Engineering Sustainability:Biomimicry in Civil Engineering DesignStylianos YiatrosPhD DIC MEng ACGI A.M.ASCEstylianos.yiat...
Biomimicryin CivilEngineeringDesign• Introduction• Engineering Sustainability• Biomimicry• Design in nature• Biomimetic ex...
IntroducingmyselfImperial College, MEng Civil & Environmental Engineering (2006)Imperial College, PhD (DIC) Nonlinear Stru...
Whatis SustainableDevelopment?“development that meets the needs of thepresent without compromising the ability offuture ge...
SustainableDevelopmentSocialEconomicEnvironmentalViableBearableSUSTAINABLEFairEnvironmentSocietyEconomySUSTAINABLE© SY 201...
Sustainabilityin CivilEngineeringProjectsA large spectrum of projects and of stakeholders requires acommon understanding© ...
ViciousCircle of Blame© SY 2013(Cadman, 2000)Occupiers:“We would like to have moresustainable buildings to fulfill ourcorp...
Circleof Virtue© SY 2013Occupiers:We occupy moreenvironmentally efficientbuildings because they arecheaper to run – and th...
Regulationand Policy© SY 2013Sustainableproduction andconsumptionClimate Changeand EnergyNatural resourcesand enhancing th...
Strategy for SustainableConstruction© SY 2013Aligned with“Securing the future”Committed, skilledand adaptableworkforceSUST...
“Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Reduce and ultimatelyeliminate waste inconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Tra...
“Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Minimize carbonemissions duringconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Training Se...
“Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Facilitate waterresources conservationin new andrefurbishment projectsFrom...
“Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Constru...
Strategy’s Priorities© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Mainte...
FutureTrends for legislation and policy© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Const...
SustainableConstruction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Main...
Sustainable Engineering© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Main...
Howdo yougo aboutSustainableEngineering• Things to remember• “one size fits all” solutions usually don’t work in different...
Biomimicry© SY 2013
Whatis Biomimicry?• Biomimicry:• From the greek words “bios” (life) and “mimesis” (immitation)• It is a design principle t...
Whyapplybiomimicry?• Depletion of naturalresources and ecologicaldisasters from use andextraction.• Running out of space f...
Designin nature• Tree growth to fit functionBendingMomentDiagram© SY 2013
Designin nature• Structural chemistry• Minimum energy configurations• StabilityOHH104.5˚109.5˚© SY 2013
Designin nature• Bee honeycomb• Optimum storage© SY 2013• Termite Mound• Natural ventilation
Designin nature© SY 2013• Spider web• Light and flexible• Fabricated at room temperature• Gram to gram three times asstron...
Natural DesignForm(Geometry) Process Material© SY 2013
Levelsof biomimicry© SY 2013
Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• Greek Mythology• Daedalus & Icarus trying toescape Minoan Crete• Build wings made of waxmimicki...
Earlybiomimetics• Ancient arches• Load transfer through pure compression© SY 2013
Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• “… do you know where I found my model? An upright tree; itbears its branches and these in turn ...
Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013
Howdid weforget thisknowledge?Industrial revolution © SY 2013
Earlysignsof the (ab)useof IndustrialRevolution• Cholera outbreak in London© SY 2013
ModernBiomimicry• Business as usual not as easy as thought in the past.• Energy becomes expensive, resources scarce.• Wast...
Literatureon Biomimicry© SY 2013www.asknature.orgWatch Janine’s TEDTalks on www.ted.com
BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature runs on sunlight.• Nature uses only the energy it needs.• Nature fits form to function.© SY 2...
BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature recycles everything.• Nature rewards cooperation.• Nature banks on diversity.© SY 2013
BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature demands local expertise.• Nature curbs excesses from within.• Nature taps the power of limits...
Biomimicryin design• Adhesives - Velcro© SY 2013
Biomimicryin design• Robotics© SY 2013
Biomimicryin design• Facades© SY 2013
Biomimicryin integrated buildingdesign• A first attempt in 2006 by a small team at theDepartment of Civil and Environmenta...
ProjectBrief• To explore Biomimicry as a new approach to engineeringdesign• Develop a conceptual structural design for a b...
BiomimeticDesignprocedureStartDefine the problemAsk the right questionsTranslate your findingsinto a prototypeApply it to ...
Askingthe right questions•Design for verbs not for things• How can you create anenvironment for people worksafely and effi...
Integrationof servicesThink of the building (or the project) as an ecosystem© SY 2013• Efficient structural systems• Minim...
Natural Models© SY 2013
Previouswork• Gaudí• Foster + Partners &ARUP© SY 2013
Floorplan• Honey comb• Tessellation• Maximum use of space / Minimaluse of construction material• Modularity• Standardizati...
Structure: Vertical Alignment• Moment Resisting Frame• Stocky members• High detail connections• Frame with another systemf...
Ventilation Strategy• Dome shaped roof• Reduce drag forces• Light wells in the circumference• Allow air from higher altitu...
Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
TopDownVentilation• Gage, Hunt and Linden, 2001© SY 2013
TopDownVentilation© SY 2013• Recycling Air
Structural System• Integration of gravity and lateralload resistance system• Redundancy• Efficiency through standardisatio...
Vertical access• Wasp nest© SY 2013
Studyresults• Concept tested against biomimetic principles with good, butnot perfect result.• Matrix quantifying complianc...
Rethinkingthe designprocess• Incorporate Sustainability into the design and constructionright from the beginning• Design i...
BiomimeticDesignSpiral© SY 2013
© SY 2013Bhushan, B. 2009
Opportunities: Materials• Carbon neutral and carbon negative materials• Hemcrete©• Whole Life Cycle• Structural Stainless ...
Biomimicryin design• SOM Frame structure© SY 2013Plastic deformations
IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization© SY 2013• Santa Maria Del Pianto, Naples, Italy• Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners• ...
IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization• Algorithms with integrated objective functions.• Structural efficiency• Sunlight•...
Sustainabilitybeingpartofthedesignalltheway© SY 2013• Bjarke Ingels: Hedonistic Sustainability• “It doesn’t have to hurt t...
Summary• Biomimicry has always been around• Mimicking shape• Natural ventilation• An alternative to current practice• EU D...
Summary• Industrial manufacturing requires high energyprocedures• Nature is based on information• Hierarchy in process or ...
Conclusion• The depletion of natural resources requires us to cooperateand diversify our current practices.• Creative solu...
Thankyoufor listening• Bibliography• Benyus, JM. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by Nature.William Morrow, USA.• Bra...
SupplementaryMaterial available online• Strategy for sustainable construction• ICE Charter for Sustainable Development• En...
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[Group Design Projects] Sustainability in Engineering

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[Group Design Projects] Sustainability in Engineering

  1. 1. Engineering Sustainability:Biomimicry in Civil Engineering DesignStylianos YiatrosPhD DIC MEng ACGI A.M.ASCEstylianos.yiatros@cut.ac.cyA presentation to the CI3-311 Group Design StudentsCyprus University of TechnologyDepartment of Civil Engineeringand Geomatics
  2. 2. Biomimicryin CivilEngineeringDesign• Introduction• Engineering Sustainability• Biomimicry• Design in nature• Biomimetic examples• Case study: The Load bearing duct• Challenges and Opportunities© SY 2013
  3. 3. IntroducingmyselfImperial College, MEng Civil & Environmental Engineering (2006)Imperial College, PhD (DIC) Nonlinear Structural Mechanics (2010)Currently Lecturer of Structural Engineering at Cyprus University of Technology© SY 2013Still in the IC prospectus!
  4. 4. Whatis SustainableDevelopment?“development that meets the needs of thepresent without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs.”(Brundtland Report, 1987)© SY 2013ICE Charter for Sustainable Development“Meeting the needs of today withoutcompromising the needs of tomorrow”
  5. 5. SustainableDevelopmentSocialEconomicEnvironmentalViableBearableSUSTAINABLEFairEnvironmentSocietyEconomySUSTAINABLE© SY 2013SUSTAINABILITY IS A BUSINESS ISSUE
  6. 6. Sustainabilityin CivilEngineeringProjectsA large spectrum of projects and of stakeholders requires acommon understanding© SY 2013insurersinvestorsLocal authorities clientsDesignersContractorsFacilities Managers Demolition ContractorsDemolition ContractorsPlannersNew-buildRefurbishmentBuildingsInfrastructure
  7. 7. ViciousCircle of Blame© SY 2013(Cadman, 2000)Occupiers:“We would like to have moresustainable buildings to fulfill ourcorporate policy commitments butthere’s little choice of properties”Constructors:“We could build environmentallyefficient buildings, but thedevelopers don’t ask for them”Developers:“We would ask for environmentallyefficient buildings but the investorswon’t pay for them”Investors:“We would fund environmentallyefficient buildings but there’s notdemand for them”
  8. 8. Circleof Virtue© SY 2013Occupiers:We occupy moreenvironmentally efficientbuildings because they arecheaper to run – and theymake us to feel good .Constructors:We build environmentallyefficient buildings becauseour clients demand them.Developers:We demand environmentallyefficient buildings becausethat’s what investors will puttheir money into.Investors:We fund environmentallybuildings because that’swhat the occupiers wantand they give betterreturns.
  9. 9. Regulationand Policy© SY 2013Sustainableproduction andconsumptionClimate Changeand EnergyNatural resourcesand enhancing theenvironmentCreatingSustainablecommunities
  10. 10. Strategy for SustainableConstruction© SY 2013Aligned with“Securing the future”Committed, skilledand adaptableworkforceSUSTAINABILITY OF THE INDUSTRY ITSELFImproving existingregulation, building onexisting strengthsCreate long-termcertainty
  11. 11. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Reduce and ultimatelyeliminate waste inconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Re-use of existing builtassets and construction ofnew, long lasting, energyconscious and future-proofstructures.• Reduction of environmentalimpact through betterproducts and servicesSustainableproduction andconsumption
  12. 12. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Minimize carbonemissions duringconstructionFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Design and constructinnovative engineeringsolutions to tackle climatechange challenges of thefuture• Design and Constructbuildings with lower carbonfootprint in operationClimate Changeand Energy
  13. 13. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013• Facilitate waterresources conservationin new andrefurbishment projectsFrom Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Proactive in creating,managing and enrichingwildlife habitats andnatural landscapes• Importance of the role forGreen InfrastructureNaturalresources andenhancing theenvironment
  14. 14. “Securing thefuture” for Construction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Employs and nurtures a committed, skilled and adaptableworkforce working in an environment of zero accidents andincidents with arrangements for education and training,employment, health and safetyCreatingsustainablecommunities
  15. 15. Strategy’s Priorities© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceNECESSARY KEYIMPROVEMENTSenergywaterbiodiversityenvironmentwastematerialsTO DELIVEROUTPUTSprocurementSupply teamintegrationdesignsimplificationinnovationPeople agenda
  16. 16. FutureTrends for legislation and policy© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and Maintenance• Increasingly stringent environmental legislation• Continual emphasis on Carbon / climate change• Binding EU Targets on Renewable Energy• Biodiversity• Indoor/Outdoor air quality• Peak Oil• Environmental Performance of Construction
  17. 17. SustainableConstruction© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceDelivers the business needFits in its environmentProvides “value for money”Benefits users, stakeholders andcommunitiesDoes not polluteMinimizes consumption ofnatural and non-renewableresources.
  18. 18. Sustainable Engineering© SY 2013From Thomas Telford Training Series:Sustainable Development – Design,Construction and MaintenanceUse methods thatminimise environmentaldamage to providesufficient food, water,shelter and access/mobility for a growingworld population.Closing the loop:Design products andprocesses that useeach other’s waste asinput or raw materialsIncorporate environmentaland social constraints aswell as economicconsiderations intoengineering decisions.
  19. 19. Howdo yougo aboutSustainableEngineering• Things to remember• “one size fits all” solutions usually don’t work in differentenvironments• Look for local solutions• Try to solve the actual problem• Integrate services/processes• Re-invent your business model!• Business Model Canvass© SY 2013
  20. 20. Biomimicry© SY 2013
  21. 21. Whatis Biomimicry?• Biomimicry:• From the greek words “bios” (life) and “mimesis” (immitation)• It is a design principle that seeks sustainable solutions to humanproblems by consulting and emulating nature’s time testedpatterns and strategies (BFI, 2005).• Also known as• Biomimetics• Bionics© SY 2013
  22. 22. Whyapplybiomimicry?• Depletion of naturalresources and ecologicaldisasters from use andextraction.• Running out of space forstoring toxic and hazardouswaste.• Nature builds and lives onsunlight• Natural systems use eachothers’ bi-products as rawmaterials.• Natural systems have survived 3.8bn years of evolution, adaptingand optimizing on the local conditions. © SY 2013
  23. 23. Designin nature• Tree growth to fit functionBendingMomentDiagram© SY 2013
  24. 24. Designin nature• Structural chemistry• Minimum energy configurations• StabilityOHH104.5˚109.5˚© SY 2013
  25. 25. Designin nature• Bee honeycomb• Optimum storage© SY 2013• Termite Mound• Natural ventilation
  26. 26. Designin nature© SY 2013• Spider web• Light and flexible• Fabricated at room temperature• Gram to gram three times asstrong as steel
  27. 27. Natural DesignForm(Geometry) Process Material© SY 2013
  28. 28. Levelsof biomimicry© SY 2013
  29. 29. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• Greek Mythology• Daedalus & Icarus trying toescape Minoan Crete• Build wings made of waxmimicking bird flying
  30. 30. Earlybiomimetics• Ancient arches• Load transfer through pure compression© SY 2013
  31. 31. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013• “… do you know where I found my model? An upright tree; itbears its branches and these in turn the leaves and everyindividual part has been growing harmoniously, magnificentlyever since God, the artist, created it…” A.Gaudí
  32. 32. Earlybiomimetics© SY 2013
  33. 33. Howdid weforget thisknowledge?Industrial revolution © SY 2013
  34. 34. Earlysignsof the (ab)useof IndustrialRevolution• Cholera outbreak in London© SY 2013
  35. 35. ModernBiomimicry• Business as usual not as easy as thought in the past.• Energy becomes expensive, resources scarce.• Waste Management a large issue• Whole-life cycle of fabricated materials• Greater appreciation of nature’s complex and highly optimizedprocesses.• Mimicking not just shape but processes too.© SY 2013
  36. 36. Literatureon Biomimicry© SY 2013www.asknature.orgWatch Janine’s TEDTalks on www.ted.com
  37. 37. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature runs on sunlight.• Nature uses only the energy it needs.• Nature fits form to function.© SY 2013
  38. 38. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature recycles everything.• Nature rewards cooperation.• Nature banks on diversity.© SY 2013
  39. 39. BiomimeticPrinciples• Nature demands local expertise.• Nature curbs excesses from within.• Nature taps the power of limits.• Scale matters© SY 2013
  40. 40. Biomimicryin design• Adhesives - Velcro© SY 2013
  41. 41. Biomimicryin design• Robotics© SY 2013
  42. 42. Biomimicryin design• Facades© SY 2013
  43. 43. Biomimicryin integrated buildingdesign• A first attempt in 2006 by a small team at theDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineeringof Imperial College to consider the potential ofbiomimicry in structural design.• Best UG project with Industrial Application in CivilEngineering (2006)• Subsequently published inProc. ICE EngineeringSustainability• Best Paper in EngineeringSustainability for 2007.(Yiatros et al, 2007)© SY 2013
  44. 44. ProjectBrief• To explore Biomimicry as a new approach to engineeringdesign• Develop a conceptual structural design for a building thatcould integrate one or more building functions/services© SY 2013
  45. 45. BiomimeticDesignprocedureStartDefine the problemAsk the right questionsTranslate your findingsinto a prototypeApply it to your problemTestEndSearch the naturalworld for modelsResearch the work ofother pioneers© SY 2013
  46. 46. Askingthe right questions•Design for verbs not for things• How can you create anenvironment for people worksafely and efficiently ?© SY 2013
  47. 47. Integrationof servicesThink of the building (or the project) as an ecosystem© SY 2013• Efficient structural systems• Minimize energyconsumption• Natural ventilation• Space management• Reduction in waste
  48. 48. Natural Models© SY 2013
  49. 49. Previouswork• Gaudí• Foster + Partners &ARUP© SY 2013
  50. 50. Floorplan• Honey comb• Tessellation• Maximum use of space / Minimaluse of construction material• Modularity• Standardization of elements andconnections© SY 2013
  51. 51. Structure: Vertical Alignment• Moment Resisting Frame• Stocky members• High detail connections• Frame with another systemfor lateral stability• Inefficiency• Distracting Views© SY 2013
  52. 52. Ventilation Strategy• Dome shaped roof• Reduce drag forces• Light wells in the circumference• Allow air from higher altitude© SY 2013
  53. 53. Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
  54. 54. Thespiral tree grain© SY 2013
  55. 55. TopDownVentilation• Gage, Hunt and Linden, 2001© SY 2013
  56. 56. TopDownVentilation© SY 2013• Recycling Air
  57. 57. Structural System• Integration of gravity and lateralload resistance system• Redundancy• Efficiency through standardisation• Virtually columnless© SY 2013
  58. 58. Vertical access• Wasp nest© SY 2013
  59. 59. Studyresults• Concept tested against biomimetic principles with good, butnot perfect result.• Matrix quantifying compliance with principles• Basic merit of the study is the rethinking of the conceptualdesign stages.© SY 2013
  60. 60. Rethinkingthe designprocess• Incorporate Sustainability into the design and constructionright from the beginning• Design integrated systems• Minimize waste by closing the loop not only in constructionbut also operation• Biomimicry can offer solutions• Might be worth consulting a biologist to understand naturalsystems• Learn to ask the right questions© SY 2013
  61. 61. BiomimeticDesignSpiral© SY 2013
  62. 62. © SY 2013Bhushan, B. 2009
  63. 63. Opportunities: Materials• Carbon neutral and carbon negative materials• Hemcrete©• Whole Life Cycle• Structural Stainless steel• Sustainable concrete mix or design© SY 2013
  64. 64. Biomimicryin design• SOM Frame structure© SY 2013Plastic deformations
  65. 65. IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization© SY 2013• Santa Maria Del Pianto, Naples, Italy• Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners• Expedition Engineering Ltd
  66. 66. IntegratedEngineeringDesignOptimization• Algorithms with integrated objective functions.• Structural efficiency• Sunlight• Natural ventilation© SY 2013
  67. 67. Sustainabilitybeingpartofthedesignalltheway© SY 2013• Bjarke Ingels: Hedonistic Sustainability• “It doesn’t have to hurt to be good”
  68. 68. Summary• Biomimicry has always been around• Mimicking shape• Natural ventilation• An alternative to current practice• EU Directive for zero-energy buildings by 2020• Turning a challenge into a creative opportunity• Biomimetic principles to be used for guidance• Plenty of Applications• Design• Finance• Administration© SY 2013
  69. 69. Summary• Industrial manufacturing requires high energyprocedures• Nature is based on information• Hierarchy in process or design• Scale effects• Nothing is landfilled• Closing the loop• Local Problems – Local solutions• Celebrate local expertise© SY 2013
  70. 70. Conclusion• The depletion of natural resources requires us to cooperateand diversify our current practices.• Creative solutions from where you least expect it• Tapping in Biology research to solve man-made problems• Take a walk in the park• Launch channels of communication between disciplines• Ultimate common goal© SY 2013
  71. 71. Thankyoufor listening• Bibliography• Benyus, JM. 1997. Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by Nature.William Morrow, USA.• Braungart, M & McDonough, W. 2002. Cradle to Cradle: Re-makingthe way we make things, USA.• Gage, SA, Hunt, GR & Linden PF. 2001. “Top down ventilation andcooling”. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 18, 4, 286–301.• Ingels, B. “Hedonistic Sustainability”. 2011, TEDxEast Talk (available atwww.ted.com)• Innes, S. “CPD course notes on Sustainable Development: Design,Construction and Maintainance”, Thomas Telford Training, London.• Yiatros, S, Wadee, MA & Hunt GR. 2007. “The load bearing duct:Biomimicry in Structural Design”. Proceedings of the ICE EngineeringSustainability, 160 (ES4), 179-188.© SY 2013
  72. 72. SupplementaryMaterial available online• Strategy for sustainable construction• ICE Charter for Sustainable Development• Environmental Impact Assessment: Guide to procedures• Biomimicry Guild (www.asknature.org)• Expedition Workshed (www.expeditionworkshed.org)• Resources from Embedding Sustainability to Engineering Curricula• Granta Design CES: Materials selection (www.grantadesign.com)• Business Model Canvass by Alex Osterwalder© SY 2013

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