Proactive Displays CSCW2008


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Online social media services enable people to share many aspects of their personal interests and passions with friends, acquaintances and strangers. We are investigating how the display of social media in a workplace context can improve relationships among collocated colleagues. We have designed, developed and deployed the Context, Content and Community Collage, which runs on large LCD touchscreen computers installed in eight locations throughout a research laboratory. This proactive display application senses nearby people via Bluetooth phones, and responds by incrementally adding photos associated with those people to an ambient collage shown on the screen. This paper describes the motivations, goals, design and impact of the system, highlighting the ways the system has increased interactions and improved personal relationships among coworkers at the deployment site. We also look at how the creation of a shared physical window into online media has affected the use of that media

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  • Proactive Displays CSCW2008

    1. 1. The Context, Content & Community (C3) Collage: Sharing Personal Digital Media in the Physical Workplace Joe McCarthy, Strands Labs Seattle Ben Congleton, University of Michigan Max Harper, University of Minnesota
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>The problem: isolation, un[der]appreciation, disengagement in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>A solution: connection, appreciation, engagement through proactive displays </li></ul><ul><li>What’s a proactive display? </li></ul><ul><li>An example: the Context, Content & Community (C3) Collage </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Future plans / recent developments </li></ul>(Slides available online at ) Recommended tag: cscw2008
    3. 3. The Problem <ul><li>Employees feel un[der]appreciated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 reason people leave jobs (US Labor Dept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of workers receive no recognition (Gallup) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active disengagement costs US$300B / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees feel disconnected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of community in workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Us vs. them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers have less time, broader responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to manage frequent, sustained “personal touch” </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Friendships at Work 30% of employees have a best friend at work (BF@W) 20% of employees dedicate time to building relationships at work Employees with a BF@W are 50% more satisfied with their company Employees with a BF@W are 7 times more likely to be engaged in their work
    5. 5. Maintaining Friendships through Social Media <ul><li>ambient intimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ being able to keep in touch with people with a level of regularity and intimacy that you wouldn’t usually have access to” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisa Reichert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>continuous partial friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Weinberger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Friendships through Social Media @ Work? @
    7. 7. C3 Collage: social media on proactive displays @ work
    8. 8. Proactive Displays + Online Profiles Physical Tokens + Large Displays Better Real-world Interactions Bridging the gaps between people by bridging the gaps between the online and offline worlds = Large visual or aural displays that can sense & respond to the people and activities taking place in their vicinity
    9. 9. 1st Generation Proactive Displays MUSICFX MusicFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer-Supported Cooperative Workouts Joseph F. McCarthy and Theodore Anagnost 1998 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW ‘98) A Multi-Agent System for Meting Out Influence in an Intelligent Environment M. V. Nagendra Prasad and Joseph F. McCarthy Eleventh Innovative Applications in Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI ‘99) promoting awareness, appreciation and agreement on music in a fitness center
    10. 10. 2nd Generation Proactive Displays Visual Awareness Location Tools (ACTIVEMAP & EVENTMANAGER) ActiveMap: A Visualization Tool for Location Awareness to Support Informal Interactions Joseph F. McCarthy and Eric S. Meidel First International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC '99) EventManager: Support for the Peripheral Awareness of Events Joseph F. McCarthy and Theodore D. Anagnost. Second International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC 2000) promoting greater awareness of the location and activities of coworkers
    11. 11. 3rd Generation Proactive Displays UNICAST, OUTCAST, GROUPCAST: Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays UniCast, OutCast & GroupCast: Three Steps Toward Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays Joseph F. McCarthy, Tony J. Costa and Edy S. Liongosari Third International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2001) Promoting Awareness of Work Activities through Peripheral Displays Elaine M. Huang, Joe Tullio, Tony J. Costa and Joseph F. McCarthy 2002 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 2002) promoting greater awareness of the interests of co-workers
    12. 12. 4th Generation Proactive Displays Augmenting the Social Space of an Academic Conference Joseph F. McCarthy, David W. McDonald, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM 2004 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2004) Proactive Displays: Supporting Awareness in Fluid Social Environments David W. McDonald, Joseph F. McCarthy, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions (TOCHI), Vol. 14, No. 4, January 2008 promoting awareness and interactions at a conference AUTOSPEAKERID, TICKET2TALK, NEIGHBORHOOD WINDOW
    13. 13. 4th Generation Proactive Displays (v 2) promoting awareness and interactions at a variety of events TICKET2TALK (@ Interrelativity)
    14. 14. 5th Generation Proactive Displays The Context, Content & Community Collage: Sharing Personal Digital Media in the Physical Workplace Joseph F. McCarthy, Ben Congleton, F. Maxwell Harper To appear: ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2008) promoting awareness and interactions in the office THE CONTEXT, CONTENT & COMMUNITY (C3) COLLAGE
    15. 15. The Latest Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Shortcomings of previous efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose sensors (IR badges, RFID tags) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose installations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of present / future efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose sensors (BT mobiles … NFC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-purpose installations </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. A New Generation of Proactive Displays <ul><li>Goal: increase the sense of community in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Method: open windows in shared physical spaces into the social media co-workers are creating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated Social Software (SiSoSo) [vs. Mobile Social Software (MoSoSo)] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a physical dimension of audience will promote greater social media usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media sharing in the workplace will enhance personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced personal relationships will lead to more productive professional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy / benefit tradeoff (usability vs. security) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable engagement (after novelty factor has worn off) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to measure the impact? (measuring community, relationships) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Signup / Login
    18. 18. Select / Configure Module
    19. 19. Select Bluetooth Device(s)
    20. 20. Locations (mock-up)
    21. 21. Hardware & Software
    22. 22. Details <ul><li>Location / proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth sampling (MAC addresses, BT names) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location server (separate component) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priority queue management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New / old, near / far, 70/30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Display management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox + Javascript </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flickr module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruby API </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process, power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modular, flexible framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-end (time / space sharing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-end </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Flickr API
    24. 25. Interactions with / through the displays
    25. 26. Interactions with displays
    26. 27. The Highest Rated Content (5 up votes)
    27. 28. Edge detection
    28. 29. Everything in moderation
    29. 30. Moderation: NSFW [ N ot S afe F or W ork]
    30. 31. Moderation: SFW
    31. 36. Evaluation: interactions through displays <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 displays, deployed July 19, evaluated after 4 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 full-time / part-time residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 proactive display accounts (34 non-empty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual alpha (location sensing, new modules, new features) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a physical dimension of audience will promote greater social media usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media sharing in the workplace will enhance personal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced personal relationships will lead to more productive professional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-based Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of multiple choice and open text questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 responses </li></ul></ul>
    32. 37. Positive / Negative Impact (Personal / Professional)
    33. 38. A few choice comments <ul><li>I was surprised by some of the photos taken by [a colleague]. I had no idea of his very diversified and, in some cases, adventurous interests, and his photos showed me a side of him I would have never realized. The photos also give you an appreciation of other people's interests and unique travels. I find the photos absolutely fascinating and a very strong method of bringing all of us closer. </li></ul><ul><li>I[t] was nice to see people putting up &quot;themes&quot;. One person had a Star Wars theme, actually happening just by tags, but appeared to me as if a themed series of photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat negative: I was surprised to see a photo of my family (my husband and my two kids) with another female friend. They were all sprawled on the grass. It reminded me of a picnic we all had together. But it also made me self-conscious: what would other people think of seeing this scene. Who is the &quot;mystery lady&quot;? Positive: walking into the kitchen and spotting my daughter's happy face on the screen. It was a nice greeting! Positive: I am delighted to see other peoples pics of exotic places they visited. Negative: seeing a picture of a guy in his underwear. The face was not in the pics so I couldn't tell who it is. Somebody esle in the room &quot;killed&quot; the photo. Positive: seeing people cluster around displays. I like that! </li></ul>
    34. 39. Impact of Displays on Social Media
    35. 40. Types of interactions
    36. 41. Types of non-interactions (missed opportunities) Interviews S2 enjoyed learning about people, places (“Americana photos”) and cultures (“Finnish people have pictures of snow ”) from the stream of photos. S3 experimented with constructing Flickr search terms in his C3C account to reflect different themes, e.g., snow , lamppost, summer cottage, and was disappointed that no one seemed to notice or comment .
    37. 42. Influence of Rank & Role
    38. 43. Influence of Team Membership
    39. 44. Influence of competition Wii Tournaments
    40. 45. Future Work: Algorithms <ul><li>Location / Proximity detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near / far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporating meta-data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomy, Semiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priority queue management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People, streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommender System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Module management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space, time, displays </li></ul></ul>
    41. 46. Future Work: Modules <ul><li>Other sources of content </li></ul><ul><li>Other interaction modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Other dimensions of experience </li></ul>
    42. 47. Future Work: Interfaces & Interactivity <ul><li>Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signup page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other? </li></ul></ul>
    43. 48. Recent Work @ Strands Labs Seattle: CoCo
    44. 49. New pilot site: Trabant Coffee (Seattle) (Google “community collage”)
    45. 50. CoCo in situ : a proactive display in a café
    46. 51. Related Work: Research (1) <ul><li>Notification Collage (University of Calgary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public display + desktop displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University research lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenberg & Rounding, CHI 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PlasmaPoster (FXPAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive community bulletin board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate, conference, café contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, Nelson, et al. , C&T 2003, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BlueBoard (IBM Almaden) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared display for collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate meeting space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russell & Gossweiler, UbiComp 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CityWall (Helsinki IIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-touch screen in city center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flickr photos tagged with “helsinki” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with, vs. through, display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peltonen, et al. , CHI 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    47. 52. Related Work: Research (2) <ul><li>Meme Tags (MIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable, interpersonal displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic sponsor meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opinionizer (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared display at social events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction through typed input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamo (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High school setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via USB disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AgentSalon (ATR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via PalmGuides (PDAs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations mediated by animated agents </li></ul></ul>Public and Situated Displays O’Hara, Perry, Churchill, Russell
    48. 53. Related Work: Research (3) <ul><li>Manhattan Story Mashup (Nokia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban game: web + phones + screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times Square, New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuulos, et al. , Pervasive 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ProD Framework for Proactive Displays (U. Mich) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic architecture for proactive displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congleton, et al. , UIST 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twitterspace (Indiana University) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large display in campus lounge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic visualization of group “tweets” (Twitter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazlewood, et al., PDC 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    49. 54. Thanks! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mccarthy AT strands DOT com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C3 Collage made possible by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max Harper ( U. Minnesota ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ben Congleton ( U. Michigan ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jiang Bian ( Georgia Tech ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context, Content & Community (C3) team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All our friends and former colleagues at Nokia [Research Center [Palo Alto]] </li></ul></ul>