Two Types: IPv4(Internet Protocol version 4):
32 bit Binary Address
Represented with Dots.
Protocol version 6):-
128 Bits Binary Address
Represented with Colons & Double Columns
Classification of IP Addresses:8 bits
Subnetting is logically dividing the network
by extending the 1’s used in Subnet Mask.
divide network in smaller parts.
Restrict Broadcast traffic.
Router is an internetworking component, that
connects networks which are at
These type of routers have upgradable slots, and the
number of ports can be increased just by adding cards
in the slots. E.g.:-Cisco Routers from 2600,…, 12000
These types of routers have fixed number of ports.
E.g.:- Cisco Routers from 700,…, 2500
When the destination is known, static and
dynamic routing is done. Static routing is done
by the users.
For unknown destinations, default routing is
In dynamic routing, path is fixed by the protocol.
Path changes depending on the length of the
path. Always the shortest path is preferred.
Paths are stored in the routing table.
Distance Vector Routing Protocol.
count metric” selects the path. It is the
only criteria. Maximum is 15.
updates are broadcasted after every
uses only Classful Routing.
Supports IPv4 and IPv6 via ProtocolDependent Modules.
Efficient Neighbor discovery.
Maximum Hop Count is 255. By Default it is
Uses Reliable Transport Protocol(RTP).
An Open standard Routing Protocol.
A Link-State Routing Protocol.
Minimizes Routing Update Traffic.
Has unlimited Hop Count.
VLANs helps reduce the cost of moving employees from
one location to another
VLAN trunking protocol (VTP)
2 messaging protocol that manages all the
changes to the VLANs across networks.
devices are organized into domains. Each switch
can only be in one VTP domain at a time.
VTP device modes: Server
It is a packet-switched, connection-oriented, WAN service.
It operates at the data link layer of the OSI reference model.