Course Code : MRD-101Course Title : Rural Development: Indian ContextAssignment No. : MRD-101/AST/TMA-1/2012What was the logic behind creating ‘District Rural Development Agency (DRDA)’ inIndia? Discuss its relevance or non-relevance in the light of 73 rd ConstitutionalAmendment.The DRDA Admin. Section is the office in-charge of implementing the DRDA Admin. Schemethrough which the Central share of fund is directly releases to the District Rural Development Agency(DRDA). The DRDA is the principal organ at the district level to manage and oversee theimplementation of different anti-poverty programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development. It is asupporting and facilitating organization which plays a very effective role as a catalyst indevelopment process.Mission / Vision StatementThe objective of the scheme is to strengthen and professionalize the DRDAs so that they caneffectively enhance the quality of implementation.Brief history“DRDA Administration” Scheme was introduced from 1 st April, 1999 under which the salary andadministrative expenses of DRDAs are funded on a 75:25 basis between Centre and StateGovernments. However, from 2008-09 the funding pattern for N.E. States has been changed from75 : 25 to 90 : 10.DutiesDealing with all issues related to DRDA policy and all matters, in so far as it relates to administrationof DRDAs.Main activities / functions • To formulate policy guidelines for DRDAs • Release of funds under DRDA Administration SchemeList of services being provided with a brief write – up on them • Allocation of funds under DRDA Administration Scheme • Release of funds under DRDA Administration Scheme • Organization of Conference of Project Directors of DRDAs73rd Constitutional AmendmentThough the Panchayati Raj Institutions have been in existence for a long time, it has beenobserved that these institutions have not been able to acquire the status and dignity ofviable and responsive peoples bodies due to a number of reasons including absence ofregular elections, prolonged supersessions, insufficient representation of weakersections like Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and women, inadequate devolution ofpowers and lack of financial resources.2. Article 40 of the Constitution which enshrines one of the Directive Principles ofState Policy lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats andendow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to functionasunits of self-government. In the light of the experience in the last forty years and in view ofthe short-comings which have been observed, it is considered that there is an imperative
need to enshrine in the Constitution certain basic and essential features of Panchayati RajInstitutions to impart certainty, continuity and strength to them.3. Accordingly, it is proposed to add a new Part relating to Panchayats in theConstitution to provide for among other things, Gram Sabha in a village or group of villages;constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels; direct elections to all seatsin Panchayats at the village and intermediate level, if any, and to the offices of Chairpersonsof Panchayats at such levels; reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and ScheduledTribes in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office ofChairpersons in Panchayats at each level; reservation of not less than one-third of theseats for women; fixing tenure of 5 years for Panchayats and holding elections within aperiod of 6 months in the event of supersession of any Panchayat; disqualifications formembership of Panchayats; devolution by the State Legislature of powers andresponsibilities upon the Panchayats with respect to the preparation of plans for economicdevelopments and social justice and for the implementation of development schemes; soundfinance of the Panchayats by securing authorisation from State Legislatures forgrants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State, as alsoassignment to, or appropriation by, the Panchayats of the revenues of designated taxes,duties, tolls and fees; setting up of a Finance Commission within one year of the proposedamendment and thereafter every 5 years to review the financial position ofPanchayats; auditing of accounts of the Panchayats; powers of State Legislatures to makeprovisions with respect to elections to Panchayats under the superintendence, directionand control of the chief electoral officer of the State; application of the provisionsof the said Part to Union territories; excluding certain States and areas from theapplication of the provisions of the said Part; continuance of existing laws andPanchayats until one year from the commencement of the proposed amendment andbarring interference by courts in electoral matters relating to Panchayats.What do you understand by IEC Strategy? What type of combination of media will beuseful to make rural development programmes effective? Literally, IEC means "information, education and communication". The terms "information", "education" and "communication" are defined below.1 The acronym IEC refers to a comprehensive programming intervention ─ an integral part of a country development programme, which aims at achieving or consolidating behaviour or attitude changes in designated audiences, using a combination of communication technologies, approaches and processes in a flexible and participatory, though systematic and wellresearched manner. IECs starting point is to contribute to solving a developmental "problem" or to supporting an issue among designated audiences in the context of a programme. Those designated audiences may include policy makers, service providers, change agents, communities and/or users of services.A separate IEC unit was set up in the Ministry during the 4 th Plan period. Earlier the unit waschristened as publicity and media unit. Over the last three plan periods on an average Rs.100 to120 crores have been spent on IEC activities mainly comprising of dissemination of information andawareness generation regarding various schemes and programmes operated by the Ministry.DutiesGenerate awareness through dissemination of information leading to adequate programme literacyregarding entitlements and processes both for the beneficiaries as well as the implementers to ensureoptimum results.Main activities / functionsThe Functions and Responsibilities of the IEC Division are under: -
i. To undertake communication needs assessment for the target groups under each of theprogrammes of the Ministry.ii. To develop key messages which are required to be communicated to the various stakeholdersincluding the beneficiaries and implementers.iii. To develop an integrated IEC strategy and put in place measures for implementing it by selectingappropriate medium of communications.iv. Take on board state governments, SIRDs, DRDAs, blocks/panchayats, other nongovernmentorganizations, government agencies etc. for effective implementation of theIEC upto grassroot level.v. To develop audio visual, print, outdoor outreach IEC materials both in Hindi, English andother vernacular languages and circulate the same upto Panchayat level.vi. Liaise with Programme Divisions, providing IEC services to them.vii. Preparation of annual report, bring out monthly newsletters, other printed materials,preparation of guidelines of different programmes.viii. Service the Standing Committee on Media and Coordinate with I&B Ministry MediaUnits.ix. Brief the creative talents hired by DAVP and empanelled producers and overseeproduction of AV materials.x. Brief Directorate of Field Publicity & Song & Drama division/ SIRDs regarding fieldlevel interpersonal communication activities, liaise for special campaigns using folk andinteractive media.xi. Administrative arrangements including budgeting and accounting of funds, release offunds to Media units, Monitoring of utilization, commissioning of impact studies andfollow up.xii. Liaise with PIB for conducting press, publicity, organizing press meets, conducted presstours, etc. to ensure adequate coverage of issues and concerns of the Ministry in the mainstream media.xiii. Liaise with publication Division, NIRD, autonomous bodies, NGOs, States, and DRDAs.To arrange wide coverage of regional SARAS fairs, main SARAS at IITF, NationalShort NotesMicro Credit : Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers whotypically lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history. It is designed not only to supportentrepreneurship and alleviate poverty, but also in many cases to empower women and uplift entire communitiesby extension. In many communities worldwide, in developed and developing nations alike, women lack thehighly stable employment histories that traditional lenders tend to require. This reality might result from factorssuch as leaving the paid workforce to care for children and elderly relatives.Microcredit is a division of microfinance, which is the provision of a wider range of financial services,especially savings accounts, to the poor. Modern microcredit is generally considered to have originated with theGrameen Bank founded in Bangladesh in 1983. Many traditional banks subsequently introduced microcreditdespite initial misgivings. The United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Microcredit. As of 2012,microcredit is widely used in developing countries and is presented as having "enormous potential as a tool forpoverty alleviation.District Planning Committee : District Planning Committee(DPC) is the committee created as perarticle 243ZD of the Constitution of India at the district level for planning at the district and below. TheCommittee in each district should consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in thedistrict and prepare a draft development plan for the district.
The Constitution of India provides the DPCs two specific responsibilities. In preparing the draft developmentplan, the DPC shall have regard to matters of common interest between the Panchayats and the Municipalitiesincluding spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated developmentof infrastructure and environmental conservation and the extent and type of available resources, both financialor otherwise. The DPC in this endeavor, is also mandated to consult such institutions and organizations as maybe specified. In order that the plans at different levels are prepared as envisaged in the previous chapter, there isneed to strengthen the system comprising the machinery of planning and the process of consolidation of plans atthe district level.There is confusion in states as to whether the DPC is to be established as a separate and permanent office orwhether it denotes only a meeting that is periodically called and which can be serviced by a part-timesecretariat. There is a feeling that the DPC ought not to emerge as yet another layer of bureaucracy to vetpeople’s plans. At the same time, the fact that the DPC is held intermittently and without permanent supportundermines its effectiveness as a constitutional institution and a coordinating mentor. On balance, the DPCmerits the status of a permanent institution, with adequate Secretariat to service it at the District level. It couldalso be provided the means of drawing experts to assist it whenever required.Sample Survery : In statistics, survey sampling describes the process of selecting a sample ofelements from a target population in order to conduct a survey. A survey may refer to many different types ortechniques of observation, but in the context of survey sampling it most often involves a questionnaire used tomeasure the characteristics and/or attitudes of people. Different ways of contacting members of a sample oncethey have been selected is the subject of survey data collection. The purpose of sampling is to reduce the costand/or the amount of work that it would take to survey the entire target population. A survey that measures theentire target population is called a census.Survey samples can be broadly divided into two types: probability samples and non-probability samples. Onlysurveys based on a probability samples can be used to create mathematically sound statistical inferences about alarger target population. Inferences from probability-based surveys may still suffer from many types of bias.Surveys that are not based on probability sampling have no way of measuring their bias or sampling error.Surveys based on non-probability samples are not externally valid. They can only be said to be representative ofthe people that have actually completed the survey.Put another way, if a probability-based survey of the United States household population finds that 59% of itsrespondents support a piece of legislation there is mathematical reason to believe that the proportion of all thepersons living in households in the United States who support this piece of legislation is close to 59% (withinthe margin of error). If a non-probability survey conducted in the United States finds that 59% percent of itsrespondents support a piece of legislation that is the only conclusion that can be drawn, no statement about thetarget population can be made.In academic and government survey research probability sampling is often regarded a standard procedure thatmust be employed regardless of the cost. The Office of Management and Budgets List of Standards forStatistical Surveys states that federally funded surveys must be performed,selecting samples using generally accepted statistical methods (e.g., probabilistic methods that can provideestimates of sampling error). Any use of nonprobability sampling methods (e.g., cut-off or model-basedsamples) must be justified statistically and be able to measure estimation error.Many statisticians disagree with these views. For example, Valliant, Dorfman and Royall explain,To claim that, in general, probabilistic inferences are not valid when the randomization distribution is notavailable is simply wrong. This is not to deny that randomization is valuable, but only to deny that it representsthe basis for all valid, rigorous, probabilistic inference.The extreme position, that no inferences can be made unless the selection probabilities of the sample units areknown would make it impossible to draw inferences from most samples. For example, most surveys have
substantial amounts of nonresponse. Even though the units are initially chosen with known probabilities, thenonresponse mechanism is unknown and must be modeled, as in an observational study.Civil Registration SystemIn India the system of civil registration has been in operation for over a century.• Objectives– To provide an essential document to general public in the form of birth/death certificate havingevidentiary value for proof of age, domicile, inheritance, etc.– To generate demographic data for national and state level planning of welfare activitiesRegistration of births and deaths is done under the Registration of Birth and Death Act, 1969.• The Act came into effect from April 1970.• Registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Act.• Although a Central Act, implementation is the responsibility of the State Governments.• Registration of vital event has to be done at the place of occurrence of the event.Consolidation of HoldingsConsolidation of holdings means the bring together in one compact block all plots of land farmer which arescattered all over the villa.Under the scheme all land in the village is first pooled into one compact block and it is divided into smallerblocks called chalk and allotted to individual farmer. This is a noble scheme to provide solution to the problemof fragmentation of holdings. The scheme has been launched in 10 states of the country and it has madeconsiderable progress in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.Up to 31st January, 1956 only 4.5 million hectares of land was brought under consolidation. The figure rose to33 million hectares by 1972, 45 million hectares by 1985 and 62.97 million hectares by 1995. Out of this, twostates like Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh accounted for 213 lakh hectares and 179 lakh hectares respectively.Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh are other three states which have taken up the work of consolidation ofholdings seriously. Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir have kept the scheme in abeyance and in West Bengal andAssam it has not been implemented.Taking the country as a whole only 44 per cent of the cultivated land has been brought under this scheme. Thisdepicts slow progress of the scheme and various hurdles in its implementation.(a) Farmers are generally extremely attached to their ancestral land and, therefore, are not willing to takeadvantage of the scheme.(b) Those farmers who own better quality of land do not like the scheme for fear of getting the inferior qualityof land after consolidation.(c) Consolidation is a cumbersome process. The government officials who implement the scheme are generallyslow and often corrupt.(d) In general the scheme did not receive desired support and co-operation from the farmers.(e) The scheme has paved way for litigation and court cases many of which are pending in the different courtsince long time. This vitiates the serene atmosphere of the rural areas.
(f) Since there is no restriction on the existing law of inheritance and partitioning of field-plots, hence,fragmentation process goes on till the entire gain of consolidation is nullified and need for new consolidation isfelt.(g) In every consolidation about 5 to 10 per cent of village land is taken out for providing house sites to weakersections of the society, approach 0chak) roads and village utility services. Hence, if the process is repeated threeor four times a sizeable portion of agricultural land would be lost.(h) The cost of consolidation is realised from the farmers which has adverse effect on their resources andeconomy.(i) It has also been realised that small farmers are generally allotted inferior quality of land and due to lack ofmoney power they are neither able to bribe the officials nor get proper justice in the court.It is, therefore, imperative that efforts should be made to remove these pitfalls in the consolidation scheme tomake it more fruitful and useful.