The civilization of ancient Egypt existed between thetime of 2800 BCE and the beginning of the commonera. It was located at the shore of the Nile River andstretched to the Mediterranean Sea. It was one ofmost powerful civilizations of its time. Their culture isfascinating because of the structure ofsociety, organized trading system, trained army andmany legacies.
Structure of SocietyThe Ancient Egyptians had different levels of importance in society. Their Pharaohor a Queen was the most important person. They believed that the Pharaoh was agod in a person’s body who couldn’t do anything wrong. Then they hadgrandvizers, nobles, high priest and high priestess. The grandvizers were like thePharaoh’s second hand; they checked that all his orders were carried out. Thepriests and priestesses took care of the shrines of gods and goddesses, andbathed four times a day. The next level of society includedcraftsmen, artists, scribes, tax gatherers, priest and priestess. At the lowerend, there were builders, farmers, scribes, wabs and soldiers (who led dangerouslives). Most people in Ancient Egypt were actually farmers who lived off their crops.If they didn’t pay taxes, they were beaten. Least of all were the slaves who werecaptured as hostages during war andled hard lives. Therefore, it is clear thatthe ancient Egyptian society had manylevels which affected their wealth and lives.
Trading systemThe ancient Egyptians did not have any money system likethe Romans and Greeks. Instead, they used weights calleddeben and kite. Originally, a deben was as heavy as14grams, then later it increased in weight to 91 gram. Ten kitewere worth one deben. The Egyptians traded vegetables(that were as heavy as1 deben) for a piece of meat (thatalso weighed 1 deben). The ancient Egyptians often tradedflax, rope and wheat at the marketplace. They were famousfor exporting wheat and importing gold. The Egyptians wrotereceipts on stone tablets to keep track of payments. As you can see, even though the ancientEgyptians hadno moneysystem, theirtrading system worked very well.
Egyptian warfareThe ancient Egyptians had one of the best trained armies duringtheir golden age. Although their army didn’t often fight againstinvaders (because the desert protected their country), they stillfought in many civil wars. They used silver slicing axes, spears andshields made of ox hide. The Pharaohs in the new kingdom foughtfrom horse-drawn chariots. The ancient Egyptians had alreadyinvented their own battle tactics. First, they used a shower ofarrows. Then, the foot soldiers came to fight the main part of thebattle. At last, they chased down any remaining enemy soldiers.Therefore, we know that the ancient Egyptains had a wellorganised army that led many great battles.
LegaciesThe ancient Egyptians invented many great things. They inventedthe shaduf(that they used to lift water from the Nile). They alsoinvented one of the first kinds of paper. It was called papyrus, grownwith the water from the river nile) and made out of papyrus reeds.The word paper comes from the word papyrus. They also inventeda system of writing. There were two kinds of writing: one was calledhieratic it was used for daily use, then there where hieroglyphs usedfor religious inscriptions. The Egyptians were very famous for theiragriculture. They learned to use a flood plain because they builtdams, shades and channels to keep the water in the field that theygot from the River Nile. Therefore we now know that many ofEgypt’s important inventions resulted from the River Nile.
In conclusion, ancient Egypt was one ofthe most advanced civilizations of itstime. This report has described theirsystems of trade, structure of society andwarfare. Many of the Egyptian inventionsare still used today including theshaduf, writing and some of theiragriculture lessons.