How To Disrupt The Internet of Things With Unified Networking

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Wireless IoT connections fall into two low-power camps: local area and wide area. Historically the two have not overlapped but advances in networking technologies make it possible for wide area technologies to perform the same functions as local area technologies with no additional cost or feature "sacrifice".

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How To Disrupt The Internet of Things With Unified Networking

  1. 1. How To Disrupt The Internet of Things With Unified Networking
  2. 2. Low Power Local Area Network Connectivity, circa 2014 “IoT 1.0” One-way data: endpoint is slave to edge AP Short Range, Poor Signal Penetration Devices are either mains-powered or “dumb” Targeting home automation, wearables Weak Security Features High data latency: connect to proxy, not sensor data Non-real-time, high latency Large Memory Footprint
  3. 3. Low Power Local Area Network Connectivity, circa 2014 One-way data: endpoint is slave to edge AP Short Range, Poor Signal Penetration Devices are either mains-powered or “dumb” Targeting home automation, wearables Weak Security Features High data latency: connect to proxy, not sensor data Non-real-time, high latency Large Memory Footprint “IoT 1.0” Bluetooth LE is the only major success story here, but BLE is a personal area network protocol, not a local area network protocol
  4. 4. 4 up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” 30 feet 3 miles300 feet Medium Range Today: New Opportunities with Low Power Wide Area Networks Short Range / “LPLAN” NB-IoT
  5. 5. 5 up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” 30 feet 3 miles300 feet Medium Range NB-IoT Today: New Opportunities with Low Power Wide Area Networks Short Range / “LPLAN” Key features: long range, multi-year battery life, cellular network model, large number of devices per cell
  6. 6. 6 up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” 30 feet 3 miles300 feet Medium Range We Believe LPWAN’s Will Eventually Overtake Most Low Power IoT Implementations Short Range / “LPLAN” NB-IoT
  7. 7. 7 We Believe LPWAN’s Will Eventually Dominate Most Low Power IoT Implementations If better range and indoor coverage are effectively “free”, with no sacrifice in performance, battery life, or device cost, then why would you continue to rely on outdated LPLAN technologies?
  8. 8. 8 LPLAN’s Usually Offer Two Distinguishing Features Requirement LPLAN LPWAN Multi-year Battery Life ✓ ✓ Low Cost (sub-$5) Devices ✓ ✓ Indoor Location Precision ✓ ❌ Mesh Networking ✓ ❌ (ZigBee, Thread, 6lowPAN, et al) (LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT)
  9. 9. 9 Requirement LPLAN LPWAN Multi-year Battery Life ✓ ✓ Low Cost (sub-$5) Devices ✓ ✓ Indoor Location Precision ✓ ❌ Mesh Networking ✓ ❌ (ZigBee, Thread, 6lowPAN, et al) (LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT) LPLAN’s Usually Offer Two Distinguishing Features By solving for these two features, LPWAN’s can substitute for most or all of today’s LPLAN technologies
  10. 10. 10 Requirement LPLAN LPWAN Multi-year Battery Life ✓ ✓ Low Cost (sub-$5) Devices ✓ ✓ Indoor Location Precision ✓ ❌ Mesh Networking ✓ ❌ (ZigBee, Thread, 6lowPAN, et al) (LoRa, SigFox, NB-IoT) LPLAN’s Usually Offer Two Distinguishing Features We Can Bridge The Gap Between These Two Classes To Bring Us Closer to Unified Connectivity
  11. 11. 11 One-way data: endpoint is slave to edge AP Poor spectrum management No indoor location capability No multi-hop or mesh networking Weak security features High data latency, connect to proxy Fully bi-directional “pull” and “push” Better spectrum management/throughput Real-time indoor location to 1m precision Multi-hop, Mesh, P2P, & Ad Hoc networking Stronger security features Low Latency, real-time data access LPWAN 1.0 LPWAN + LPLAN via Haystack Getting To Unified Connectivity Good battery life Better battery life
  12. 12. 12 Indoor Location with Haystack
  13. 13. 13 AP 1. Access point keeps network synchronized, and gets vertex data from users in the area Endpoint 2. Endpoints are mobile, battery- powered devices 3. Small battery or USB-powered “reference nodes” are placed on fixed things & places
  14. 14. 14 AP Today, no LPWAN or NB-IoT technology offers a high-precision, real time, indoor location capability on its own. But Haystack does this. Endpoint Using RSSI & RF “fingerprinting” with scattered reference nodes: ±1m precision has been observed
  15. 15. 15 Mesh Networking With Haystack
  16. 16. 16 Traditional Mesh Networking Older IoT technologies sometimes use “meshing” to enable endpoints to “daisy chain” themselves together so that access points that are otherwise obstructed by walls, ceilings, and other forms of interference can be reached by endpoints. AP Endpoints
  17. 17. 17 Traditional Mesh Networking Meshing is used by technologies like ZigBee but over surprisingly short distances, due primarily to the poor choice of RF frequency used by ZigBee and others like Thread. AP First Hop Second Hop
  18. 18. 18 LPWAN Mesh Networking With Haystack AP AP AP AP AP AP AP AP Long-range LPWAN networks are very similar to cellular networks where long range, good signal propagation …
  19. 19. 19 Mesh Networking With Haystack AP AP AP AP AP AP AP AP … and overlapping access points reduce the need for meshing or hopping. Where required, we can still mesh endpoints together to ensure messages reach an alternate access point in the event of an access point failure …
  20. 20. 20 Mesh Networking With Haystack AP AP AP AP AP AP AP AP … where data “hops” to one or more endpoints before being accessed by an alternate access point “Orphaned” Endpoint “Meshed” Endpoint
  21. 21. 21 Mesh Networking With Haystack AP AP AP AP AP AP AP AP “Orphaned” Endpoint “Meshed” Endpoint Today, no LPWAN or NB-IoT technology offers mesh or multi-hop endpoint routing on its own. But Haystack does it. In real-time.
  22. 22. 22 How Haystack Bridges 
 The LPWAN-LPLAN Gap
  23. 23. 23 OSI Layer 7 Application AllJoyn + OIC + NDEF + UDP 6 Presentation DASH7 Core
 low power low latency low cost 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Various Options One Stack = LPWAN + LPLAN ‣ Operates across LPWAN technologies like LoRa, NB-IoT ‣ Real-time indoor location to 1 meter precision ‣ Excellent P2P, ad hoc, multi-hop networking features ‣ Excellent range and signal propagation, up to 20 miles ‣ 10+ year battery life ‣ Excellent in dense-packed endpoint environments ‣ Operates in unlicensed and licensed spectrum ‣ Low latency, real-time queries ‣ Secure device discovery and other unique security and authentication features ‣ Enhances performance of most LPWAN technologies
  24. 24. OSI Layer 7 Application AllJoyn, Others AllJoyn, Others AllJoyn, Others AllJoyn, Others AllJoyn, Others AllJoyn, Others 6 Presentation 5 Session Partial Definition 4 Transport Partial Definition 3 Network Partial Definition 2 Data Link Partial Definition 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz Various LTE Bands Various @ 27 - 1025 MHz RPMA @ 2.4 GHz SigFox @ 900, 868 MHz Example LPWAN PHY’s 24 NB-IoT Deploying LPLAN Capabilities Across Multiple LPWAN Technologies
  25. 25. 25 Haystack Endpoints with LoRa LoRa and LoRaWAN can operate concurrently with DASH7 Semtech LoRa Transceiver Compact, 
 low cost, 
 low-power WAN/LAN nodes OSI Layer 7 Application AllJoyn + OIC + NDEF + UDP 6 Presentation DASH7
 low power low latency ad-hoc star LoRaWAN low power high latency cellular WAN 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link + Adaptive RS Encoding 1 Physical LoRa CSS The DASH7 stack can run concurrently with LoRaWAN, on the same hardware, allowing compliant LoRaWAN interoperation alongside higher-throughput, low latency Haystack DASH7 LAN usage.
  26. 26. 26 Haystack Endpoints with NB-IoT Emerging LTE Cat NB1 PHY requirements fit neatly with Haystack capabilities OSI Layer 7 Application NDEF + UDP/IP + Custom 6 Presentation DASH7 Core
 low power low latency low cost ad-hoc and WAN capable 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical MSK Downlink, OFDM uplink NB-IoT/LTE Cat NB1 transceiver Compact, 
 low cost, 
 low-power 
 LTE-Cat-NB1/ LAN nodes NB-IoT/LTE Cat NB1 spec presently lacks layers 2-6, but it stipulates requirements for channel agility and bursty communication. Haystack DASH7 is the most suitable IoT stack for these requirements.
  27. 27. 27 Requirement 6lowPAN LoRaWAN Actility Linklabs Provide Robust 
 Networking Features ✓ Some Some Some ✓ Real-Time Data Collection ❌ ❌ ❌ ❌ ✓ Preserve or Improve 
 Long Range Messaging ❌ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Provide Maximum Practical Security & Privacy Some ❌ ❌ ❌ ✓ Preserve or Improve 
 Battery Life ❌ ❌ ❌ Some ✓ How LPWAN Stacks Compare
  28. 28. 28 LPWAN/LAN Use Case Examples
  29. 29. Supply Chain Customer: Leading white goods manufacturer Requirement: Track location and environmental condition of inventory in warehouse as well as wide area outdoor environments to reduce warranty claims and other shrinkage.
  30. 30. Heavy Industrial Customer: Leading US-based diversified industrial Requirement: Track location of customer assets - indoors and outdoors - in real-time as part of a new, aftermarket asset tracking service
  31. 31. Defense & Homeland Security Customer: Leading US-based defense contractor Requirement: Monitor location of contractors in and around sensitive facilities.
  32. 32. 32 Customer: US-based health insurer Requirement: Low cost indoor and metro-area tracking and monitoring of portable IT assets, including BYOD assets with PHI and PII data. Health Care
  33. 33. 33 Customer: Global real estate management firm Requirement: Monitor and track a wide range of assets being managed for Fortune 1000 clients (cleaning equipment, master keychains, IT assets, outdoor maintenance equipment, etc.) in both indoor and outdoor environments. Real Estate
  34. 34. 34 Contact: Patrick Burns pat@haystacktechnologies.com (650) 315-3026 More Resources: • www.haystacktechnologies.com •The Indoor-Outdoor IoT http://bit.ly/2b65gRQ •Haystack’s open source firmware stack: http://bit.ly/1p5OjJg •The IoT Hunger Games http://bit.ly/1IkYRtO

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