Chapter 2 - Ancient Egypt


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Chapter 2 - Ancient Egypt

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  World’s longest river – flows north into the Mediterranean Sea  Hunters and gatherers moved there between 6000 B.C. and 5000 B.C.  The river provided water for drinking, cooking, bathing and farming  Also provided fish and supported wildlife (plants and animals)  Divides into branches near the Mediterranean Sea  These branches create an area of fertile soil called a delta
  2. 2. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  NRV is surrounded by desert  The Western desert to the west, part of the Sahara Desert  The Eastern desert to the east  Deserts were useless, except for protection from invading armies  Rare threats from outsiders resulted in the growth of Egypt  Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea provided trading routes
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  Egyptians also experienced periodic (annual) river floods  Floods were more manageable and gentle  Resulted in easier and predictable farming  Early Egyptians credited a god named Hapi for the flooding  The flooding was actually caused by heavy Spring rains in Central Africa and melting snows from the mountains in East Africa  Egyptians planted wheat, barley and flax seeds in the wet, rich soil left behind from the floods
  4. 4. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  The Egyptian farmers were also very successful at irrigation  Built basins to trap floodwaters and canals to carry water to fields  Papyrus, a reed plant, was used to make baskets, sandals, and rafts  Later papyrus was used to make paper  Egyptians developed their own system of writing called hieroglyphics  Form of writing made up of hundreds of picture symbols  Hieroglyphics were carved into stone walls and monuments, however, papyrus was used for everyday purposes
  5. 5. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  Skilled farming led to surpluses  Freed some people to become artisans, weaving cloth or making pottery, tools and weapons  Initiated trading with one another and Mesopotamians  Rise in population, farming and trading created a need for government  Small village chiefs united to form small kingdoms  Stronger kingdoms eventually took over forming two large kingdoms
  6. 6. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  Two kingdoms – 4000 B.C.  Lower Egypt – Nile delta  Upper Egypt – Southern region of Nile river valley  Dynasty – line of rulers from one family  Ancient Egypt ruled by 31 dynasties over 2,800 years
  7. 7. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Nile River Valley  Egypt’s Social Classes  Pharaohs (Egyptian kings)  Priests and nobles (wealthy government officials)  Traders, artisans, and shopkeepers  Unskilled workers and farmers (made up the largest group)  Men were the head of the family  Women had more rights than women of other civilizations  Women could own property, buy and sell goods, make wills, and obtain divorces
  8. 8. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Lasted from around 2600 B.C. to 2300 B.C.  Kings (or pharaohs) and their families lived in grand palaces  Pharaoh means “grand house”  Pharaoh’s officials - key to the kingdom’s prosperity  Oversaw construction/maintenance of the city  For example, irrigation canals and grain storehouses  Ensured crops were planted and harvested  Controlled trade and collected taxes
  9. 9. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Egyptian’s showed great respect and honor to the pharaoh  Two reasons:  Believed the unity of the kingdom depended on a strong leader  Considered the pharaoh to be the son of Re, the sun god  Sun god was very important to bring good harvests  Egyptian’s were very religious  Worshipped many deities (gods and goddesses)  Hapi, Re, Isis (loyal wife and mother), Osiris (husband)  Believed deities controlled human activities and nature
  10. 10. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Life after death  Believed life would be better in the afterlife (peace and plenty)  Book of the Dead – a collection of spells and prayers Egyptians studied to obtain life after death  For centuries, believed only pharaohs and an elite few could be granted life after death  Believed the pharaoh’s spirit needed a body to make the journey to the afterlife
  11. 11. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Life after death, continued…….  Embalming – process developed to protect the pharaoh’s dead body  Mummy – the body wrapped in long strips of linen (cloth)  Resulted in the advancement of medicine  Used herbs and drugs to treat illnesses  Grew skilled at sewing up cuts and setting broken bones  Wrote first medical books on scrolls of papyrus
  12. 12. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Pyramids  Tombs for pharaohs  Built entirely of stone  Size of several city blocks  Held supplies the pharaoh might need in the afterlife  Clothing, furniture, food, and jewelry  Building a pyramid  Most work was done by farmers during flood season  Also had surveyors, engineers, carpenters, and stonecutters  Resulted in advancement of mathematics and astrology
  13. 13. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Pyramids  Great Pyramid – built in 2540 B.C.  Built for King Khufu  Largest and grandest  500 feet tall  Contains 2 million stone blocks, each weighing 2.5 tons  Tallest structure in the world for 4,000 years
  14. 14. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Egyptian Empire  The Middle Kingdom  Lasted from 2050 B.C to 1670 B.C.  New dynasty of pharaohs came to power, restoring order after 200 years of confusion and unrest  Period of peace, stability, prosperity and achievement  In addition, Egypt took control of more lands, added waterways and dams and built a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea
  15. 15. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Egyptian Empire  The Middle Kingdom  Hyksos – warriors from western Asia who conquered Egypt around 1670 B.C.  Ruled Egypt for about 150 years  Egyptian prince, Ahmose, led uprising that drove the Hyksos out  Ahmose’s reign began period known as the New Kingdom
  16. 16. Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt The Egyptian Empire  The New Kingdom  Lasted from 1550 B.C. to 1080 B.C.  Continued to gain more land and become even more powerful