14
  15. 15. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Good life Cow's pure milk, UHT processed bacteria free in a tamper-proof tetra-fino pack which keeps this milk fresh for 60 days without refrigeration until opened. Available in 500 ml Fino and in 200ml bricks at premium stores across the state. Smart Cow's pure milk, homogenized, double toned UHT processed milk bacteria free in a tamper proof tetra fino pack which keep the milk fresh for 60days without refrigeration until opened. At present the milk is being directly home delivered on request Available in 500ml pack H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 15
  16. 16. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Slim Cow's pure milk, homogenized, Skimmed. UHT processed milk bacteria free in a tamper proof tetra-fino pack which keep the milk fresh for 60 days without refrigeration until opened. Nandini Goodlife slim skimmed milk is 99.5% fat free. Available in 500ml Fino and in 200ml bricks at premium stores across the state. Shubham Buffalo's milk, 100% pure pasteurized processed and packed hygienically. This milk has 5% fat and 9% SNF. Available in 500ml and ltr, packs Mysore pak H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 16
  17. 17. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Fresh and tasty, Nandini Mysore Pak is made from quality Bengal Gram, Nandini Ghee and Sugar. It's a delicious way to relish a sweet moment. Available in 250gms.PP container shrink packed to preserve freshness. Can be kept for 7 days advised to consume fresh to enjoy its excellent taste Nandini Curd Nandini Curd made from pure milk. It’s thick and delicious giving you all the goodness of homemade curds. Available in 200 grams and 500 grams packs. Nandini butter is rich smooth and delicious. Nandini Butter is made out of fresh pasteurized cream. Rich taste, smooth texture and the rich purity of cow’s milk, makes any preparation a delicious treat. Available in 100 grams, 200grams and 500grams cartons both salted and unsalted. Nandini Ghee H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 17
  18. 18. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction A taste of purity, Nandini Ghee made from pure butter. It is fresh and pure with a delicious flavor. Hygienically manufactured and packed in a special pack to retain the goodness of pure ghee, having Shelf life of 6 months at ambient temperatures. Available in 200ml, 500ml, 1000ml, sachets and also in 5lts tins and 15.0 kg tins. Nandini Butter Nandini spiced buttermilk is a refreshing health drink. It is made from quality curds and is blended with fresh green chillies, green coriander leaves, asafetida and fresh ginger. Nandini spiced butter promotes health and easy digestion. It is available in 200ml packs and is priced at most competitive rates, so that it is affordable to all sections of people. Nandini Butter Milk H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 18
  19. 19. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Nandini butter milk is Rich, smooth and delicious. Available in 100 grams (salted), 200 grams and 500 grams cartons both salted and unsalted. Cheese Delicious Cheese, processed with utmost care to ensure the smooth and rich taste of pure cheese. It's highly nutritious an excellent source of milk proteins and a rich source of calcium. Need to be kept under refrigeration. Available in 100gms carton Paneer H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 19
  20. 20. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Pure and tasty dishes with Nandini Paneer! A fresh, nutritive product made by coagulating pure milk, it is an excellent source of milk protein. Nandini paneer is ideal for vegetarian dishes such as mutter paneer, sag paneer and various other dishes.Refrigerated storage in preferable. Available in 200gms pack, specially packed in a five layer film and vacuum packed to preserve its quality. Bulk packings are also available. Flavored milk Sterilized flavored milk, a nutritious and healthy drink and an all-season wholesome drink available in five different flavors - pineapple, rose, badam, pista and natural orange. Apart from refreshing energy. Available in 200ml Nandini Peda H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 20
  21. 21. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction No matter what you are celebrating! Made from pure milk, Nandini ‘Peda’ is a delicious treat for the family. It is maintained at room temperature, for approximately 7 days. Available in 250grams pack containing 10 pieces each. Gulab jamon mix Great way to those soft and juicy jamoon treats at home! Nandini Gulab Jamoon Mix is made from Nandini skimmed milk powder, maida, soji and Nandini Special Grade Ghee.Available in 100gms and 200 gms standy pouch with a five layer foil lamination shelf life of 6 months Khova H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 21
  22. 22. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Khova is prepared out of fresh milk. It is an ideal base to prepare delicious sweets at home like peda, Gulab Jamoon, Kalakand, Burfi, Gajar Halwa and the like. Nandini Khova gives you a high nutritive value with large quantities of muscle building proteins, bone forming minerals and energy giving fat and lactose. To be kept under refrigeration available in 200gms vaccum packed in a special five layer pocu film Khova is also available in bulk pack for marriages and other functions Milk powder Enjoy the taste of pure milk! Skimmed milk powder made from pure milk, processed and packed hygienically. Available in 50gms, 200gms, 500gms, 1kg and 25kg pack Cashew Burfi H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 22
  23. 23. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Prepared using quality Cashew nuts, Khova and Ghee. It leaves a lingering Cashew flavor in your mouth. Available in 250 gm in a P.P.Box, shrink wrapped to preserve its freshness .shelf life 12 days Nandini Basan Ladoo It is a delicious indigenous product prepared from pure Ghee, Gramflour and sugar added with cashews. Available in 250 Gms pack containing 6 Pieces. Shelf life 1 month Nandini bite H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 23
  24. 24. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction A unique sweet. Cocoa based. Nandini Bite is a three-in-one sweet prepared by using Mysorepak, Khova and dremed with Almond. Available in 25 gm Aluminium foil packing. Shelf life 12 days Nandini Set Curd NANDINI SET CURD, thick and highly nutritive curd is made from 3% Toned Milk with added imported bacterial cultures, filled into 200gm and 400gm cups and allowed to set into curds. Imported bacterial cultures constitute curd forming bacteria of high genetic abilities and release antimicrobial substances into curd imparting disease resistance to consumers( probiotic characteristic). The curd apart from therapeutic in nature has very high shelf-life and can be kept for 15 days in refrigerator without curds becoming sour. NANDINI SET CURD is competitively priced at Rs.7 per 200gm cup and at Rs.13 per 400gm cup. Shelf life 15 days in refrigerator without curds becoming sour 2.4.11 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE Board of Directors- Chairman H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 24
  25. 25. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Managing Director- CEO Personnel Assistance Administrat Finance Procureme Marketing Purchase MIS (3) Department ion (15) (23) nt and input (25) (3) Sr. staff (1) (69) 2.4.12 PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT Administration H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 25
  26. 26. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Deputy Manager Training/ Domestic Legal Cell Establishment Enquiry (Personnel) Administrative Assistant Manager Officer in charge officer Office superintendent Support staff Personnel department plays a crucial role in an organization which is always referred as the strength of the organization. Recruitment: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 26
  27. 27. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Recruitment is made as per the cader strength approved by Registrar of co operatives. And the said cader strength is within the preview of co operative act and rules. Reservation policies of the government are being followed for recruitments. Whenever Union goes for recruitment the necessary steps are being taken as per the guidelines stated in its Bye law and proper advertisement will be given in the State News papers for the posts required and all the processes are made as per Govt. Norms and Suitable candidates will be called either for written test or interview or both. Training: HAMUL is having training facilities for its employees at various reputed training centers and for new employees, they will be facilitated with one month on the job training at their respective areas. CTI (Central training institute), a unit of KMF, Bangalore, is one of the best training centers having its own facilities with residential facilities providing training to skilled and unskilled employees as well. Management development program to middle level management officers of the milk union on various subjects related to dairy, marketing, administration and procurement and input. In addition to this, HAMUL deputes its officers and personnel for different technical and non technical training in the following training centers: 1. SRDTC(Southern regional demonstration and training center) for both technical and non technical training. 2. Mansinh institute of training, Mahsana, Gujrat, only for technical training. 3. Vaikunt Mehta institute, Pune. For management development programmes. 4. Institute of rural management, Anand. 5. Regional institute of co operative management, BANG 6. CII- Confederation of Indian industries, institute for quality- for food industrial platforms are created. Orientation programme: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 27
  28. 28. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The new employees are given 3 to 4 days orientation training program at CTI, Bangalore, a unit of KMF. This particular training is given to the newly recruited employees irrespective of their cader. Employee promotion: It is clearly stated in the cadre and strength document which is approved by registrar of co-operative societies. The employee promotion is dependent on the merit and seniority basis. It is the mandatory method followed. To decide on this, the employee education, obedience, carrying of the job and attendance are taken into consideration. Record maintenance: HAMUL is having well establishment section under the administration department which maintains and updates records and other details of each employee with individual record book and file. Statutory facilities: Leave: Casual leave of 15 days per year and for new entrants 1 day per month for one year is followed. Employees of the HAMUL are eligible for 30 days earned leave in each year during their service and also once in 2 year block period they will be given the option facility for surrender of leave of one month and to avail the encashment facility. The accumulation of leave days at present is restricted to 240 days. HPL(Half pay leave) facilities are available. If any accident takes place during the working hours the special leave is given: • Special leave: the rabies leave is given for the infected dog bite. And also the blood donation leave for 1 day is given. • Maternity leave: on condition, with payment. • Extra-ordinary leave: depending on the service or any major health issues. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 28
  29. 29. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Conveyance Allowance: The Hassan Milk Union is providing conveyance allowance to its employees who are having two wheeler vehicles and and commuter charges for those who are dependent on public transport per month is fixed. Uniform: Uniform will be provided to the employees who are working in the factory and this facility is extended to only up to the cader of Technical Officers. Transfer: The transfer facilities are given. It is in the hands of Managing Director. If the transfer is on the request, employee is not entitled for cash benefits but if it is not on request, he is entitled for cash benefits. Retirement: The retirement age is 60 years. But on health grounds there is a consideration. And the 3 months prior notice is a must before leaving the job anytime before the retirement. Retirement benefits: A salary of 15 days per year of completed years of service, 3.5 lakh ceiling is applicable and all the gratuity announcements are according to government notifications. Provident fund is as per the government norms. 12.5% toward provident fund contribution per all the employees. Medical facilities These facilities for self and dependents. At present each members will get reimbursement amount up to Rs 50,000 for impatient treatment Canteen facilities: Good canteen facilities are provided for employees. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 29
  30. 30. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 2.4.13 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: The dairy works in 3 shifts to receive milk in the morning and evening shifts. The milk received from DCS in cans will be tested for quality and weight is recorded. The payment will be made based on the quality and the quantity. The milk received in tankers will be weighed and tested and pumped into chiller and stored in H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 30
  31. 31. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction insulator storage tank. The local market needed quantity will be pasteurized and stored in insulated HMST for packing toned milk, double toned milk and standardized homogenized milk. Apart from this, union also produces ghee, peda, flavored milk, curds and butter milk. The excess fat in the milk will be separated in the form of cream and issued for butter making. The cream breaks into butter and butter milk where butter is issued for ghee making and butter milk is tested for fat/COB (clout on boiling) and it will be reprocessed or will be drained out. Based on the market demand, butter is drawn for ghee production and same will be packed as per requirement. Power The KPTCL supplies the power upto 325 kilo watts per month. In case of shortage in supply diesel generator is used. 2.4.14 MARKETING DEPARTMENT: Marketing should be considered as the core business function in this competitive world as it establishes, develops, and commercializes long term customer relationships and helps in meeting organizational goals. Pricing is a federal policy and KMF decides the marketing price of the milk end the milk products. KMF has adopted pricing mainly on four categories namely: • Double Toned Milk – Rs 14/100ml • Toned Milk – Rs 16/1000ml • Standardized (homogenized) Milk – Rs 18/1000ml • Full Cream Milk – Rs 20/1000ml As HAMUL is procuring 4 lakhs milk per day and its local market requirement is 1.2 lakhs kgs/day. As such the excess milk is being sent to sister unions and Interstate federations and balance if any will be sent for conversion into butter and SNP. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 31
  32. 32. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 32
  33. 33. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.15 CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION The network of distribution of milk was formed to be very systematic and has made distinct role in the successful marketing of milk. The processed and pasteurized milk is first packed and stored and then distributed to the target customers. Processing and manufacturing Storage Dealers or Retailers Consumer 2.4.16 PROCUREMENT DEPARTMENT: The milk co operative societies will be organized in villages where there is excess milk production. The extention staff of the union will visit the villages and conducts the survey about the village population, animal population and the availability of the surplus milk and report to the office for consideration. The office will issue necessary instructions to organize the societies. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 33
  34. 34. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Then the first Gramasabha meeting will be conducted and select the promoters to promote the Dairy cooperative in the village and with the permission of Registrar of Cooperative with the recommendation of Milk union the Village Chief promoter will permitted to collect the share capital and with all fulfillment of required norms then proposal will be sent to registrar of co operative department for registration. On registration, milk co operative society will be commissioned and starts procuring milk from the producers. The milk procured will be transported through trucks to near by chilling centers and dairy where milk is processed further. The society will be provided with veterinary services, AH services, feed and fader services, training and extention services. The village dairy Cooperatives will receives payments for the milk supplied to Union once in a week and the same will be distributed among its produce members every week and day is fixed which is convenient to the concerned village. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 34
  35. 35. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.17 STORES/ PURCHASE DEPARTMENT: Purchase Purchase/stores Officer Sub staff HAMUL is having a separate purchase department and purchases are made based on the requirements of various department and purchases are made as per the relation laid out. HAMUL is having a full pledged stores which supplies materials to various based on the indents or requirements and the people who are working in the stores are very well worked in inventory management. Both purchase and store departments are working under the supervision of manager dairy. The activity takes place in stores: Requisition letter: First the manager of concerned department depending upon the need for the goods sends a requisition letter to the manager dairy and then once approved the same reaches the stores in charge, the purchase section places an order. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 35
  36. 36. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Purchase order: But for the goods regular nature depending upon the stock level , the stores in charge takes up the responsibility to place order and have the materials ready when ever required. Here in the co operative sector as per the transparency act if the goods and where the capital expenditure is involved, the enquire letters are sent the suppliers and who ever quotes the least and also with quality gets the order. And the same purchase order copy goes to 1. the supplier 2. the store in charge 3. Accounts section 4. concerned user section Purchase order also includes 1. Mode of payment after and before supply 2. Terms and conditions(taxes) 3. Delivery period 4. Mode of dispatch Invoice: Against the purchase order the concerned supplier gives the invoice. Once the invoice is received the cross checking of materials as per the specifications purchase order is done. The concerned department communicated about the goods and the concerned person gives a user section remark on the quality of the product. Hence the goods received note is sent to concerned user section. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 36
  37. 37. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.18 MIS: Management Information System Assistant Manager System Officer Support Staff The main activity of the MIS department in the organization is to act as the information source for all the levels of management for the decision making in different situation. Hence to say the integration of information from all the departments for the decision making for all the three levels which exist in the organization: 1. Top level 2. Middle level 3. Lower level H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 37
  38. 38. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The information collected from the dairy and various chilling units on on-line and information collected from Marketing on every day will be processed and send to KMF every day and also monthly procurement and input wing and the data related to artificial insemination and progress achieved in Fodder and Feeds division are collected and necessary information will be prepared and sent to various department as well will be submitted to CEO and other section heads to enable them to take necessary action and also with the help of these data MIS department will prepare the annual Targets to the Dept of Procurement and Input and Marketing. Also, All these data is given to the MIS department and the integration on monthly basis is taken up and the report as sent to the managing director and same place before the monthly meetings held of all the milk unions. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 38
  39. 39. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.19 FINANCE DEPARTMENT: Source of finance to start KMF (previously known as KDDC) and its units is from World bank channels through agreement between NDDB under Tripartite agreement between NDDB, KMF and Government of Karnataka. Now, source of funds are share capital and realization from sale proceeds of milk and milk products. As on 31.03.2010 the paid up capital was 795.29 lakhs and 206.16 lakhs loan was taken for operating. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 39
  40. 40. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.20 SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS: • Procurement and Input( P&I) network • Goodwill- Brand network • ISO 9001:2000 certified dairy • Ambience of Union area is most suitable for Dairying. • Weather Facility • Geographical Area WEAKNESSES: • Advertisement execution in its early stage • Early stages of automation and computerization • Competition • Problematic distribution OPPORTUNITIES: • Enter rural market • Exports-by developing tetra pack technology • Abundant area availability for milk procurement THREATS: • Entry of big players • Government policies • Stringent food hygiene policies H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 40
  41. 41. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.21 ACHIEVEMENTS: Hassan milk union is procuring milk from all the 13 taluks of three districts and selling quality milk in all the taluks and small towns. The union and all the dairy co operatives are being managed by the democratically elected boards from among the milk producers. The technical input to dairy co operatives and the dairy plants are managed by well trained, committed professionals and technical team. 91% of the milk co operative societies are operating under profit The union has successfully implemented the animal induction program for SC ST and OBC since 1996 with the financial assistance from central and state governments and rendered direct loans to the beneficiaries at lower interest rates. 254 women dairy co operatives (as on May 2009) have been organized since 1997 under support training and education program(STEP) The union has also implemented mini dairy scheme and bring entrepreneurial environment in the rural area. The union has set up Artificial insemination facilities for dairy co operatives. The union has rendered emergency veterinary services round the clock. Fertility camps are being conducted once in three months by inviting experts in the field. The union supplies quality fodder slips and seeds through the year and facilitates the availability of green fodder. The union is insuring the life of milk producers and dairy co operative staff with the co ordination from Life insurance corporation and National insurance company since 1997-1998 under “samajika suraksha yojana”. The union has launched the “YESHASHVINI” program to the milk producers wherein the milk producers are provided with the best available medical facility at free of cost. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 41
  42. 42. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The union has successfully implemented the Total energy management program and Total quality management program (quality excellence from cow to consumer) since 2001 respectively. Quality awareness programs are being conducted regularly for school children, house wives and consumers. The union has got ISO 9001:2000 certification from TUV India, Mumbai. The union has got Energy Conservation Award. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 42
  43. 43. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 2.4.22 BUYING IN HASSAN CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCTS SOCIETIES UNION LIMITED: (HCMPSUL) The HASSAN Co-operative Milk Producer’s society has 643 societies. These societies are located in nook of every village so that it is convenient to the farmers to sell their milk to HCMPSUL. There is non-stop buying of milk throughout the year. Milk collected will be (stored in suitable silo) first tested by using ‘Lacto meter’ to see the proportion of water in milk, then they are stored in cans and sent to the nearest chilling center because the non pasteurized milk life is 5 to 6 hours where during direct transmission milk sometimes become COB (Clotting on Boiling) which is rejected from processing of milk. Chilling centers are opened in the place, which is far from the processing plant. These chilling centers test the milk of each village by using Acid Alcohol test and estimate the presence of Fat and SNF (Solid not FAT) to distribute prices to the societies. Then the tested milk from every village is stored in milk silo. If in case they receive any COB milk they there only take out the butter from the milk and send butter for further processing, & not the COB milk. The HCMPSUL tankers and transporting vehicles visit twice a day to procure milk from these societies on the basis of fat and SNF who will in turn pay to its members. The present standard of milk before sending to the further process of milk to HCMPSUL is the standard fixed to 26 reading in lacto meter and 8.5% solid not fat. If it is above the standard they will be marked with increase in degree. HCMPSUL procures more or less 86000 liters per day, 70000 liters on a year’s average. Where nearly 40000 liters of milk is consumed liquid milk in a HCMPSUL jurisdiction area remaining is processed as milk products. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 43
  44. 44. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction LITERATURE REVIEW 3. METHODOLOGY OF LITERATURE REVIEW The review of literature is conducted to analyze various factors for job satisfaction at KMF Ltd HASSAN. The books and articles of various authors are referred to find out the kind of methods which are suited for rating in job satisfaction level. The research has searched many books on job satisfaction to collect the literature about the Job Satisfaction. To analyze the effectiveness of the Job Satisfaction level in KMF Ltd HASSAN. The information collected was confined to the journals published about the human resource management. The review of literature helped the research to conduct the survey in better and extensive manner. It should also help the research for finding and getting deeper into the topic. For this purpose the abstracting and indexing journals and published biographies and unpublished biographies are first to go. 3.1 Introduction to Human Resource Management: Modern organizational setting is characterized by constant changes relating to environmental factors and human resources. As regards environmental factors, we find changes in the operating organizational structure, the networking procedures, customs or norms and the economic, political and social patterns in which organizations exist. Moreover, there is constant change in human resources. New individuals are being employed with their new ideas and expectations while the existing workforce is constantly changing vis-à-vis ideas, attitudes and values. Although the change may provide solution to some problems, it may create several new ones. There is an urgent need to understand these problems , anticipate them and to find solutions to them. The responsibility to find out solutions to these problems lies with every manager who has to be prepared to deal with different changes effectively through educational and developmental programmes. Obviously, every manager is responsible for management of human resources – of course with the advice and help of personnel department. Management of human resources is the essence of being a manager who has H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 44
  45. 45. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction to get things done through others. Specifically, his task relates to leading, mobilizing and directing the efforts of people without which he can be a technician but not a manager. Thus, every manager has to develop and maintain his competence in managing human resources which have assumed utmost significance in modern organizations. 3.2 Definition: Human resource management is management functions that helps manager's recruit, select, train and develop members for an organization. It focuses on the people in organizations. 3.3 Components of human resource are skills knowledge value Creative ability. 3.3.1 Human resource management: While managing the human resources one has to perform tasks like a. Employing the people b. Developing the resources c. Utilizing the resources and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements Human resource refers to the knowledge skills abilities talents aptitude, values and beliefs of an organization’s workforce. Knowledge skills, creative abilities and talents play an important role in deciding the efficiency and effectiveness of an organizations workforce. Human resource development improves the utilization value of an organization. The difference in the level of performance of two organizations also depends on utilization value of human resources. 3.4 IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 45
  46. 46. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction The importance of HRM can be discussed under three standard points: 1. Social significance: Management of personnel enhances their dignity by satisfying their social needs. This is done by: i. Providing suitable and most productive employment, which brings them psychological satisfaction. ii. Making maximum utilization of the resource in an effective manner and paying the employees a reasonable compensation in proportion to the contribution made by him. 2. Professional significance: By providing healthy working environment it promotes teamwork in the employees. This is done by: i. Marinating the dignity of the employee as a human being. ii. Providing maximum opportunities for personal dept. 3. Significance for individual enterprise : It can help the organization in accomplishing its goal by: i. Creating right attitude among employees through effective motivation. ii. Securing willing communication operation for achieving goals fulfilling their own social and other psychological needs like love, affection, esteem etc. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 46
  47. 47. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.5 Scope of HRM: The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of a worker from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or She leaves – come under the purview of HRM. Specifically, the activities included are- HR planning, job analysis and design, recruitment and selection, orientation and placement, training and development, performance appraisal and job evaluation, employee remuneration, motivation communication, welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like. For the sake of convenience all these functions into seven sections as shown in the figure. Nature of HRM Prospects of Employee HRM Hiring Human Resource Management Employee and Industrial Executive Relations Remuneration Employee Employee Maintenance Motivation H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 47
  48. 48. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.6 HRM Functions: Human Resource Management must perform certain functions. These functions have been stated while outlining the scope of HRM. 3.6.1 Supporting functions: 1. Training and Development 2. Appraisal 3. Placement 4. Compensation 5. Assessment 6. Employee relation 7. Selection 8. Benefits 9. HR Planning 10. Union management H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 48
  49. 49. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.7 Introduction to Job Satisfaction The term Job satisfaction is of almost significance from the standpoint of employee morale. It refers to employees’ general attitude towards his work. Lock defines work Satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s work or work experience’. The extent that a person’s work fulfils his dominant need and is consistent with his expectations and values, the work will be satisfying. 3.8 DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION: According to ABRAHAM A there are two types of variables that determine the work Satisfaction of an individual, They are 1 .Organization Variables and 2. Personal Variables 1. Organization Variables: (a) Occupational level: The higher the level of the work, the greater the satisfaction of the individual this is because higher level work carry greater prestige and self control. People at higher level work find most of their needs satisfied than when they are in lower level ones. (b) Work Content: The extent to which work provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility will increase work satisfaction. (c) Considerable Leadership: People like to be treated with consideration. Hence considerable leadership results in higher work satisfaction than inconsiderable leadership. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 49
  50. 50. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction (d) Pay & Promotional Opportunities: All the other things being equal these variables are positively related to work satisfaction. (e) Interaction in the Work Group: Work Satisfaction will result if interaction is most satisfying i. e, when 1. It results in recognition that other person’s attitudes are similar to Ones own. 2. It facilitates the achievement of goals. 2. Personal Variables: For some people, it appears most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organizational conditions involved, where as for others, most work will satisfying, personal variables like age, educational level, sex etc., are responsible for this difference. a) Age: Generally there is a positive relation between the two variables upto the pre- retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. An individual aspires for better and more prestigious work in later years of his life. Finding hi channels for advancement blocked his satisfaction declines. b) Educational Level: The higher the education, the higher the reference group which the individual looks for guidance to educate his job rewards, c) Role Perception: Different individuals hold different perceptions about their role that is the kind of activities and behaviors. They should engage in performing their job successfully. The more accurate the role perception of an individual the greater is satisfaction. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 50
  51. 51. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction d) Gender: There is yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are most satisfied with their jobs than men, holding such factors as work and occupational constant. One might predict this to be the case, considering the generally lower occupational aspirations of women. 3.9 SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION Several job elements contribute to job satisfaction. The most important among them are wage structure, nature of work, promotion chances, quality of supervision, work group, working conditions. Wages Wages play a significant role in influencing job satisfaction. This is because of two reasons. First, money is an important instrument in fulfilling ones needs and two employees often see pay as a reflection of management concern for them. Employees want pay system, which. Is simple, fair and in line with their expectation. Nature of work Most employees have intellectual challenges on job. They tend to prefer being, given opportunities to their skills and abilities and being offered a variety of tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. These characteristics make jobs mentally challenging. Jobs that have little challenges create boredom. Promotions Promotional opportunities affect job satisfaction considerably. The desire for promotion is generally strong among employees as it involves change in job content, pay responsibility, independence status and like. Supervision There is a positive relationship between the quality of supervision and job satisfaction. Supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 51
  52. 52. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction subordinates and take as personal interest in them contribute to their employee’s satisfaction. Work group The work group does serve as a source of satisfaction to individual, employees. It does so primarily by providing group members with opportunities for interaction with each other. The work group is even stronger source of satisfaction when members have similar attitudes and values. Working conditions Work conditions that are comparative with an employee’s physical comfort and that facilitate doing a good job contribute to good job. 3.10 THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION 3.10.1 HERZBERG’S TWO FACTORS THEORY Two factors theory also known as the motivator hygiene theory addresses both motivation and satisfaction and is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The factor theory is classified as belonging to the subgroup of content theories; theories that attempt to identify the needs that must be met for the individual to be satisfied on the job. Locke (1976) evaluated Maslow needs hierarchy and Herzberg’s theory uses the team motivators to include satisfying experiences. Because of this, Herzberg’s theory is an excellent example of the conceptual and definitional overlap between the processes of motivation and satisfaction. Herzberg, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are based on two different sets of needs. Motivators originate within the individual; hygiene needs stem from the environment. To factor theory is based to some extend on Maslow’s need hierarchy. Maslow’s sociological, safety and social needs are assumed to be provided by society, securing them would lead to a feeling of mentality not having hem would lead to be a feeling of dissatisfaction H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 52
  53. 53. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.10.2 MASLOW’S NEED HEIRARCHY THEORY Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Psychological and safety needs were described as lower order and social, esteem and self actualization as higher- order needs are satisfied internally (within the person) whereas lower order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by such things as pay, union contracts and tenure) in fact, the natural conclusion to be drawn from Maslow’s classification is that in times of economic plenty, almost all permanently employed workers have their lower- order needs substantially met. Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theories intuitive logic and ease of understanding. 3.10.3 HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATORS Company policy and administration Achievement Supervision Recognition Salary Work itself Interpersonal relations Responsibility Working conditions Advancement Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite processes, they involve two separate sets of factors. According to Herzberg, fulfilling hygiene needs leads only to a temporary absence of dissatisfaction, and employee demands for salary increase or will decrease accordingly. Organizations can increase employee motivation by designing jobs that provide opportunities for personal challenge, responsibility advancement and growth. Herzberg initiated two concepts by which these new job designs could be accomplished. Job enlargement - In which employees are given more of the same kinds of activities within which they can apply existing skills. Job environment – means that employee is afforded opportunities to increase their repertoire of skills and is given the chance to more vertically to other jobs within the organization. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 53
  54. 54. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.10.4 THEORY X AND THEORY Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labelled theory X and the other basically positive, labelled theory Y. after viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human being is based on a certain grouping of assumptions he or she tends to mould his or her behaviour toward subordinates according to these assumptions. 3.10.5 ERG THEORY Clayton of Yale university has reworked Maslow’s need hierarchy to all it more closely with the empirical research. His revised need hierarchy is labelled ERG theory. Alderfer argues that there are three groups of core needs – existence, relatedness, and growth hence, the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be psychological and safety needs. The second group of needs are those of relatedness and desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow’s social need and the external component of Maslow esteem classification. Finally Alderfer isolates growth needs – an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic and extrinsic component form Maslow’s esteem category and the characteristics included under self actualization. Besides substituting three needs for five, how does Alderfer’s ERG theory differ from Maslow’s in contrast to the hierarchy of needs theory the ERG theory demonstrates that: 1. More than one need may be operative at the same time, and 2. If the gratification of higher – level is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lower level needs increase. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 54
  55. 55. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 3.10.6 REINFORCEMENT THEORY A counterpoint to goal setting theory is reinforcement theory. The former is a cognitive approach, proposing that individual’s purposes direct his or her action. In reinforcement theory, we have a behaviourist approach, which argues that reinforcement conditions behaviour. The two are clearly ay odds philosophically. Reinforcement theories see behaviour as being environmentally caused. You need not be concerned, they would argue, with internal cognitive events; what controls behaviour are reinforces any consequence that when immediately following a response, increases the probability that the behaviour will be repeated. 3.10.7 EQUITY THEORY Evidence indicates that the referent chosen is an important variable in equity. They are four referent comparisons that an employee can use; 1. Self – inside: an employee’s experience in a different position inside his or her current organization. 2. Self – outside: employees experiences in situation or position outside his or her current organization. 3. other- side: another individual or group of individuals inside the employees ‘organization. 4. other- inside: another individuals or group of individuals outside the employees organization. Employees might compare themselves to friends, neighbours, co- workers, colleagues in other organizations, or past jobs they themselves have had. The referent an employee chooses will be influenced by the information the employee holds about referents as well as by the attractiveness of the referent. This has led to focusing on four moderating variables- gender, length of tenure, level in the organization, and amount of education or professionalism. Research shows that both men and women prefer same sex comparisons. The research also demonstrates that women are typically paid less than same work. So a female that uses another female as a referent tends to result in a lower comparative standard. This leads us to conclude that employees in jobs that are not sex H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 55
  56. 56. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction segregated which make more cross sex comparisons than those in jobs that are either made or female dominated. This also suggests that if women are tolerant of lower pay, it may be due to the comparative standard they use. Based on equity theory, when employees perceive an inequity, they can be predicted to make one of six choices. 1. change their inputs( for example don’t exert as much of power) 2. change their outcomes( for examples individuals paid on piece- rate basis can increase their pay by producing a higher quantity of units of lower quality) 3. distort perceptions of others(for example “Mikes performance isn’t as desirable as I previously thought it was”) 4. Distort perceptions of self (for example “I used to think I worked at a moderate pasce but no I realize that I work a lot harder than everyone else”.) 5. Choose a different referent (“I may not make as much as my brother in law, bit I am doing a lot better than my dad did when he was my age”). 6. Leave the field (for example quit the job). 3.10.8 EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy theory argues that the strength of tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. In more practical terms, expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational reward like a bonus, a salary increase, or a promotion; and that the rewards will satisfy the employees personal goals. The theory therefore, focuses on three relationships. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 56
  57. 57. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Data Analysis & Interpretation TABLE-1 1) Table showing Employee job satisfaction at work Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 36 90 No 02 5 Can’t say 02 5 Total 40 100 90 80 70 60 50 %of 40 Respondents 30 20 10 0 Yes No cant say Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with their work. Only few members are not satisfied. So it clearly shows that employees of HAMUL are highly satisfied with their present job. TABLE-2 2) Factors that influence employees’ motivation. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 57
  58. 58. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Responses Respondents satisfied % of Respondents Good pay 21 52.5 Promotion 04 10 Less Supervision 05 12.5 Good Working 10 25 conditions Total 40 100% 60 50 40 30 20 % of Respondents 10 0 Good pay Less supervision Interpretation: Maximum number of employees are given priorities to pay. So it clearly shows that the HAMUL employees are highly motivated by good pay for do their work. TABLE-3 3) Table showing employees response to salary being offered at HAMUL Responses No of Respondents % of respondents H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 58
  59. 59. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Yes 34 85 No 3 7.5 No Comments 3 7.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to know their satisfaction towards salary offerings. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that employees are satisfied with the salary allowances and offers provided by the organization, with maximum of 85% saying yes, 7.5% each with no satisfaction and no comment response. 90 80 70 60 50 40 %of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Yes No No comments Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with Salary offering at HAMUL. This clearly shows that HAMUL is giving good salaries to their employees. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 59
  60. 60. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction TABLE-4 4) Table showing other sources of Income of employees Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 6 15 No 34 85 Can’t say -- 0 Total 40 100% Concept: An attempt is made to know Employee’s other sources of income. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that 15% of employees are having other sources of income, rest 85% are dependent on HAMUL income. 90 80 70 60 50 40 %of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Yes No Cant say Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are HAMUL Salary dependent. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 60
  61. 61. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction TABLE-5 5) Table showing the way employees came to the present position: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Promotion 18 45 Direct Appointment 21 52.5 Transfer 1 2.5 Total 40 100% Concept: An attempt is made to know the way employee’s came to present position. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that employees were placed in the company through i.e. 45% of the employees through promotion, 52.5% of the employees through Direct Appointment, and 2.5% of the employees through Transfer. 60 50 40 30 %of Respondents 20 10 0 pormotion Direct transfer appointment Interpretation: Maximum numbers of Employees were placed through Direct Appointment. So this shows that maximum numbers of employees of HAMUL are got in to present position through direct appointment. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 61
  62. 62. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction TABLE-6 6) Table showing employees satisfaction towards employment conditions prevailing in organization Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 38 95 No 2 5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to know the level of employment conditions prevailing in the organization. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that the employment conditions prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 95% of the respondents are highly satisfied with employment conditions, 5% of respondents are not satisfied. 100 80 60 % of respondents 40 20 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with their employment conditions. This suggests HAMUL has good infrastructure & this motivates employees to work better. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 62
  63. 63. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction TABLE-7 7) Table showing employees response to Organizational promotion & Transfer policies: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 37 92.5 No 3 7.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to study the promotion & transfer policies prevailing in the organization. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that the promotion & Transfer policies prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 92.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 7.5% of respondents are not satisfied. 100 80 60 %of Respondents 40 20 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with Transfer & Promotional Policies. So it shows that maximum number HAMUL employees are satisfied with their promotion & transfer policy. TABLE-8 H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 63
  64. 64. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 8) Table showing employees response towards physical working conditions: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 39 97.5 No 1 2.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to study the physical working conditions prevailing the organization. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that the Physical working conditions prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 97.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 2.5% of respondents are not satisfied. 100 90 80 70 60 50 % of Respondents 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with Physical working conditions. This suggests that maximum numbers of employees in the organization are comfortable with their physical working conditions. TABLE-9 H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 64
  65. 65. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 9) Table showing employee level of satisfaction towards Relation existing b/ w Subordinates & Superiors: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 39 97.5 No 1 2.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to know the level of employee’s relation existing with their Sub ordinates and Superiors. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that the Relation existing b/w Subordinates & Superiors prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 97.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 2.5% of respondents are not satisfied. 100 80 60 %of Respondents 40 20 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with Relation existing b/w Subordinates & Superiors. This shows that in HAMUL, their will be good relationship exists between the subordinates & superiors . TABLE-10 10) Table showing employees response towards Working Hours H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 65
  66. 66. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 39 97.5 No 1 2.5 Total 40 100 Concept:An attempt is made to know the level of employee’s satisfaction towards working hours. Analysis:From the above table, it is clear that the working hours prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 97.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 2.5% of respondents are not satisfied . 100 80 60 %of Respondents 40 20 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with working hours. This suggest thatthe working hours in the HAMUL is sufficient to do the work & most of the employees satisfied with working hours. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 66
  67. 67. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction TABLE-11 11) Table showing the employees satisfaction towards conflict resolution: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Always 12 30 Quite often 3 7.5 Some times 5 12.5 Rarely 6 15 Never 14 35 Total 40 100% Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction towards conflict resolution. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that conflict resolution was shown from the majority of the respondent’s i.e. 30% of the respondents feel that they are always satisfied, 7.5% feel quite often and 12.5% feel satisfied at sometimes and 15% are rarely satisfied and 35% are never satisfied with conflict resolution. 35 30 25 20 15 % of Rsepondents 10 5 0 Always Quite Some Rarely Never often times Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are not at all satisfied with the way conflicts are resolved. This shows that maximum no. of employees are unhappy with the way of resolving the conflict at HAMUL. TABLE-12 H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 67
  68. 68. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 12) Table showing employees satisfaction towards Canteen facilities: Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 35 87.5 No 5 12.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to know the level of employee’s satisfaction towards canteen facilities. Analysis: From the above table, it is clear that canteen facilities prevailing in the company from the respondent’s i.e. 87.5% of the respondents are highly satisfied, 12.5% of respondents are not satisfied. 90 80 70 60 50 40 %of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of respondents are satisfied with the canteen facilities. This shows that the canteen facilities avail at HAMUL is sufficient to employees .Good & tasty foods are provided by the canteen. TABLE-13A H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 68
  69. 69. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction 13)Table showing the employees satisfaction towards welfare measures: a) Table showing satisfaction level of intra mural activities Measures % of satisfied % of Medical facilities 36 90 Compensation 4 10 Total 40 100% Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction level of intra mural activities. Analysis: The facilities provided inside the organization must be such that they will be satisfied of their job. From the above table, it is evident that 90% of the respondents are satisfied with medical facilities and 10% of respondents are satisfied with compensation given by organization at the time of accidents. 90 80 70 60 50 40 % of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Medical Compensation facilities for accidents Interpretation: Maximum numbers of employees are not satisfied with the compensation for accidents but are willing for medical facilities. TABLE-13B H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 69
  70. 70. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction b) Table showing employee satisfaction level towards extra mural activities Measures % of satisfied %of Educational 5 12.5 Transportation 8 20 Housing 27 67.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction level of extra mural activities. Analysis: Not only the inside organization facilities but outside facilities must also be provided. From the above table, it is evident that 67.5% of the respondents are satisfied with housing accommodation, 12.5% of respondents with education facilities have great dissatisfaction and with transportation facilities have 20% fair satisfaction. 70 60 50 40 30 %of Respondents 20 10 0 educational Housing facilities Accomodation Interpretation: Maximum numbers of employees are not satisfied with the Educational facilities. TABLE-14 14) Table showing employees satisfaction level towards bonus schemes: H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 70
  71. 71. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Responses No of Respondents % of respondents Yes 37 92.5 No 3 7.5 Total 40 100 Concept: An attempt is made to know the satisfaction level of employee’s towards provision of bonus. Analysis: Provision of bonus will gives more encouragement to employees for better utilization of their skills. From the above table, ‘it is clear that 92.5% of the respondents are satisfied with the present bonus facilities and the 7.5% of them belongs to unsatisfied category 100 80 60 %age 40 20 0 Yes No Interpretation: Maximum numbers of employees are satisfied with the provision of bonus. TABLE-15 15) Table showing employee satisfaction towards social security measures Measures No of satisfied % of dissatisfied H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 71
  72. 72. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction towards social security measures. Analysis: Job security will be provided through the s measures. From the above table, it is depicted that most of the satisfied responses belongs to Provident fund, 7.5% say yes to pension plans and 17.5% say yes to Gratuity. 80 70 60 50 40 %of Respondents 30 20 10 0 Provident fund Pension Gratuity Interpretation: Maximum numbers of employees are satisfied with PF schemes. TABLE-16 16) Table showing the employee satisfaction towards safety measures Responses No of Respondents % of Respondents Satisfied satisfied 37 92.5 Not satisfied 3 7.5 Total 40 100% H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 72
  73. 73. A Study Employees Job Satisfaction Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction towards safety measures. Analysis: Satisfaction of safety measures gives a feeling to employees that they are out of danger. From the above table, it clear that 92.5% of the employees expressed their satisfaction with the existing safety measures in the organization. 100 80 60 %of Respondents 40 20 0 Satisfied Not satisfied Interpretation: Maximum numbers of employees are satisfied with the safety measures taken by the organization. TABLE-17 17) Table showing employee satisfaction towards overtime allowances Responses No of Respondents % of Respondents Satisfied 8 20 Not satisfied 32 80 Total 40 100% Concept: An attempt has been made to know the satisfaction towards overtime allowance. H.R.I.H.E, Hassan Page 73

×