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Chapter 2 PowerPoint


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Chapter 2 PowerPoint

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Nile Valley Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom Section 3 The Egyptian Empire Section 4 The Civilization of Kush Reading Review Chapter Assessment Ancient Egypt Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Ancient Egypt
  3. 4. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People The Nile Valley <ul><li>Narmer (NAR ·m uhr) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>cataract (KA·tuh· RAKT ) </li></ul><ul><li>hieroglyphics ( HY ·ruh·GLIH·fihks) </li></ul><ul><li>dynasty (DY·nuh·stee) </li></ul><ul><li>delta (DEHL·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>papyrus (puh·PY·ruhs) </li></ul>
  4. 5. Settling the Nile <ul><li>The earliest Egyptians moved into the Nile River valley from less fertile areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile River is the longest river in the world, about 4,000 miles long. </li></ul>(pages 39 – 40) <ul><li>They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians used the Nile River for many things. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  5. 6. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>They used river water to drink, clean, farm, and cook. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile valley is a narrow, green valley in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>They ate fish from the river. </li></ul><ul><li>The northern end of the valley is a fertile area of land called a delta. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  6. 7. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>The Sahara, the largest desert in the world, lies west of the Nile Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt has several natural borders to protect it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Desert lies to the east of the valley. </li></ul><ul><li>The deserts, the dangerous rapids of the Nile, and marshes in the delta kept enemies from entering Egypt. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  7. 8. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>The Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east allowed trade with other peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Egypt, people traveled on the Nile to trade with each other. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  8. 9. The River People <ul><li>Floods along the Nile were predictable and were not devastating . </li></ul>(pages 41 – 42) <ul><li>Each spring the Nile would flood and leave a dark, fertile mud along its banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers learned about the waters of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>They used the soil left behind by the floods to grow wheat, barley, and flax seeds. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  9. 10. The River People (cont.) <ul><li>Farmers learned about irrigation . </li></ul><ul><li>They dug basins to trap floodwaters, dug canals to channel water to the fields, and built dikes to strengthen the basin walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus, a reed plant that grew along the Nile, was used to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, it was used to make paper. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 41 – 42)
  10. 11. The River People (cont.) <ul><li>The Egyptian system of writing was called hieroglyphics . </li></ul><ul><li>This system consisted of thousands of picture symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Egyptian men learned to read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>They attended schools to learn to be scribes. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 41 – 42)
  11. 12. A United Egypt <ul><li>Because the people in Egypt had surplus food, some people became artisans instead of farmers . </li></ul>(pages 43 – 44) <ul><li>Artisans wove cloth, made pottery, carved statues, and crafted weapons and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians traded with each other and with others in Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>A few strong chiefs united groups of villages into kingdoms. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  12. 13. A United Egypt (cont.) <ul><li>Eventually, the strongest kingdoms overpowered the weaker ones . </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, two large kingdoms emerged—Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Narmer united the two kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled from the city of Memphis, and his kingdom lasted long after his death. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 43 – 44)
  13. 14. A United Egypt (cont.) <ul><li>Narmer’s descendants passed the ruling power on from father to son to grandson, forming a dynasty . </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties that historians have grouped into three time periods — Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 43 – 44)
  14. 15. Early Egyptian Life <ul><li>Ancient Egypt had social classes. </li></ul>(pages 45 – 46) <ul><li>The pharaoh was the highest power. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper class consisted of nobles, priests, and government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle class included merchants, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were the largest group of people and were in a lower class than the middle class. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  15. 16. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Unskilled workers were the lowest class of people in ancient Egypt. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  16. 17. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Although men were the heads of households, women had more rights in Egypt than in other ancient civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>They could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, and obtain divorces. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  17. 18. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Few children went to school in ancient Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Children had time to play games and had toys. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian girls learned to sew, cook, and run a household. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys learned farming or a skilled trade. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  18. 19. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Giza (GEE·zuh) </li></ul><ul><li>King Khufu (KOO·foo) </li></ul>Meeting People Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  19. 20. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>pharaoh (FEHR·oh) </li></ul><ul><li>deity (DEE·uh·tee) </li></ul><ul><li>embalming (ihm·BAHM·ihng) </li></ul><ul><li>mummy (MUH·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>pyramid (PIHR·uh· MIHD ) </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  20. 21. Old Kingdom Rulers <ul><li>Pharaohs were all-powerful Egyptian kings who guided every activity in Egypt . </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs appointed officials to carry out their commands . </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2600 B.C. until about 2300 B.C. </li></ul>(page 48) <ul><li>Egyptian people served pharaohs because they believed the kingdom depended on one strong leader . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  21. 22. Old Kingdom Rulers (cont.) <ul><li>They thought pharaohs were gods on earth . </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed the pharaohs were the sons of Re, the sun god . </li></ul>(page 48) Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  22. 23. Egypt’s Religion <ul><li>These deities controlled every human activity and all natural forces . </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, or deities. </li></ul>(pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>The major god was Re, the sun god. </li></ul><ul><li>Another major god was Hapi, who ruled the Nile River. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>Isis was the most important goddess. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) <ul><li>The Book of the Dead contained a collection of spells that Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife . </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed in life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed only pharaohs and a few elite people could have life after death. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 49 – 50)
  24. 25. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) <ul><li>To protect the pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians developed an embalming process . </li></ul><ul><li>During the process, the body’s organs were removed. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>The body was treated with spices and oils and then wrapped with strips of linen. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>The wrapped body was called a mummy. </li></ul>(pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>They also set broken bones and stitched cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian doctors were the first doctors to specialize in different areas of medicine, and they wrote the world’s first medical book. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian doctors used herbs and drugs to treat illnesses . </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Pyramids <ul><li>Egyptians built pyramids to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs . </li></ul>(pages 50 – 52) <ul><li>The pyramids also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife . </li></ul><ul><li>A pyramid took thousands of people and years of labor to build . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  27. 28. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>Egyptians used astronomy and mathematics to create the pyramids . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>To build a pyramid, Egyptians first selected a site . </li></ul><ul><li>Then, they searched for stone . </li></ul><ul><li>The artisans cut the stone into blocks, and other workers tied the stone to sleds and pulled them to the Nile . </li></ul>(pages 50 – 52)
  28. 29. The Pyramids (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  29. 30. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>At the river, workers loaded the stones onto barges and floated them to the site . </li></ul><ul><li>There, the blocks were unloaded and dragged or pushed up ramps . </li></ul><ul><li>While studying the skies to create pyramids, Egyptians created the 365-day calendar that became the basis for our calendar today . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  30. 31. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid in Egypt . </li></ul><ul><li>It was built for King Khufu and is located near the city of Cairo . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  31. 32. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Thebes (THEEBZ) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Ahmose (AHM· OHS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut (hat·SHEHP·soot) </li></ul><ul><li>Thutmose III (thoot·MOH·suh) </li></ul><ul><li>Akhenaton ( AHK ·NAH·tuhn) </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  32. 33. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Tutankhamen ( TOO ·tang·KAH·muhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramses II (RAM· SEEZ ) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>tribute (TRIH·byoot) </li></ul><ul><li>incense (IHN· SEHNS ) </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  33. 34. The Middle Kingdom <ul><li>Pharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, a new dynasty of pharaohs created a capital at Thebes. </li></ul><ul><li>This began the Middle Kingdom, a time of stability, prosperity, and achievement. </li></ul>(pages 60 – 61) <ul><li>Egypt took control of other lands and forced conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  34. 35. <ul><li>In this way, Egypt increased its riches. </li></ul>The Middle Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>During the Middle Kingdom, the arts, literature, and architecture blossomed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos attacked and conquered Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hyksos ruled until around 1500 B.C., when the Egyptian prince Ahmose led a revolt to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 60 – 61)
  35. 36. The Middle Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>This artwork with gold inlay from the Middle Kingdom period shows a funeral boat. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 60 – 61)
  36. 37. The New Kingdom <ul><li>Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rule Egypt. </li></ul>(pages 61 – 62) <ul><li>Trade grew during Hatsheput’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Traders exchanged beads, tools, and weapons for ivory, wood, leopard skins, and incense. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade made Egypt wealthier. </li></ul><ul><li>During the New Kingdom period, Egypt grew richer and more powerful. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  37. 38. The New Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>Thutmose conquered more lands, and Egypt grew richer from tributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thutmose III became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery became common in Thutmose’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves had some rights. </li></ul><ul><li>They could own land, marry, and eventually obtain freedom. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 61 – 62)
  38. 39. The Legacies of Two Pharaohs <ul><li>Amenhotep felt priests were gaining too much power. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV came to power in 1370 B.C. </li></ul>(pages 64 – 65) <ul><li>He introduced a new religion with only one god. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests who did not follow the new religion were removed from power. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  39. 40. <ul><li>He did not act when the Hittites attacked Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his other duties. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Egypt’s empire greatly diminished. </li></ul>The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) <ul><li>Most Egyptians refused to accept the new religion. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 64 – 65)
  40. 41. <ul><li>In A.D. 1922, a British archaeologist found King Tut’s grave. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled for only nine years before his death. </li></ul>The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) <ul><li>Tutankhamen, now called King Tut, was a boy ruler who took power after Akhenaton died. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 64 – 65)
  41. 42. <ul><li>Temples were used for services. </li></ul><ul><li>During Ramses’s rule, many temples were built throughout Egypt. </li></ul>(pages 65 – 67) The End of the New Kingdom <ul><li>Ramses II was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Egyptians prayed at home because they believed the temples were houses for the gods and goddesses. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  42. 43. <ul><li>Beginning in the 900s B.C ., Egypt was ruled by the Libyans, then the people of Kush, and finally the Assyrians. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was attacked by neighboring groups and eventually controlled only the Nile delta. </li></ul>The End of the New Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>After Ramses’s rule, Egyptian rule began to decline. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 65 – 67)
  43. 44. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Nubia (NOO·bee·uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Kush (KUHSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Kerma (Kar·muh) </li></ul><ul><li>Napata (NA·puh·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Meroë (MEHR·oh·ee) </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  44. 45. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Kashta (KAHSH·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Piye (PY) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>savanna (suh·VA·nuh) </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  45. 46. Nubia <ul><li>The region of Nubia, later known as Kush, was located south of Egypt on the Nile River . </li></ul>(pages 69 – 70) <ul><li>The first people to arrive in Nubia were cattle herders, who grazed their herds on the savanna . </li></ul><ul><li>A savanna is a grassy plain . </li></ul><ul><li>Later, farmers settled in villages in Nubia . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  46. 47. Nubia (cont.) <ul><li>More powerful Nubian villages took control of weaker ones, and the kingdom of Kerma was created . </li></ul><ul><li>People of Kerma traded with the Egyptians, and Kerma became wealthy . </li></ul><ul><li>The kings of Kerma were buried in tombs like the Egyptian pharaohs . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 69 – 70)
  47. 48. Nubia (cont.) <ul><li>Egypt invaded Kerma, and after 50 years of war, Kerma was defeated . </li></ul><ul><li>During Egyptian rule, the people of Kerma adopted many of the Egyptian ways . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 69 – 70)
  48. 49. The Rise of Kush <ul><li>Nubians broke away from Egypt and formed their own kingdom called Kush . </li></ul>(pages 70 – 72) <ul><li>The Kushite kings ruled from the city of Napata, which was located along the upper Nile . </li></ul><ul><li>This location helped the Kush people become important traders, and Kush grew wealthy . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  49. 50. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>A king named Kashta and his son, Piye conquered Egypt in 728 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrians later invaded Egypt and forced the Kushites out . </li></ul><ul><li>The Kushites learned iron working from the Assyrians . </li></ul><ul><li>The Kushites were the first Africans to become iron workers. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  50. 51. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>Kush moved the ruling city south to the city of Meroë, farther away from the Assyrians . </li></ul><ul><li>Monroë became an important center of trade and iron working . </li></ul><ul><li>Kushite kings rebuilt Meroë to look like Egypt, with pyramids and temples. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  51. 52. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>Axum invaded Meroë and burned it to the ground . </li></ul><ul><li>Kush eventually declined in power, and the kingdom of Axum rose up. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  52. 53. __ 1. area of fertile soil at the end of a river __ 2. reed plant used to make baskets, rafts, and paper __ 3. grassy plain __ 4. rapids __ 5. Egyptian writing system __ 6. forced payments __ 7. title for Egyptian leaders Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. savanna </li></ul><ul><li>B. tribute </li></ul><ul><li>C. cataract </li></ul><ul><li>D. delta </li></ul><ul><li>hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>papyrus </li></ul>G A Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. D B C E F Ancient Egypt
  53. 54. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  54. 55. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  55. 58. Reigned 1503–1482 B.C. Hatshepsut
  56. 59. Reigned 1279–1213 B.C. Ramses II Statue of Ramses II holding an offering table. Coffin of Ramses II
  57. 60. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2–1 Chapter 2
  58. 61. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 2 Chapter 2
  59. 62. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 3 Chapter 2
  60. 63. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 4 Chapter 2