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WiFi : Filling the Big Pipe
Ph.D. HayoungYoon
hyyoon@zvolti.com
ZESTER R&D Team Leader
zVolti LLC.
Mar., 2014
Present to Ajou Univ.
Background (1)
Wi-Fi Evolutionary
• Floods of new tech. standards from IEEE fuels
to industrial standards driven by Wi-Fi Alliance
802.11
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g
802.11e
802.11i
802.11n
802.11r
802.11s
802.11k
802.11u
802.11ac
Wi-Fi Direct
Wi-Fi Display
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi WPS
Wi-Fi TDLS
Time
PHY MACWFA
Complexity
Performance
Hotspot
2.0
802.11ad
2
Background (2)
Wi-Fi in Mobile Market
to other
comebac
• No addit
network
• Average s
based im
802.11b 802.11a
802.11g
802.11e
802.11n
Wi-Fi DirectWi-Fi
3Q/2012
miDLS
802.11b 802.11a
802.11g
802.11e
802.11n
Wi-Fi Direct
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Display
Wi-Fi TDLS
802.11k
802.11u
1Q/2013 Concurrency
802.11ac
3
Background (3)
Wi-Fi in Mobile Market
4
support two m
to other chann
comeback
• No additional
network inter
• Average switc
based impleme
CHA
802.11b 802.11a
802.11g
802.11e
802.11n
Wi-Fi Direct
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Display
Wi-Fi TDLS
802.11k
802.11u
1Q/2013
Concurrency
802.11ac
miDLS
802.11b 802.11a
802.11g
802.11e
802.11n
Wi-Fi Direct
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi Display
Wi-Fi TDLS
802.11k
802.11u
1Q/2014 Concurrency
802.11ac
Multi-User MIMO
Beam-forming
WFA Filesharing*
Background (4)
Wi-Fi Connectivity
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
Earlier
DS
miDLS
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
Direct-Link Communications
DS
• Localized communication with a neighbor
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set)
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
Static
One
Way
Capacity Issue!
Poor Wi-Fi Direct Inter-
operability across
manufacturers
5
Concurrency
DS
with miDLS
Original
• IEEE 802.11 is designed
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local o
both are empty
• Not to loose packe
• We propose and imple
support two mobile W
to other channel for sh
comeback
• No additional H/W sup
network interface card
• Average switching dura
based implementation <
CHA CHA
CHB
DS
with miDLS
Original
• IEEE 802
single C
• Switchin
both are
• Not
• We prop
support
to other
comebac
• No addi
network
• Average
based im
CHA CHA
CHB
MOVi: Direct-Link Communicatio
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized communication wit
• Consumes double channel res
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
MOVi: Direct-Link Communications
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized communication with a neighbo
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service S
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
TDLS/WFD
Wi-Fi Direct
Wi-Fi
1Q/2014
Emerging Wi-Fi Direct capable Apps
Integration with AV Cores
Demand for concurrency
BT-COEX
Mobile Market Moves Quickly
1Q/2011 4Q/2012 1Q/2014 1Q/2015
Wi-Fi PHY 802.11g
802.11n
 802.11ac
(wave1)
802.11ac
(wave2)
Archivable
Throughput
10~15 Mbps 40~45Mbps
(dual-Band, CB)
>400Mbps
(Quad-CB, MIMO, Beam-
forming)

>600Mbps
(Hexa-CB, MIMO,
Beam-forming)

Applications
Internet
Connectivity
Wi-Fi Direct
Miracast (WFD)
a+b+c… ???
Coming soon!
Host computing power were
even slower thanWi-Fi Speed!
NewWi-Fi apps emerge!
6
Expected!
IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Bitrate Evolutionary
7
up to 6.9Gbps
- Channel Bonding
- Multi-user MIMO
- Beamforming
- 256QAM
- Better back/forward compatibility
IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Channel Bonding
8
80211ac: 160MHz
or (80MHz + 80MHz)
80MHz 80MHz 80MHz 80MHz
11a
11n
11ac
11ac
*another 80MHz band from 149~161@ U-NII3 is omitted
IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Beam-forming Basic
9
*Note that the signal starts at 0-degrees and is rising31/45
λ-
0- 0-
amforming,#also#called#Beamsteering,#allows#electronic#aiming#of#the#strongest#
nal#from#(and#the#best#recepXon#angle#to)#an#antenna#array#
Two#antennas,#transmieng#the#
same#signal,#with#both#antennas#
transmieng#inIphase.#
The#½#wavelength#separaXon#
between#the#antennas#makes#the#
signal#cancel#to#the#leh#and#right.#
Note-that-the-signal-starts-at-0]degrees-and-is-rising-
LEFT-to-RIGHT Signal Cancelation
by sending in-phase signal
λ/2
Chipset Beamforming – The Phased Array
λ-
No
180
b
se
si
DOWN-to-UP Signal Cancelation
by sending 180-degrees out-of-phase signal
IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Beamforming
10
35/45
environment
•  Attenuation and phase shift experienced by each spatial stream
•  Transmit Beamforming and MU-MIMO require knowledge of the
channel state to compute a steering matrix to optimize reception at
one or more receivers
–  Individual space-time streams are
sounded separately
–  Training symbols are transmitted
(“Sounding Poll”) and measured by the
recipient station (or stations)
–  A channel state estimate is sent back
to the beamformer from each station
included in the Sounding Poll for the
derivation of a steering matrix
The environment is “sounded”
to create a digital representation
of the state
of the transmission channel
S
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
Multi-channel iDLS (miDLS)
DS
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queue
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices mig
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both
network interface card (NIC) and the
• Average switching duration in MadW
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
CHB
VHT Null Data Packet
Announcement frame
VHT Compressed Beamforming
frame (measured RF status)
IEEE 802.11ac Overview:
RTS/CTS with BW indication
11
Figure 3. RTS/CTS Enhanced with Bandwidth Signalling
Full 80MHz access
Figure 3. RTS/CTS Enhanced with Bandwidth Signalling
Transit to the
partial 40MHz
access
without “error”
IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Multi-user MIMO
12
No uplink multi-user MIMO
Much better Air-time fairness, where a
number of poor quality links exists
MCS9 MCS5
X bits X bits
Wi-Fi Direct Overview: Discovery
• It’s not totally NEW connection methodology
• 802.11-based access, security and association management
• Wi-Fi Direct sits on top of Wi-Fi (MAC/PHY)
S
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
DS
DLS
• Localized communication with a neighbor
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set)
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
DS
ith miDLS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migr
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both t
network interface card (NIC) and the
• Average switching duration in MadWiF
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
HB
DS
with miDLS
Original
• Switching only if
both are empty
• Not to loose
• We propose and
support two mo
to other channe
comeback
• No additional H/
network interfac
• Average switchin
based implement
CHA CHA
CHB
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized commun
• Consumes double
infrastructure mod
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS
• H/W change nee
• Can’t initiate DL
• We propose iDLS
• S/W change at end
• Can initiate DL acr
DS
with miDLS
Original
• S
b
•
• W
s
t
c
• N
n
• A
b
CHA CHA
CHB
scanscan scanscan
p2p scan
Legacy
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Direct
13
Discover Non-AP P2P STA
• In scan phase, a Probe. Req is transmitted all supported channels
• In search phase, a Probe. Req is transmitted only to social channels
(CH#1, CH#6, CH#11)
• Q: How to find GO established in 5GHz band?
DS • Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
DS
with miDLS
• No
• We pr
suppo
to oth
comeb
• No ad
netwo
• Averag
based
CHA CHA
CHB
Listen Search or Scan
P2PWildcard SSID
P2P IE
Wildcasrd BSSID
Probe Req.
Probe Resp.
WPS/RSN/SR IE
P2PWildcard SSID
P2P IE
Wildcasrd BSSID
WPS/RSN/SR IE
Broadcast or Unicast
Unicast
14
Wi-Fi Direct Overview: ConnectionS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
DS
DLS
• Localized communication with a neighbor
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set)
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
DS
ith miDLS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migr
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both t
network interface card (NIC) and the
• Average switching duration in MadWiF
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
HB
DS
with miDLS
Original
• Switching only if
both are empty
• Not to loose
• We propose and
support two mo
to other channe
comeback
• No additional H/
network interfac
• Average switchin
based implement
CHA CHA
CHB
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized commun
• Consumes double
infrastructure mod
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS
• H/W change nee
• Can’t initiate DL
• We propose iDLS
• S/W change at end
• Can initiate DL acr
DS
with miDLS
Original
• S
b
•
• W
s
t
c
• N
n
• A
b
CHA CHA
CHB
connectconnect connectconnect
p2p connect
Legacy
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Direct
GO GC
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Direct
Security WEP/WPA1.0/WPA2.0/”NULL” WPA2.0
Connection OPEN/WPS/WPS2.0 WPS1.0/WPS2.0
PHY 802.11abgn/ac 802.11agn/ac
15
Wi-Fi/Wi-Fi Direct Concurrency(1)
16
S
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
OVi: Direct-Link Communications
DS
iDLS
• Localized communication with a neighbor
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set)
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
DS
with miDLS
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queue
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices mig
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both
network interface card (NIC) and th
• Average switching duration in MadW
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
CHB
Single Channel
Concurrent Mode
p2p connect
CH#1
CH#1
~2012/1Q
DS
with miDLS
Original
• IEEE 802.11 i
single CH per
• Switching onl
both are emp
• Not to lo
• We propose
support two
to other chan
comeback
• No additiona
network inte
• Average switc
based implem
CHA CHA
CHB
MOVi: Direct-Link Commu
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized comm
• Consumes do
infrastructure
• Possible solutio
• IEEE 802.11e D
• H/W change
• Can’t initiate
• We propose iD
• S/W change at
• Can initiate D
DS
with miDLS
Original
•
•
•
•
•
CHA CHA
CHB
p2p connect
Same-Band Multi-Channel
Concurrent Mode
CH#1
CH#11
~2012/3Q
Time sharing exploiting
802.11 power-saving
Wi-Fi/Wi-Fi Direct Concurrency(2)
17
S
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queues at
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
OVi: Direct-Link Communications
DS
iDLS
• Localized communication with a neighbor
• Consumes double channel resource ion
infrastructure mode WiFi
• Possible solutions
• IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup)
• H/W change needed at AP
• Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set)
• We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS)
• S/W change at end-devices
• Can initiate DL across BSSs
DS
with miDLS
• IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha
single CH per BSS
• Switching only if local outgoing queue
both are empty
• Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices mig
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both
network interface card (NIC) and the
• Average switching duration in MadW
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
CHB
Diff-Band Multi-Channel
Concurrent Mode
p2p connect
CH#36
CH#11
~2013/1Q
MOVi: Direct-Link C
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Loc
• C
in
• Pos
• IE
•
•
• We
• S
• C
DS
with miDLS
Original
• IEEE 802.11 is
single CH per
• Switching only
both are empty
• Not to loo
• We propose an
support two m
to other chann
comeback
• No additional H
network interf
• Average switch
based impleme
CHA CHA
CHB
MOVi: Direct-Link Commu
DS
with iDLS
Original
• Localized commu
• Consumes doub
infrastructure m
• Possible solution
• IEEE 802.11e DL
• H/W change n
• Can’t initiate D
• We propose iDL
• S/W change at e
• Can initiate DL
DS
with miDLS
Original
•
•
•
•
•
CHA CHA
CHB
p2p connect
CH#1
CH#1
1
Diff-Band Multi-Channel
Concurrent Mode - the island
CH#36
2013/1Q~
What if BT comes in?
BT-COEX
Who’s the Driver
GB ICS JB KK
Android Framework Release
Integration to JB Integrated to KK
18
Integration to ICS
Wi-Fi Direct Concurrent Mode
Wi-Fi Display
GoogleManufacturer
Manufacturers adopt first Google makes it popular
Wi-Fi TDLS
Integrated to KK
Wi-Fi Direct on Androids
19
Wi-Fi Device Driver
Native
Android Framework
Android APP
Wi-Fi Chipset
dependent
3rd party
developers
Manufacturer
dependent
Android
OpenSource
Wi-Fi Direct capable device driver
Wi-Fi Direct Daemon
WiFi Direct UI
Ginger Bread
Interface
WiFi
Direct APPsWiFi
Direct APPs
Wi-Fi Direct capable device driver
Wi-Fi Direct Daemon
WiFi
Direct APPs
WiFi Direct APIs
Since IC Sandwich
+ɑ
+ɑ
Android Framework
Wi-Fi
Direct
APP
Hard to Dev.APPs &
Poor inter-operability across
manufacturers
WFD: It’s a Multiplayer Game
• AP (or GPU)Vendors
• Better performing AV processor
• Wi-Fi ChipsetVendors
• Fast/Reliable/Energy-efficient Wi-Fi
• Manufacturers
• Optimal deployment of
communication and AV processing
units
• Smooth UX designs
• WFD Solution Provider
• Cross-platform/Cross-chipset vendor
WFD Architecture and Requirements
3-1 illustrates the functional blocks in the Wi-Fi Display data and control planes. The data plane
s of video codec (section 3.4.2 and 3.4.4), audio codec (section 3.4.1), PES packetization (Annex-B),
CP system 2.0/2.1 (section 4.7), and MPEG2-TS over RTP/UDP/IP (section 4.10.2 and Annex-B).
ntrol plane consists of RTSP over TCP/IP (section 6), remote I2C Read/Write (section 7), UIBC
IDC and generic user input (section 4.11), and the HDCP session key establishment (section 4.7).
-Fi P2P/TDLS block forms the layer-2 connectivity using either Wi-Fi P2P or TDLS as described in
4.5.
TCP
Control
(RTSP)
CapabilityNegotiation,SessionEstablishment,
MaintenannceandManagement
L2SetupandDiscoveryAssist
RTP
UDP
IP
Wi-Fi P2P / TDLS and Wi-Fi Protected Setup
UIBC
Capsulation
UserInputData
Generic
HIDC
HDCP2.0ControlMessage
MPEG2-TS
PES
packetization
Audio
codec
Video
codec
HDCP 2.0 / 2.1
Remote
I2C
R/W
I2CData
Figure 3-1 : Logical Data and Control Plane Connections
WFD Source, Primary Sink, Secondary Sink and WFD20
WFD Components
21
SRC
Primary SINK
Secondary SINK
(Optional)
LPCM
LPCM
Time Synch:
gPTP in 802.1AS
Discover WFD Device
• WFD uses Wi-Fi Direct
• WFD IE carries
• device-type: SRC? or SINK?
• device-status: Busy? or Ready?
DS • Not to loose packets from AP
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migrate
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both the
network interface card (NIC) and the AP
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi-
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
DS
with miDLS
• No
• We pr
suppo
to oth
comeb
• No ad
netwo
• Averag
based
CHA CHA
CHB
Listen Search or Scan
P2PWildcard SSID
P2P IE + WFD IE
Wildcasrd BSSID
Probe Req.
Probe Resp.
WPS/RSN/SR IE
P2PWildcard SSID
P2P IE + WFD IE
Wildcasrd BSSID
WPS/RSN/SR IE
Broadcast or Unicast
Unicast
22
Inside of WFD IE (1)
• TLV as other IEs
• 11 types of WFD Subelements are defined (D 1.44)
• WFD Device Information (Type=0) is the most useful for discovering
WFD Devices
WFD IE Header WFD Subelements
WFD IE
ID=0 Length=6
WFD Device
Information
Session Management
Control Port
WFD Device
Maximum Throughput
2 2 221Octets
Inside of WFD IE (2)
24
ID=0 Length=6
WFD Device
Information
Session Management
Control Port
WFD Device
Maximum Throughput
2 2 221Octets
...
Audio Only
supported bit @
SRC
Audio unsupported
bit @ SINK ... WFD Session
Availability ... Device Type
Bits 1 1 2 2
2Byte TCP Server Port @ SRC
WFD Device’s maximum
tolerable throughput
0b00 SRC
0b01 P-SINK
0b10 S-SINK
0b11 Dual
0b00 Not Avail.
0b01 Available
0b10 Reserved
0b11 Reserved
SRC can only
send Audio SINK can only
render video
WFD Session Establishment
• Use RTSP to exchange WFD Capability and setup streaming session
25
th miDLS
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migra
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both th
network interface card (NIC) and the A
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
HB
with miDLS
•
•
•
CHA CHA
CHB
Wi-Fi Direct Connected
GO
SRC SINK
TCP connect to {IP:Port from WFD IE}
GC
M1-REQ
M1-RESP
1. SRC gets SINK’s AV playout and
rendering capability (M3)
3. SRC choses the best configuration
5. SRC set SINK’s AV Processing
Configuration (M4)
7. Trigger AV Streaming (M6,M7)
.
.
.
M7-PLAY-REQ
M7-PLAY-RESP
Start AV Streaming
.
.
.
Q:Why SRC becomes GO?
WFD Session Management
26
• Use RTSP to Control Playback
th miDLS
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migra
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both th
network interface card (NIC) and the A
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
HB
with miDLS
•
•
•
CHA CHA
CHB
GO
SRC SINK
GCStart AV Streaming
M7-PLAY-REQ
M7-PLAY-RESP
AV Streaming
.
.
.
M9-PAUSE-REQ
M9-PAUSE-RESP
.
.
.
M5-TRIGGER-REQ {PLAY}
M5-TRIGGER-RESP-{PLAY}
• No RTSP specification to
control playback by SERVER
• WFD uses Trigger method with
playback control as a parameter
WFD Session Termination
27
• Teardown process is same to generic RTSP streaming
th miDLS
• We propose and implement miDLS
support two mobile WiFi devices migra
to other channel for short time and
comeback
• No additional H/W support by both th
network interface card (NIC) and the A
• Average switching duration in MadWiFi
based implementation < 20ms
CHA
HB
with miDLS
•
•
•
CHA CHA
CHB
GO
SRC SINK
GCStart AV Streaming
M8-TEARDOWN-REQ
M8-TEARDOWN-RESP
• It is “out-of-scope” that actions
after teardown process
• One may keep Wi-Fi Direct
connection to save connection time
for next session establishment
or
M5-TRIGGER-REQ {TEARDOWN}
M5-TRIGGER-RESP-{TEARDOWN}
M8-TEARDOWN-REQ
M8-TEARDOWN-RESP
Q: Keeping P2P connection is Good?
AV Streaming Format
28
• NAL / MPEG PES / MPEG2 TS / RTP /UDP
• Considering MTP size of Ethernet, 7 MPEG2 TS packets (188B) fits into single RTP payload
• Not the best but mostly accepted for the compatibility
Reference
RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS
Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4]
RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock,
representing the target transmission time for the
first byte of the packet. This clock is
synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or
the SCR (PS), and represents the target
transmission time of the first byte of the packet
payload.
from [4]
Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488
3489
Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490
Reference
RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS
Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4]
RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock,
representing the target transmission time for the
first byte of the packet. This clock is
synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or
the SCR (PS), and represents the target
transmission time of the first byte of the packet
payload.
from [4]
Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488
3489
Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490
Reference
RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS
Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4]
RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock,
representing the target transmission time for the
first byte of the packet. This clock is
synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or
the SCR (PS), and represents the target
transmission time of the first byte of the packet
payload.
from [4]
Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488
3489
Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490
Key WFD Performance: Latency
• Require <50 msec glass-to-glass latency for fluent 3D Action gaming
29
FB
Capture
Scaling
a frame
H.264
Video
Encoding
Packetization
Audio
Sampling
Audio
Encoding
Packetization
glass-to-glass latency
UDP/RTP
Encapsulation
AV Mux
AV Packet
Transmit
SRC-side Video
Decoding
Audio
Decoding
Render
Video
Play
Audio
SINK-side
AV Packet
Reception
AV Demux
Kernel-to-Kernel Propagation
Key WFD Performance: Packet Loss
30
Wi-Fi Display Technical Specification D1.44
491
• Splitting single AV unit across packet chain for the error resilience
• Assuming that AV decoder performs sort of error mitigations
Key WFD Performance: Packet Loss
31
Which One Looks Better?
Summary
• Mobile computing devices quickly adopt new Wi-Fi standards for
better performance and richer applications
• We Overview 802.11ac / Wi-Fi Direct / WFD (Miracast)
• Wi-Fi/WFD applications should be capable of integrating optimisation
of AV processing and wireless communication
• S/W architecture handling Wi-Fi/WFD application should
• care on environmental sensitivities
• care to use right techniques for right purpose
32
References
• Cisco Technical White Paper, 802.11ac:The Fifth
Generation of Wi-Fi, Jan., 2014
• J. Bardwell, How 802.11ac Will Hide Problems from
Wireshark, SHARKFEST, 2013
• Motorola Solutions White Paper,WhatYou Need to
Know about 802.11ac, Jul. 2012
• Wi-Fi Display Technical Specification 1.10,WFA
• Wi-Fi Direct Technical Specification 1.10,WFA
33

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[Mar./2014] WiFi : Filling the Big Pipe

  • 1. WiFi : Filling the Big Pipe Ph.D. HayoungYoon hyyoon@zvolti.com ZESTER R&D Team Leader zVolti LLC. Mar., 2014 Present to Ajou Univ.
  • 2. Background (1) Wi-Fi Evolutionary • Floods of new tech. standards from IEEE fuels to industrial standards driven by Wi-Fi Alliance 802.11 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11e 802.11i 802.11n 802.11r 802.11s 802.11k 802.11u 802.11ac Wi-Fi Direct Wi-Fi Display Wi-Fi Wi-Fi WPS Wi-Fi TDLS Time PHY MACWFA Complexity Performance Hotspot 2.0 802.11ad 2
  • 3. Background (2) Wi-Fi in Mobile Market to other comebac • No addit network • Average s based im 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11e 802.11n Wi-Fi DirectWi-Fi 3Q/2012 miDLS 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11e 802.11n Wi-Fi Direct Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Display Wi-Fi TDLS 802.11k 802.11u 1Q/2013 Concurrency 802.11ac 3
  • 4. Background (3) Wi-Fi in Mobile Market 4 support two m to other chann comeback • No additional network inter • Average switc based impleme CHA 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11e 802.11n Wi-Fi Direct Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Display Wi-Fi TDLS 802.11k 802.11u 1Q/2013 Concurrency 802.11ac miDLS 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11e 802.11n Wi-Fi Direct Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Display Wi-Fi TDLS 802.11k 802.11u 1Q/2014 Concurrency 802.11ac Multi-User MIMO Beam-forming WFA Filesharing*
  • 5. Background (4) Wi-Fi Connectivity • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA Earlier DS miDLS • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA Direct-Link Communications DS • Localized communication with a neighbor • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set) • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs Static One Way Capacity Issue! Poor Wi-Fi Direct Inter- operability across manufacturers 5 Concurrency DS with miDLS Original • IEEE 802.11 is designed single CH per BSS • Switching only if local o both are empty • Not to loose packe • We propose and imple support two mobile W to other channel for sh comeback • No additional H/W sup network interface card • Average switching dura based implementation < CHA CHA CHB DS with miDLS Original • IEEE 802 single C • Switchin both are • Not • We prop support to other comebac • No addi network • Average based im CHA CHA CHB MOVi: Direct-Link Communicatio DS with iDLS Original • Localized communication wit • Consumes double channel res infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs ( • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs MOVi: Direct-Link Communications DS with iDLS Original • Localized communication with a neighbo • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service S • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs TDLS/WFD Wi-Fi Direct Wi-Fi 1Q/2014 Emerging Wi-Fi Direct capable Apps Integration with AV Cores Demand for concurrency BT-COEX
  • 6. Mobile Market Moves Quickly 1Q/2011 4Q/2012 1Q/2014 1Q/2015 Wi-Fi PHY 802.11g 802.11n
 802.11ac (wave1) 802.11ac (wave2) Archivable Throughput 10~15 Mbps 40~45Mbps (dual-Band, CB) >400Mbps (Quad-CB, MIMO, Beam- forming)
 >600Mbps (Hexa-CB, MIMO, Beam-forming)
 Applications Internet Connectivity Wi-Fi Direct Miracast (WFD) a+b+c… ??? Coming soon! Host computing power were even slower thanWi-Fi Speed! NewWi-Fi apps emerge! 6 Expected!
  • 7. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Bitrate Evolutionary 7 up to 6.9Gbps - Channel Bonding - Multi-user MIMO - Beamforming - 256QAM - Better back/forward compatibility
  • 8. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Channel Bonding 8 80211ac: 160MHz or (80MHz + 80MHz) 80MHz 80MHz 80MHz 80MHz 11a 11n 11ac 11ac *another 80MHz band from 149~161@ U-NII3 is omitted
  • 9. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Beam-forming Basic 9 *Note that the signal starts at 0-degrees and is rising31/45 λ- 0- 0- amforming,#also#called#Beamsteering,#allows#electronic#aiming#of#the#strongest# nal#from#(and#the#best#recepXon#angle#to)#an#antenna#array# Two#antennas,#transmieng#the# same#signal,#with#both#antennas# transmieng#inIphase.# The#½#wavelength#separaXon# between#the#antennas#makes#the# signal#cancel#to#the#leh#and#right.# Note-that-the-signal-starts-at-0]degrees-and-is-rising- LEFT-to-RIGHT Signal Cancelation by sending in-phase signal λ/2 Chipset Beamforming – The Phased Array λ- No 180 b se si DOWN-to-UP Signal Cancelation by sending 180-degrees out-of-phase signal
  • 10. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Beamforming 10 35/45 environment •  Attenuation and phase shift experienced by each spatial stream •  Transmit Beamforming and MU-MIMO require knowledge of the channel state to compute a steering matrix to optimize reception at one or more receivers –  Individual space-time streams are sounded separately –  Training symbols are transmitted (“Sounding Poll”) and measured by the recipient station (or stations) –  A channel state estimate is sent back to the beamformer from each station included in the Sounding Poll for the derivation of a steering matrix The environment is “sounded” to create a digital representation of the state of the transmission channel S • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA Multi-channel iDLS (miDLS) DS • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queue both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices mig to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both network interface card (NIC) and the • Average switching duration in MadW based implementation < 20ms CHA CHB VHT Null Data Packet Announcement frame VHT Compressed Beamforming frame (measured RF status)
  • 11. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: RTS/CTS with BW indication 11 Figure 3. RTS/CTS Enhanced with Bandwidth Signalling Full 80MHz access Figure 3. RTS/CTS Enhanced with Bandwidth Signalling Transit to the partial 40MHz access without “error”
  • 12. IEEE 802.11ac Overview: Multi-user MIMO 12 No uplink multi-user MIMO Much better Air-time fairness, where a number of poor quality links exists MCS9 MCS5 X bits X bits
  • 13. Wi-Fi Direct Overview: Discovery • It’s not totally NEW connection methodology • 802.11-based access, security and association management • Wi-Fi Direct sits on top of Wi-Fi (MAC/PHY) S • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA DS DLS • Localized communication with a neighbor • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set) • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs DS ith miDLS • Switching only if local outgoing queues both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migr to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both t network interface card (NIC) and the • Average switching duration in MadWiF based implementation < 20ms CHA HB DS with miDLS Original • Switching only if both are empty • Not to loose • We propose and support two mo to other channe comeback • No additional H/ network interfac • Average switchin based implement CHA CHA CHB DS with iDLS Original • Localized commun • Consumes double infrastructure mod • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS • H/W change nee • Can’t initiate DL • We propose iDLS • S/W change at end • Can initiate DL acr DS with miDLS Original • S b • • W s t c • N n • A b CHA CHA CHB scanscan scanscan p2p scan Legacy Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Direct 13
  • 14. Discover Non-AP P2P STA • In scan phase, a Probe. Req is transmitted all supported channels • In search phase, a Probe. Req is transmitted only to social channels (CH#1, CH#6, CH#11) • Q: How to find GO established in 5GHz band? DS • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA DS with miDLS • No • We pr suppo to oth comeb • No ad netwo • Averag based CHA CHA CHB Listen Search or Scan P2PWildcard SSID P2P IE Wildcasrd BSSID Probe Req. Probe Resp. WPS/RSN/SR IE P2PWildcard SSID P2P IE Wildcasrd BSSID WPS/RSN/SR IE Broadcast or Unicast Unicast 14
  • 15. Wi-Fi Direct Overview: ConnectionS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA DS DLS • Localized communication with a neighbor • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set) • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs DS ith miDLS • Switching only if local outgoing queues both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migr to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both t network interface card (NIC) and the • Average switching duration in MadWiF based implementation < 20ms CHA HB DS with miDLS Original • Switching only if both are empty • Not to loose • We propose and support two mo to other channe comeback • No additional H/ network interfac • Average switchin based implement CHA CHA CHB DS with iDLS Original • Localized commun • Consumes double infrastructure mod • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS • H/W change nee • Can’t initiate DL • We propose iDLS • S/W change at end • Can initiate DL acr DS with miDLS Original • S b • • W s t c • N n • A b CHA CHA CHB connectconnect connectconnect p2p connect Legacy Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Direct GO GC Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Direct Security WEP/WPA1.0/WPA2.0/”NULL” WPA2.0 Connection OPEN/WPS/WPS2.0 WPS1.0/WPS2.0 PHY 802.11abgn/ac 802.11agn/ac 15
  • 16. Wi-Fi/Wi-Fi Direct Concurrency(1) 16 S • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA OVi: Direct-Link Communications DS iDLS • Localized communication with a neighbor • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set) • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs DS with miDLS • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queue both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices mig to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both network interface card (NIC) and th • Average switching duration in MadW based implementation < 20ms CHA CHB Single Channel Concurrent Mode p2p connect CH#1 CH#1 ~2012/1Q DS with miDLS Original • IEEE 802.11 i single CH per • Switching onl both are emp • Not to lo • We propose support two to other chan comeback • No additiona network inte • Average switc based implem CHA CHA CHB MOVi: Direct-Link Commu DS with iDLS Original • Localized comm • Consumes do infrastructure • Possible solutio • IEEE 802.11e D • H/W change • Can’t initiate • We propose iD • S/W change at • Can initiate D DS with miDLS Original • • • • • CHA CHA CHB p2p connect Same-Band Multi-Channel Concurrent Mode CH#1 CH#11 ~2012/3Q Time sharing exploiting 802.11 power-saving
  • 17. Wi-Fi/Wi-Fi Direct Concurrency(2) 17 S • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming that single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queues at both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA OVi: Direct-Link Communications DS iDLS • Localized communication with a neighbor • Consumes double channel resource ion infrastructure mode WiFi • Possible solutions • IEEE 802.11e DLS (Direct-Link Setup) • H/W change needed at AP • Can’t initiate DL across BSSs (Basic Service Set) • We propose iDLS (inter-BSS DLS) • S/W change at end-devices • Can initiate DL across BSSs DS with miDLS • IEEE 802.11 is designed assuming tha single CH per BSS • Switching only if local outgoing queue both are empty • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices mig to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both network interface card (NIC) and the • Average switching duration in MadW based implementation < 20ms CHA CHB Diff-Band Multi-Channel Concurrent Mode p2p connect CH#36 CH#11 ~2013/1Q MOVi: Direct-Link C DS with iDLS Original • Loc • C in • Pos • IE • • • We • S • C DS with miDLS Original • IEEE 802.11 is single CH per • Switching only both are empty • Not to loo • We propose an support two m to other chann comeback • No additional H network interf • Average switch based impleme CHA CHA CHB MOVi: Direct-Link Commu DS with iDLS Original • Localized commu • Consumes doub infrastructure m • Possible solution • IEEE 802.11e DL • H/W change n • Can’t initiate D • We propose iDL • S/W change at e • Can initiate DL DS with miDLS Original • • • • • CHA CHA CHB p2p connect CH#1 CH#1 1 Diff-Band Multi-Channel Concurrent Mode - the island CH#36 2013/1Q~ What if BT comes in? BT-COEX
  • 18. Who’s the Driver GB ICS JB KK Android Framework Release Integration to JB Integrated to KK 18 Integration to ICS Wi-Fi Direct Concurrent Mode Wi-Fi Display GoogleManufacturer Manufacturers adopt first Google makes it popular Wi-Fi TDLS Integrated to KK
  • 19. Wi-Fi Direct on Androids 19 Wi-Fi Device Driver Native Android Framework Android APP Wi-Fi Chipset dependent 3rd party developers Manufacturer dependent Android OpenSource Wi-Fi Direct capable device driver Wi-Fi Direct Daemon WiFi Direct UI Ginger Bread Interface WiFi Direct APPsWiFi Direct APPs Wi-Fi Direct capable device driver Wi-Fi Direct Daemon WiFi Direct APPs WiFi Direct APIs Since IC Sandwich +ɑ +ɑ Android Framework Wi-Fi Direct APP Hard to Dev.APPs & Poor inter-operability across manufacturers
  • 20. WFD: It’s a Multiplayer Game • AP (or GPU)Vendors • Better performing AV processor • Wi-Fi ChipsetVendors • Fast/Reliable/Energy-efficient Wi-Fi • Manufacturers • Optimal deployment of communication and AV processing units • Smooth UX designs • WFD Solution Provider • Cross-platform/Cross-chipset vendor WFD Architecture and Requirements 3-1 illustrates the functional blocks in the Wi-Fi Display data and control planes. The data plane s of video codec (section 3.4.2 and 3.4.4), audio codec (section 3.4.1), PES packetization (Annex-B), CP system 2.0/2.1 (section 4.7), and MPEG2-TS over RTP/UDP/IP (section 4.10.2 and Annex-B). ntrol plane consists of RTSP over TCP/IP (section 6), remote I2C Read/Write (section 7), UIBC IDC and generic user input (section 4.11), and the HDCP session key establishment (section 4.7). -Fi P2P/TDLS block forms the layer-2 connectivity using either Wi-Fi P2P or TDLS as described in 4.5. TCP Control (RTSP) CapabilityNegotiation,SessionEstablishment, MaintenannceandManagement L2SetupandDiscoveryAssist RTP UDP IP Wi-Fi P2P / TDLS and Wi-Fi Protected Setup UIBC Capsulation UserInputData Generic HIDC HDCP2.0ControlMessage MPEG2-TS PES packetization Audio codec Video codec HDCP 2.0 / 2.1 Remote I2C R/W I2CData Figure 3-1 : Logical Data and Control Plane Connections WFD Source, Primary Sink, Secondary Sink and WFD20
  • 21. WFD Components 21 SRC Primary SINK Secondary SINK (Optional) LPCM LPCM Time Synch: gPTP in 802.1AS
  • 22. Discover WFD Device • WFD uses Wi-Fi Direct • WFD IE carries • device-type: SRC? or SINK? • device-status: Busy? or Ready? DS • Not to loose packets from AP • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migrate to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both the network interface card (NIC) and the AP • Average switching duration in MadWiFi- based implementation < 20ms CHA DS with miDLS • No • We pr suppo to oth comeb • No ad netwo • Averag based CHA CHA CHB Listen Search or Scan P2PWildcard SSID P2P IE + WFD IE Wildcasrd BSSID Probe Req. Probe Resp. WPS/RSN/SR IE P2PWildcard SSID P2P IE + WFD IE Wildcasrd BSSID WPS/RSN/SR IE Broadcast or Unicast Unicast 22
  • 23. Inside of WFD IE (1) • TLV as other IEs • 11 types of WFD Subelements are defined (D 1.44) • WFD Device Information (Type=0) is the most useful for discovering WFD Devices WFD IE Header WFD Subelements WFD IE ID=0 Length=6 WFD Device Information Session Management Control Port WFD Device Maximum Throughput 2 2 221Octets
  • 24. Inside of WFD IE (2) 24 ID=0 Length=6 WFD Device Information Session Management Control Port WFD Device Maximum Throughput 2 2 221Octets ... Audio Only supported bit @ SRC Audio unsupported bit @ SINK ... WFD Session Availability ... Device Type Bits 1 1 2 2 2Byte TCP Server Port @ SRC WFD Device’s maximum tolerable throughput 0b00 SRC 0b01 P-SINK 0b10 S-SINK 0b11 Dual 0b00 Not Avail. 0b01 Available 0b10 Reserved 0b11 Reserved SRC can only send Audio SINK can only render video
  • 25. WFD Session Establishment • Use RTSP to exchange WFD Capability and setup streaming session 25 th miDLS • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migra to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both th network interface card (NIC) and the A • Average switching duration in MadWiFi based implementation < 20ms CHA HB with miDLS • • • CHA CHA CHB Wi-Fi Direct Connected GO SRC SINK TCP connect to {IP:Port from WFD IE} GC M1-REQ M1-RESP 1. SRC gets SINK’s AV playout and rendering capability (M3) 3. SRC choses the best configuration 5. SRC set SINK’s AV Processing Configuration (M4) 7. Trigger AV Streaming (M6,M7) . . . M7-PLAY-REQ M7-PLAY-RESP Start AV Streaming . . . Q:Why SRC becomes GO?
  • 26. WFD Session Management 26 • Use RTSP to Control Playback th miDLS • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migra to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both th network interface card (NIC) and the A • Average switching duration in MadWiFi based implementation < 20ms CHA HB with miDLS • • • CHA CHA CHB GO SRC SINK GCStart AV Streaming M7-PLAY-REQ M7-PLAY-RESP AV Streaming . . . M9-PAUSE-REQ M9-PAUSE-RESP . . . M5-TRIGGER-REQ {PLAY} M5-TRIGGER-RESP-{PLAY} • No RTSP specification to control playback by SERVER • WFD uses Trigger method with playback control as a parameter
  • 27. WFD Session Termination 27 • Teardown process is same to generic RTSP streaming th miDLS • We propose and implement miDLS support two mobile WiFi devices migra to other channel for short time and comeback • No additional H/W support by both th network interface card (NIC) and the A • Average switching duration in MadWiFi based implementation < 20ms CHA HB with miDLS • • • CHA CHA CHB GO SRC SINK GCStart AV Streaming M8-TEARDOWN-REQ M8-TEARDOWN-RESP • It is “out-of-scope” that actions after teardown process • One may keep Wi-Fi Direct connection to save connection time for next session establishment or M5-TRIGGER-REQ {TEARDOWN} M5-TRIGGER-RESP-{TEARDOWN} M8-TEARDOWN-REQ M8-TEARDOWN-RESP Q: Keeping P2P connection is Good?
  • 28. AV Streaming Format 28 • NAL / MPEG PES / MPEG2 TS / RTP /UDP • Considering MTP size of Ethernet, 7 MPEG2 TS packets (188B) fits into single RTP payload • Not the best but mostly accepted for the compatibility Reference RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4] RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock, representing the target transmission time for the first byte of the packet. This clock is synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or the SCR (PS), and represents the target transmission time of the first byte of the packet payload. from [4] Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488 3489 Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490 Reference RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4] RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock, representing the target transmission time for the first byte of the packet. This clock is synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or the SCR (PS), and represents the target transmission time of the first byte of the packet payload. from [4] Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488 3489 Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490 Reference RTP header PT field ‘33’ from [4], [6] for MPEG2-TS Marker bit (M) ‘1’ whenever timestamp is discontinuous from [4] RTP Timestamp 32-bit timestamp derived from a 90 kHz clock, representing the target transmission time for the first byte of the packet. This clock is synchronized to the system stream PCR (TS) or the SCR (PS), and represents the target transmission time of the first byte of the packet payload. from [4] Table B- 5- RTP encapsulation of MPEG-TS3488 3489 Figure B- 1 Example of Recommended Encapsulation of MPEG2-TS Packets3490
  • 29. Key WFD Performance: Latency • Require <50 msec glass-to-glass latency for fluent 3D Action gaming 29 FB Capture Scaling a frame H.264 Video Encoding Packetization Audio Sampling Audio Encoding Packetization glass-to-glass latency UDP/RTP Encapsulation AV Mux AV Packet Transmit SRC-side Video Decoding Audio Decoding Render Video Play Audio SINK-side AV Packet Reception AV Demux Kernel-to-Kernel Propagation
  • 30. Key WFD Performance: Packet Loss 30 Wi-Fi Display Technical Specification D1.44 491 • Splitting single AV unit across packet chain for the error resilience • Assuming that AV decoder performs sort of error mitigations
  • 31. Key WFD Performance: Packet Loss 31 Which One Looks Better?
  • 32. Summary • Mobile computing devices quickly adopt new Wi-Fi standards for better performance and richer applications • We Overview 802.11ac / Wi-Fi Direct / WFD (Miracast) • Wi-Fi/WFD applications should be capable of integrating optimisation of AV processing and wireless communication • S/W architecture handling Wi-Fi/WFD application should • care on environmental sensitivities • care to use right techniques for right purpose 32
  • 33. References • Cisco Technical White Paper, 802.11ac:The Fifth Generation of Wi-Fi, Jan., 2014 • J. Bardwell, How 802.11ac Will Hide Problems from Wireshark, SHARKFEST, 2013 • Motorola Solutions White Paper,WhatYou Need to Know about 802.11ac, Jul. 2012 • Wi-Fi Display Technical Specification 1.10,WFA • Wi-Fi Direct Technical Specification 1.10,WFA 33