Situated Social Computing 20110622


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An overview of some social computing applications designed to promote awareness, interactions and relationships in various contexts or situations.

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  • Our first generation proactive display was a shared aural rather than visual display, created when I was at Accenture Technology Labs, was called MusicFX. The selection of music playing in a fitness center is a perennial problem for the members and staff – trying to find music that everyone loves, or, at least, no one hates, is a challenging problem. MusicFX enabled members of a corporate fitness center to create a profile of how much they liked or didn’t like each of 91 different genres of music (shown in the middle image) and associate this with their employee badge. People would badge in when they entered the fitness center (shown in the right image), adding their preferences to a pool, and a weighted random selection algorithm would then find music that was most popular – or least objectionable – to the people working out at any given time. References:
  • We installed the MusicFX system in the fitness center at Technology Park in Northbrook in November 1997. The system was an instant hit with both the fitness center staff and its members. We conducted a poll of members six weeks after the system was installed. Over 70% of the respondents told us they liked having MusicFX select music more than the old complaint-driven music selection scheme. Only 7% of those polled told us they liked the old scheme better (these were probably among the squeaky wheels mentioned earlier). The others either thought the music was about the same or had joined during the previous six weeks and therefore had no experience with the old scheme. We asked members what they liked best and what they liked least about the system (in free text). Half of the respondents told us they liked the increased variety of music played -- we were very happy to see this, because although Joe and I were both eager to increase the variety of music, we weren’t sure how this would be greeted by the rest of the members. Over a third of the people we polled told us they liked havingsome say in what music was being played -- the silent majority was given a voice, and they liked it. The least liked feature cited by members was abrupt station changes -- when the system determines it’s time to change, it just does it; although we considered trying to detect the end of song boundaries and delaying the channel change until the end of a song on the old channel, we would likely cut into the middle of a song on the new channel. We may implement a feature to fade out, or turn down the volume on the old channel before the change, and then turn up the volume to fade in to the new channel. Finally, a few people complained about occasional bad (or whacky) music -- a natural side effect of the increased variety.
  • This infrared badge system provided the infrastructure for our third generation proactive displays. We created another special purpose web-based profile, as we had for MusicFX, but rather than specifying preferences for music, people were invited to specify their interests in various news topics, stocks, and other types of information available on the web. The UniCast displays were full-time peripheral displays showing a continuous stream of interesting, but not terribly urgent, information in one’s individual workspace (see the display on the right, circled in red, in the upper left photo on the right side of the slide above). When two or more people were detected near the GroupCast display in an open area (shown in the upper right photo), the system would find web-based content that was in the intersection of interests specified in the people’s profiles, providing them potential topics for conversation as they passed each other in front of the display. The OutCast display (shown in the lower left), could show items of interest based on the profile of an occupant of the associated office. These were interesting and useful displays, but they were deployed in a relatively small lab – of about 25 people – who already knew each other pretty well to begin with. We wondered hat might happen if we created proactive displays to serve a laerger group of people, who didn’t know each other so well. References:
  • One context in which a larger group of people who don’t know each other so well gathers for a period of time is a conference. When I moved from Accenture to Intel Research Seattle, I was General Chair of UbiComp 2003, and so we decided to experiment with the idea of proactive displays at the upcoming conference. We again created special-purpose web-based profiles for people (shown in the upper left), in which they could enter their name, affiliation, photo of themselves, a photo representing some area of interest, and their home page. These profiles were associated with RFID tags that could be inserted into their conference name badge sleeves (shown in the upper middle photo), and then RFID antennas mounted near large displays would enable those displays to sense and respond to people in three different ways. The AutoSpeakerID application (lower left photo) showed the name, affiliation and photo of someone detected in front of the microphone stand during the question and answer period after a conference presentation, enabling the audience to see who the person asking the question was (and figure out how to spell their name). Ticket2Talk showed the same information, plus the photo representing a person’s interest, near the coffee break table, giving each person moving through the line 5 seconds of fame, and offering them a “ticket to talk” with each other about the photo of interest. Interestingly, one of the benefits people reported was that, because the person’s name was also shown on the Ticket2Talk display, they could save face by being reminded of a person’s name without having to look at their name tag. The third application, Neighborhood Window, showed a network graph visualization with nodes listing the names and photos of people detected near the display, and a small number of connected nodes that showed words and phrases the people’s home pages had in common, or those that were unique across the entire population, figuring those were the two most likely sets of topics to spark conversations. References:
  • Situated Social Computing 20110622

    1. 1. Situated Social Computing Connecting People, Places, Services & Screens Joe McCarthy University of Washington
    2. 2. User Experiences involving People, Places, Services & Screens
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>What is situated social computing? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some examples? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some open challenges? </li></ul><ul><li>Overarching themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Situated Software <ul><li>Clay Shirky, March 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software designed in & for a particular social situation / context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT Web School: scalability, generality, and completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the application must be useful to the community; the community must be useful to the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See also: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Communities, Audiences & Scale” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is Social Informatics and Why Does It Matter?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rob Kling, D-Lib Magazine, January 1999 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-technical systems: people, technology, institutional & cultural contexts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Maintaining Connections via Online Social Media <ul><li>ambient intimacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ being able to keep in touch with people with a level of regularity and intimacy that you wouldn’t usually have access to” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisa Reichert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>continuous partial friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Weinberger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Opening Up Portals in Hybrid Spaces @ Workout places Work places Third places
    7. 7. Proactive Displays as Portals <ul><li>Large visual or aural displays that can sense & respond to people & activities in contextually appropriate ways </li></ul><ul><li>Bring the richness of online world into the physical spaces we share with others </li></ul><ul><li>Help people appreciate and [re]connect with the people, places and things around them </li></ul>
    8. 8. Examples <ul><li>MusicFX (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music in a fitness center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GroupCast (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News items in a workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AutoSpeakerID, Ticket2Talk, Neighborhood Window (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names, photos, home pages at a conference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C3 Collage (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos in a workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CoCollage (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos, inspiring quotes in “third places” </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. MusicFX MusicFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer-Supported Cooperative Workouts Joseph F. McCarthy and Theodore Anagnost 1998 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW ‘98) A Multi-Agent System for Meting Out Influence in an Intelligent Environment M. V. Nagendra Prasad and Joseph F. McCarthy Eleventh Innovative Applications in Artificial Intelligence Conference (IAAI ‘99) promoting awareness, agreement and enjoyment of music in a fitness center
    10. 10. <ul><li>Database of musical preferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>91 genres, 5-point scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Preference Arbitration algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Preference Calculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate Identification (sort, filter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighted Random Selection operator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Events (algorithm triggers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance, exit, pref / param update, expiration </li></ul></ul>The MusicFX System
    11. 11. Evaluation <ul><li>Daily operation Nov 1997 – Dec 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Poll results (after 6 weeks): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ : increased variety, having some influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- : abrupt changes, occasional “bad” music </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The UX of MusicFX: Fun Facts Top 10 Bottom 13 You can’t please all the people …
    13. 13. Situatedness, Serendipity, Sustainability <ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I really like opera, just not when I’m working out” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rap, Show Tunes, Chinese Music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 users, 4+ years (until office move) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time: badge in to “veto” </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. UniCast, GroupCast, OutCast UniCast, OutCast & GroupCast: Three Steps Toward Ubiquitous Peripheral Displays Joseph F. McCarthy, Tony J. Costa and Edy S. Liongosari Third International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2001) Promoting Awareness of Work Activities through Peripheral Displays Elaine M. Huang, Joe Tullio, Tony J. Costa and Joseph F. McCarthy 2002 ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 2002) promoting awareness of the interests of co-workers
    15. 15. UniCast / GroupCast Modules <ul><li>Headlines : 273 channels 16 categories ( </li></ul><ul><li>Stocks : Ticker symbols ( </li></ul><ul><li>Horoscopes : 12 signs of the zodiac ( </li></ul><ul><li>Weather : US zip codes ( </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic : Chicagoland Expressway Congestion map </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages : Any URL specified by the UniCast user </li></ul><ul><li>InfoShare : URLs shared by other group members </li></ul><ul><li>Announcements : Title, body and expiration date </li></ul><ul><li>Reminders : Visual and aural reminders of regularly scheduled events </li></ul><ul><li>Factoids : 363, organized into 8 categories (e.g., History, Science) </li></ul><ul><li>Flashcards : Short questions and answers (e.g., US State Capitols) </li></ul><ul><li>Artwork : 1000 images, organized into 10 categories </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures : Digital images uploaded to a shared directory </li></ul><ul><li>WebCams : 11 Axis 2100 Cameras throughout CSTaR </li></ul><ul><li>In/Out List : Based on infrared badges (ActiveMap) </li></ul>
    16. 16. UniCast in Action
    17. 17. Situatedness, Serendipity, Sustainability <ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace, but personal vs. shared space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersection vs. union of interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance vs. freshness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation: self-interest vs. self-presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000-2002 (office move, personnel changes) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. AutoSpeakerID, Ticket2Talk, Neighborhood Window Augmenting the Social Space of an Academic Conference Joseph F. McCarthy, David W. McDonald, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM 2004 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2004) Proactive Displays: Supporting Awareness in Fluid Social Environments David W. McDonald, Joseph F. McCarthy, Suzanne Soroczak, David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions (TOCHI), Vol. 14, No. 4, January 2008 promoting awareness and interactions at a conference
    19. 19. Situatedness, Serendipity, Sustainability <ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to share with others at this conference ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New vs. old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ red queens” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 attendees, 200 users, 3 days … </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Ticket2Talk, v2 promoting awareness and interactions at a variety of events
    21. 21. The Context, Content & Community (C3) Collage promoting awareness and interactions in the workplace The Context, Content & Community Collage: Sharing Personal Digital Media in the Physical Workplace Joseph F. McCarthy, Ben Congleton, F. Maxwell Harper ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2008) [best paper nominee] The ProD framework for proactive displays Ben Congleton, Mark S. Ackerman and Mark W. Newman, M. W. 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User interface Software and Technology (UIST 2008)
    22. 22. Impact on Relationships, Social Media
    23. 23. Impact on Social Media Use
    24. 24. Situatedness, Serendipity, Sustainability <ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital media …. in physical workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags for inclusion / exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007-present (?) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. CoCollage promoting awareness and interactions in third places Measuring the Impact of Third Place Attachment on the Adoption of a Place-Based Community Technology Shelly D. Farnham, Joseph F. McCarthy, Yagnesh Patel, Sameer Ahuja, Daniel Norman, William R. Hazlewood, Josh Lind Proc. of the 27th Int'l. Conf on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2009) Supporting Community in Third Places with Situated Social Software Joseph F. McCarthy, Shelly D. Farnham, Yogi Patel, Sameer Ahuja, Daniel Norman, William R. Hazlewood, Josh Lind Proc. of the 4 th Int’l. Conf. on Communities and Technologies (C&T 2009)
    26. 26. Survey To what extent did CoCollage increase … * Interactions in café Sense of community in café <ul><ul><li>* on scale of 1 to 7, where 1 = “not at all” and 7 = “extremely so” </li></ul></ul>(81% > 1) (95% > 1)
    27. 27. Situatedness, Serendipity, Sustainability <ul><li>Situatedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to share with others in this café ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary & secondary effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 coffeehouses, 1200+ users, 12+ months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: game mechanics, hyper-local advertising </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Open Challenges <ul><li>Parallel Universes </li></ul><ul><li>[Social] Media Saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology & Connectedness </li></ul>
    29. 29. Parallel Universes <ul><li>Device / Display Proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>Online Conversation Proliferation </li></ul>1 st Screen Movie Theater 2 nd Screen Television 3 rd Screen PC 4 th Screen Phone 5 th Screen Digital Out-Of-Home
    30. 30. Social Media Saturation
    31. 31. Displays will be everywhere
    32. 32. TVs are everywhere 1.16 TVs per person in USA
    33. 33. Mobile devices will be everywhere
    34. 34. Where will that leave us? <ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Solitude </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>salve: “a remedial or soothing influence or agency” </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. The Possible Futures of Situated Social Computing Chris Oakley, The Catalogue Minority Report
    36. 36. Thanks! <ul><li>For more information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Related Work (1) <ul><li>eyeCanvas (FXPAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive community bulletin board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canvas Gallery, SF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, et al. , CHI 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PlaceSite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location-based web community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three SF cafés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savage, et al. , 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jukola (Appliance Studio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile + wall displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting music in Bristol cafe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O’Hara, et al. , DIS 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CowCam (Intel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webcam + figurines + display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Grind café, Portland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March, et al. , CHI 2005 </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Related Work: Research (2) <ul><li>Notification Collage (University of Calgary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public display + desktop displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University research lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenberg & Rounding, CHI 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PlasmaPoster (FXPAL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive community bulletin board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate, conference, café contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Churchill, Nelson, et al. , C&T 2003, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BlueBoard (IBM Almaden) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared display for collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate meeting space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russell & Gossweiler, UbiComp 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CityWall (Helsinki IIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-touch screen in city center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flickr photos tagged with “helsinki” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with, vs. through, display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peltonen, et al. , CHI 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Related Work: Research (3) <ul><li>Meme Tags (MIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearable, interpersonal displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic sponsor meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borovoy, et al. , CSCW 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opinionizer (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared display at social events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction through typed input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brignull & Rogers, INTERACT 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamo (Sussex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High school setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via USB disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brignull & Rogers, INTERACT 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AgentSalon (ATR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction via PalmGuides (PDAs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations mediated by animated agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumi & Maase, Autonomous Agents 2001 </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Related Work: Research (4) <ul><li>Manhattan Story Mashup (Nokia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban game: web + phones + screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times Square, New York </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuulos, et al. , Pervasive 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ProD Framework for Proactive Displays (U. Mich) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic architecture for proactive displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congleton, et al. , UIST 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twitterspace (Indiana University) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large display in campus lounge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic visualization of group “tweets” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazlewood, et al. , PDC 2008 </li></ul></ul>Public and Situated Displays O’Hara, Perry, Churchill, Russell